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Scripture might be fulfilled which saith, They parted my raiment amongst them, and for my vesture they did cast lots" (John xix. 24). “After this, Jesus, knowing that all things were now accomplished, that the Scripture might be fulfilled, saith, I thirst” (John xix. 28). “When Jesus received the vinegar, he said, It is finished,” that is, It is fulfilled (John xix. 30). « These things were done that the Scripture should be fulfilled, A bone of him shall not be broken: And again, another Scripture saith, They shall look on him whom they pierced” (John xix. 36, 37): besides other places, where passages are adduced from the prophets, without its being said at the same time, that the law, or the Scripture, was fulfilled. That the whole of the Word treats of the Lord, and that he came into the world to fulfil it, he also taught his disciples before his departure, in these words : “ Jesus said unto them, O fools, and slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken! Ought not Christ to have suffered these things, and to enter into his glory? And beginning at Moses and all the prophets, he expounded unto them in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself” (Luke xxiv. 25 -27). And further : Jesus said unto his disciples, “These are the words which I spake unto you whilst I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled which were written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the Psalms, concerning me" (Luke xxiv. 44). That the Lord, whilst in the world, fulfilled all the contents of the Word, even to its minutest particulars, is evident from these his own words: “Verily I say unto you, till heaven and earth pass, one jot, or one tittle, shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled” (Matt. v. 18).
Hence then may be clearly seen, that when it is said that the Lord fulfilled all the contents of the law, the meaning is, not merely that he fulfilled all the commandments of the Decalogue, but all the contents of the Word.
THE LORD CAME INTO THE WORLD TO SUBJUGATE THE HELLS
AND TO GLORIFY HIS HUMAN; AND THE PASSION OF THE CROSS. WAS THE LAST COMBAT, BY WHICH HE FULLY CON. QUERED THE HELLS, AND FULLY GLORIFIED HIS HUMAN.
12. It is known in the church, that the Lord conquered death, by which is meant hell, and that he afterwards ascended in glory into heaven; but it is not yet known that the Lord conquered death or hell by combats, which are temptations, and at the same time, by these means, glorified his Human; and that the passion of the cross was the last combat or temptation, by which he conquered the one and glorified the other. These (combats) are frequently treated of in the prophets and
in David, but not so frequently in the Evangelists; for by these the temptations which he sustained from his childhood are briefly described by his temptations in the wilderness, and afterwards by the devil, and finally by his sufferings in Gethsemane and on the cross. His temptations in the wilderness, and afterwards by the devil, are related in Matthew iv. 1-11; in Mark i. 12, 13; and in Luke iv. 1-13. But by these are signified all the temptations that he suffered even to the last. He did not reveal more concerning them to his disciples, for it is said in Isaiah, “He was oppressed, and he was afflicted, yet he opened not his mouth : he is brought as a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers is dumb, so he openeth not his mouth” (liii. 7). His temptations in Gethsemane are related in Matthew xxvi. 36—44; in Mark xiv. 32—42; and in Luke xxii. 39–46: and those on the cross, in Matthew xxvii. 33–50; in Mark xv. 22—37; in Luke xxiii. 33–39; and in John xix. 17–34. Temptations are nothing else than combats against the hells.*
13. That the Lord, by the passion of the cross, fully conquered the hells, he himself teaches in John: "Now is the judgment of this world ; now shall the prince of this world be cast out” (xii. 31). This the Lord spoke, when the passion of the cross was about to take place. So again : “ The prince of this world is judged” (xvi. 11). Also : “Be of good cheer, I have overcome the world" (xvi. 33). And in Luke: He [Jesus] said, -—I beheld Satan as lightning fall from heaven” (x. 18). In these passages, by the world, the prince of the world, Satan, and the devil, is meant hell.
That the Lord, also, by the passion of the cross, fully glorified his Human, he teaches in John: “When he [Judas) was gone out, Jesus said, Now is the Son of Man glorified, and God is glorified in him. If God be glorified in him, God will also glorify him in himself, and will straightway glorify him” (xiii. 31, 32). In the same: “Father, the hour is come: glorify thy Son, that thy Son also may glorify thee” (xvii. 1). And again : “Now is my soul troubled.” And he said, “Father, glorify thy name. Then came there a voice from heaven, saying, I have both glorified it, and will glorify it again” (xii. 27, 28). In Luke : Ought not Christ to have suffered these things, and to enter into his glory?" (xxiv. 26). All this is said in reference to his passion. The glorifying here spoken of, is the uniting of the Divine and the Human; wherefore it is said, “and God will glorify him in himself.”
14. That the Lord came into the world to reduce to order all things in heaven and thence on earth; that this was effected
* Concerning the temptations or spiritual conflicts of the Lord, see the treatise on the New Jerusalem and its Heavenly Doctrine, n. 201 and 302 ; and concerning temptations in general, n. 189—200 of the same work.
by combats against the hells, which at that time infested every man on his entrance into and departure out of the world; and that hereby he became righteousness and saved mankind, who otherwise could not have been saved ; is evident from many predictions of the prophets, of which only a few shall be here adduced. In Isaiah : “Who is this that cometh from Edom, with dyed garments from Bozrah ? this that is glorious in his apparel, travelling in the greatness of his strength ? I that speak in righteousness, mighty to save. Wherefore art thou red in thine apparel, and thy garments like him that treadeth in the wine-fat? I have trodden the wine-press alone, and of the people there was none with me; for I will tread them in mine anger, and trample them in my fury; and their blood shall be sprinkled upon my garments ;—for the day of vengeance is in my heart, and the year of my redeemed is come. -Mine own arm brought salvation unto me.-I will bring down their strength to the earth. He said, Surely they are my people, children that will not lie : so he was their Saviour.-In his love and in his pity he redeemed them” (lxiii. 1, 6, 8, 9). These words are spoken of the Lord's combats against the hells. By the apparel in which he was glorious, and which was red, is signified the Word, which suffered violence from the Jewish people. His combats against the hells, and his victories over them, are described by his treading them in his anger, and trampling them in his wrath. His combating alone, and by his own proper power, is described by these words : “ Of the people there was none with me ;-—therefore mine own arm brought salvation unto me ;-I will bring down their strength to the earth.” That he thereby became a Saviour and a Redeemer, is described by these words: “So he was their Saviour; -in his love and in his pity he redeemed them.” And that this was the cause of his coming is described by these words : “ The day of vengeance is in my heart, and the year of my redeemed is come.” Again, in Isaiah: “He saw that there was no man, and wondered that there was no intercessor : therefore his arm brought salvation unto him, and his righteousness it sustained him. For he put on righteousness as a breast-plate, and a helmet of salvation upon his head ; and he put on the garments of vengeance for clothing, and was clad with zeal as a cloak.” “And the Redeemer shall come to Zion” (lix. 16, 17, 20). These words are also spoken in reference to the combats of the Lord against the hells during his abode in the world. That he fought against them from his own proper power, is signified by this : “He saw that there was no man; therefore his arm brought salvation unto him.” That thereby he became righteousness itself, is thus described : “His righteousness it sustained him: for he put on righteousness as a breast-plate.” And that thus he redeemed mankind, by this: “And the Redeemer shall come to Zion.” So in Jeremiah : “Wherefore have I seen them dismayed ?—and their mighty ones are beaten down, and are fled apace, and look not back.” “For this is the day of the Lord Jehovah of hosts, a day of vengeance, that he may avenge him of his adversaries : and the sword shall devour and it shall be satiate” (xlvi. 5, 10). Here, also, the combats of the Lord with the hells, and his victories over them, are described when it is said, “ Wherefore have I seen them dismayed ? and their mighty ones are beaten down ; and are fled apace, and look not back :" by their mighty ones, and the Lord's enemies, are here meant the hells, for all therein entertain hatred against the Lord. His coming into the world for this purpose, is signified by these words: “It is the day of the Lord Jehovah of hosts, a day of vengeance,
vengeance, that he may avenge him of his adversaries.” Again, in the same prophet:
Her young men shall fall in her streets, and all the men of war shall be cut off in that day” (xlix. 26). So in Joel : Jehovah shall utter his voice before his army :-the day of Jehovah is great and very terrible; and who can abide it?” (ii. 11.) In Zephaniah : “In the day of the sacrifice of Jehovah, I will punish the princes, and the king's children, and all such as are clothed with strange apparel." "That day is a day of trouble, a day of the trumpet and alarm against the fenced cities" (i. 8, 15, 16). In Zechariah: “Then shall Jehovah go forth and fight against those nations, as when he fought in the day of battle: and his feet shall stand in that day upon the mount of Olives, which is before Jerusalem.—And ye shall flee to the valley of the mountains. In that day the light shall not be clear nor dark.” “And Jehovah shall be king over all the earth; in that day there shall be one Jehovah, and his name one” (xiv. 3–6, 9). In these places, also, the Lord's combats are the subject treated of: by “that day," is meant his coming. The mount of Olives, which was before Jesusalem, was also the place where the Lord was wont to abide; see Mark xiii. 3 ; xiv. 26; Luke xxi. 37; xxii. 39; John viii. 1; besides other places. So in David: "The sorrows of hell compassed me about, the snares of death prevented me.” “He sent out his arrows and scattered them, and he shot out lightnings and discomfited them.” “I have pursued mine enemies and overtaken them, neither did I turn again till they were consumed. I have wounded them that they were not able to rise.—Thou hast girded me with strength unto the battle: thou hast subdued under me those that rose up against me. Thou hast also given me the necks of mine enemies.—Then did I beat them small as the dust before the wind, I did cast them out as the dirt in the street” (Psalm xviii. 5, 14, 37-40, 42). The cords and snares of death that compassed and prevented, signify temptations, which, being from hell, are also called the cords of hell.
These verses, with the whole of this Psalm, treat of the combats and victories of the Lord; it is therefore said, “Thou hast made me the head of the heathen; a people whom I have not known shall serve me" (verse 43). Again: “Gird thy sword upon thy thigh, O most mighty.-Thine arrows are sharp in the heart of the king's enemies; whereby the people fall under thee. Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever. Thou lovest righteousness, —therefore God, thy God, hath anointed thee” (Psalm xlv. 3, 5-7). These words also relate to the combats with the hells, and their subjugation; the whole Psalm treats of the Lord, of his combats, his glorification, and of the salvation of the faithful by him. Again, in David: “A fire goeth before him, and burneth
his enemies round about. The earth saw and trembled; the hills melted like wax—at the presence of the Lord of the whole earth. The heavens declare his righteousness, and all the people see his glory” (Psalm xcvii. 3—6). This Psalm likewise treats of the Lord, and of the same things as the former. So again : “Jehovah said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand until I make thine enemies thy footstool.—Rule thou in the midst of thine enemies.” “The Lord at thy right hand shall strike through kings in the day of his wrath ;-he shall fill the places with the dead bodies; he shall wound the heads over many countries” (Psalm cx. 1, 2, 5, 6). That this relates to the Lord, appears from his own words in Matthew xxii. 44; in Mark xii. 36, and in Luke xx. 42. By sitting on the right hand is signified omnipotence; by his enemies are signified the hells; by kings, those who are principled in falsities grounded in evil; to make them a footstool, to strike them through in the day of his wrath, and to fill the places with dead bodies, is to destroy their power; and to wound the head over many countries, is to destroy the whole. Since the Lord conquered the hells alone, without the aid of any angel, he is therefore called a mighty man and a man of war (Isaiah xlii. 13): the king of glory, Jehovah strong and mighty, Jehovah mighty in battle (Psalm xxiv. 8, 10): the mighty God of Jacob (Psalm cxxxii. 2); and, in many places, Jehovah Zebaoth, that is, Jehovah of the hosts or armies of war. His coming also, which is meant by the day of Jehovah, is called a terrible day, a cruel day, a day of indignation, of anger, of wrath, of vengeance, of destruction, of war, of the trumpet and alarm, and of tumult; as may be seen in the places adduced above.* And because by means of such combats with the hells, and their subjugation, a last judgment was accomplished by the Lord whilst he was in the world, therefore this also is spoken of in many places : as in David: Jehovah “cometh to judge the earth: he shall judge the world with righteousness, and the people with his truth” (Psalm xcvi.
* No. 4.