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Jehovah himself, that is, the Lord, spoke the Word by the prophets.
47. I. BY THE TERM "SPIRIT" IS MEANT THE LIFE OF MAN, as is evident from common discourse, in which it is usual to say, when a man dies, that he has yielded up the spirit: where the term spirit is used to signify the life of respiration. Indeed, "spirit" is a Latin word which is derived from another that signifies to breathe; and in the Hebrew language, spirit, breath, and wind are expressed by the same word. There are with man two fountains of life; one is the motion of the heart, the other is the respiration of the lungs and the life originating in the respiration of the lungs, is what is properly meant by the term "spirit," and also by the term "soul." That this acts in unity with the thought of man from his understanding, whilst the life originating in the motion of the heart acts in unity with the love of his will, will be shewn in its proper place. That the life of man is meant by the term "spirit" in the Word, appears from the following passages: "Thou takest away their breath [spirit], they die, and return to their dust" (Psalm civ. 29). "He remembered that they were but flesh, a wind [spirit] that passeth away, and cometh not again"(Psalm lxxviii. 39). "His breath [spirit] goeth forth, he returneth to his earth" (Psalm cxlvi. 4). Hezekiah lamented that the life of his spirit should depart (Isaiah xxxviii. 16). "The Spirit of Jacob revived" (Gen. xlv. 27). "A molten image is falsehood, and there is no breath [spirit] in them" (Jerem. li. 17). The Lord Jehovih said unto the dry bones, "I will cause breath [spirit] to enter into you, and ye shall live. Come from the four winds, O breath [spirit], and breathe upon these slain, that they may live. And the breath [spirit] came into them, and they lived" (Ezek xxxviii. 5, 6, 9, 10). Jesus took the maiden by the hand, "and her spirit came again, and she arose straightway" (Luke viii. 54, 55).
48. II. SINCE THE LIFE OF MAN VARIES ACCORDING TO HIS STATE, THEREFORE BY THE TERM "SPIRIT" IS ALSO SIGNIFIED THE PECULIAR AFFECTION OF HIS LIFE: as 1. A life of wisdom. Bezaleel was filled with the spirit of wisdom, of understanding, and of knowledge (Exod. xxxi. 3). "Thou shalt speak unto all that are wise-hearted, whom I have filled with the spirit of wisdom" (Exod. xxviii. 3). "Joshua was full of the spirit of wisdom" (Deut. xxxiv. 9). It is said of Daniel, that "an excellent spirit, and knowledge, and understanding," were in him (Dan. v. 12). "They also that erred in spirit shall come to understanding" (Isaiah xxix. 24). 2. The excitement of life. "Jehovah hath raised up the spirit of the kings of the Medes" (Jerem. li. 11). "And Jehovah stirred up the spirit of Zerubbabel,—and the spirit of all the remnant of the people" (Haggai i. 14). "Behold, I will send a blast [a spirit] upon the King of Assyria,
and he shall hear a rumour, and return to his own land" (Isaiah xxxvii. 7). Jehovah hardened the spirit of Sihon the king (Deut. ii. 30). "And that which cometh into your mind [spirit] shall not be at all" (Ezek. xx. 32). 3. Liberty of life. It is said of the four living creatures, which were cherubs, seen by the prophet, that "whithersoever the spirit was to go, they went" (Ezek. i. 20). 4. Life in fear, pain, and anger. 'Every heart shall melt, and all hands shall be feeble, and every spirit shall faint" (Ezek. xxi. 7). "Therefore is my spirit overwhelmed within me, my heart within me is desolate" (Psalm cxliii. 4). "My spirit faileth" (Psalm cxliii. 7). "I, Daniel, was grieved in my spirit" (Dan. vii. 15). "The spirit of Pharoah was troubled" (Gen. xli. 8). Nebuchadnezzar said, "My spirit was troubled to know the dream" (Dan. ii. 3). "I went in bitterness in the heat of my spirit" (Ezek. iii. 14). 5. A life of various evil affections. "Blessed is the man-in whose spirit there is no guile" (Psalm xxxii. 2). "Jehovah had mingled a perverse spirit in the midst thereof" (Isaiah xix. 14). "Woe unto the foolish prophets that follow their own spirit" (Ezek. xiii. 3). "The prophet is a fool, the spiritual man is mad" (Hosea ix. 7). "Take heed to your spirit, that you deal not treacherously" (Malachi ii. 16). "The spirit of whoredoms hath caused them to err" (Hosea iv. 12). "The spirit of whoredoms is in the midst of them" (Hosea v. 4). "If the spirit of jealousy come upon him" (Numb. v. 14). If a man that walketh "in spirit and falsehood do lie" (Micah ii. 11). "A generation-whose spirit was not steadfast with God" (Psalm lxxviii. 8). "Jehovah hath poured out upon you the spirit of deep sleep" (Isaiah xxix. 10). "Ye shall conceive chaff, ye shall bring forth stubble; your breath [spirit] as fire shall devour you" (Isaiah xxxiii. 11). 6. Infernal life. “I will cause the unclean spirit to pass out of the land" (Zech. xiii. 2). "When the unclean spirit is gone out of a man, he walketh through dry places,—then goeth he and taketh-seven other spirits more wicked than himself, and they enter in and dwell there" (Matt. xii. 43, 45). "Babylon-is become the hold of every foul spirit" (Apoc. xviii. 2). 7. The term "spirit" further signifies the infernal spirits themselves, by whom mankind are troubled. See Matt. viii. 16; x. 1; xii. 43-45; Mark i. 23-28; ix. 17-29; Luke iv. 33-36; vi. 17, 18; vii. 21; viii. 2, 29; ix. 39, 42, 55; xi. 24, 25, 26; xiii. 11; Rev. xvi. 13, 14.
49. III. BY THE TERM "SPIRIT" IS ALSO SIGNIFIED THE LIFE OF THE REGENERATE, WHICH IS CALLED SPIRITUAL LIFE. "Jesus said,--Except a man be born of water, and of the spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God" (John iii. 5). "A new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit will I put within you. And I will put my spirit within you, and cause you to walk in my statutes" (Ezek. xxxvi. 26, 27). "I will give them
one heart, and put a new spirit within you" (Ezek. xi. 19). "Create in me a clean heart, O God, and renew a right spirit within me. Restore unto me the joy of thy salvation, and uphold me with thy free spirit" (Psalm li. 10, 12). "Make you a new heart, and a new spirit; for why will ye die, O house of Israel?" (Ezek. xviii. 31). "Thou sendest forth thy spirit, they are created, and thou renewest the face of the earth" (Psalm civ. 30). "The hour cometh, and now is, when the true worshipers shall worship the Father in spirit and in truth" (John iv. 23). "Thus saith Jehovah God,-he that spread forth the earth,-he that giveth breath unto the people upon it, and spirit to them that walk therein" (Isaiah xlii. 5). "Jehovah -which formeth the spirit of man within him" (Zech. xii. 1). "With my soul have I desired thee in the night, yea, with my spirit within me will I seek thee early" (Isaiah xxvi. 9). In that day shall Jehovah be-for a spirit of judgment to him that sitteth in judgment" (Isaiah xxviii. 5, 6). "My spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour" (Luke i. 47). "These that go toward the north country have quieted my spirit in the north country" (Zech. vi. 8). "Into thy hand I commit my spirit; thou hast redeemed me" (Psalm xxxi. 5). "Did not he make one? yet had he the residue of the spirit" (Malachi ii. 15). "And after three days and a half, the spirit of life from God entered into them" (Apoc. xi. 11). "He that formeth the mountains, and createth the wind [spirit]”—is Jehovah (Amos iv. 13). "O God, the God of the spirits of all flesh" (Numb. xvi. 22); [see also] xxvii. 18. "And I will pour upon the house of David, and upon the inhabitant of Jerusalem, the spirit from on high" (Zech. xii. 10). "Until the spirit be poured upon us from on high" (Isaiah xxxii. 15). "I will pour water upon him that is thirsty, and floods upon the dry ground; I will pour my spirit upon thy seed" (Isaiah xliv. 3). "I will pour out my spirit upon all flesh,-also upon the servants and upon the handmaids, in those days, will I pour out my spirit" (Joel ii. 28, 29). By pouring out the spirit is signified to regenerate the same is meant by giving a new heart and a new spirit.
By the Spirit is also signified spiritual life communicated to those who are in humiliation. "I dwell with him that is of a contrite and humble spirit, to revive the spirit of the humble, and to revive the heart of the contrite ones" (Isaiah lvii. 15). "The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit; a broken and a contrite heart, O God, thou wilt not despise" (Psalm li. 17). give the oil of joy for mourning, the garment of praise for the spirit of heaviness" (Isaiah lxi. 3). "The Lord hath called thee as a woman forsaken, and grieved in spirit" (Isaiah liv. 6). "Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven" (Matt. v. 3).
50. IV. WHERE THE TERM "SPIRIT" IS MENTIONED IN
REFERENCE TO THE LORD, IT SIGNIFIES HIS DIVINE LIFE, CONSEQUENTLY THE LORD HIMSELF. The truth of the first part of this proposition appears from the following passages: "He whom God hath sent speaketh the words of God, for God giveth not the spirit by measure unto him. The Father loveth the Son, and hath given all things into his hand" (John iii. 34, 35). "There shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse,-and the spirit of Jehovah shall rest upon him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might" (Isaiah xi. 1, 2). "I have put my spirit upon him, he shall bring forth judgment to the Gentiles" (Isaiah xlii. 1). "When the enemy shall come in like a flood, the spirit of Jehovah shall lift up a standard against him; and the Redeemer shall come to Zion" (Isaiah lix. 19, 20). "The spirit of the Lord Jehovih is upon me :-Jehovah hath anointed me to speak good tidings unto the meek" (Isaiah lxi. 1; Luke iv. 18). "Jesus perceived in his spirit that they so reasoned within themselves" (Mark ii. 8). "Jesus rejoiced in spirit, and said" (Luke x. 21). "Jesus was troubled in spirit" (John xiii. 21). "Jesus sighed deeply in his spirit" (Mark viii. 12).
The term "Spirit" is used to denote Jehovah Himself, or the Lord, as is evident from these passages: "God is a spirit" (John iv. 24). "Who hath directed the spirit of Jehovah, or, being his counsellor, hath taught him?" (Isaiah xl. 13). "They rebelled and vexed his holy spirit:" and he said, "Where is he that put his holy spirit within him, that led them by the right hand of Moses" (Isaiah lxiii. 10, 11, 12). "Whither shall I go from thy spirit, or whither shall I flee from thy presence?" (Psalm cxxxix. 7). "Not by might,-but by my spirit, saith Jehovah of hosts" (Zech. iv. 6). "They provoked his spirit; -therefore he abhorred his own inheritance" (Psalm cvi. 33, 40). "My spirit shall not always strive with man, for that he also is flesh" (Gen. vi. 3). "I will not contend for ever,-for the spirit should fail before me" (Isaiah lvii. 16). "The blasphemy against the Holy Spirit shall not be forgiven; and whosoever speaketh a word against the Son of Man, it shall be forgiven him" (Matt. xii. 31, 32; Mark iii. 28, 29, 30; Luke xii. 10). Blasphemy against the Holy Spirit is blasphemy against the Divine of the Lord;-against the Son of Man is to contradict the Word by giving it a wrong interpretation: for the Son of Man is the Lord as to the Word, as was shewn above.
51. V. BY THE "" TERM SPIRIT," WHEN MENTIONED IN REFERENCE TO THE LORD IS SIGNIFIED SPECIFICALLY THE LIFE OF HIS WISDOM, WHICH IS THE DIVINE TRUTH. This appears from the following passages: "Nevertheless I tell you the truth; it is expedient for you that I go away, for if I go not away the Comforter will not come unto you; but if I depart,
I will send him unto you" (John xvi. 7). “When he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth; for he shall not speak of himself, but whatsoever he shall hear that shall he speak” (John xvi. 13). “He shall glorify me, for he shall receive of mine, and shall shew it unto you. All things that the Father hath are mine; therefore said I that he shall take of mine, and shall shew it unto you" (John xvi. 14, 15). “I will pray the Father, and he shall give you another Comforter—the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it seeth him not, neither knoweth him, but ye know him, for he dwelleth with you, and shall be in you. I will not leave you comfortless; I will come to you,”—and ye shall see me (John xiv. 16 --19). “When the Comforter is come, whom I will send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth,—he shall testify of me" (John xv. 26). “Jesus cried, saying, If any man thirst let him come unto me, and drink. He that believeth on me, as the Scripture hath said, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water. This spake he of the Spirit, which they that believe on him should receive. For the Holy Spirit was not yet, because Jesus was not yet glorified” (John vii. 37–39). Jesus breathed on his disciples, “and saith unto them, Receive ye the Holy Spirit" (John xx. 22). That by the Comforter, the Spirit of Truth, and the Holy Spirit, the Lord meant himself, appears from his own words when he said, that the world did not as yet know him ; for they did not as yet know the Lord : so when he said, that he would send the Holy Spirit, he added, “I will not leave you comfortless, I will come unto you,” and ye shall see me (John xiv. 16—19, 26, 28). And again : "Lo, I am with you always, even to the consummation of the age' (Matt. xxviii. 20). And when Thomas said, We know not whither thou goest, Jesus said, “I am the way and the truth” (John xiv. 5, 6). And because the Spirit of Truth, or the Holy Spirit, is the same with the Lord, who is the Truth itself, it is therefore also said, “ The Holy Spirit was not yet, because Jesus was not yet glorified” (John vii. 39) : for after his glorification, or full union with the Father, which was effected by the passion of the cross, he was then the Divine Wisdom and the Divine Truth itself, consequently the Holy Spirit. The reason why the Lord breathed on the disciples and said, "Receive the Holy Spirit,” was, because all the respiration of heaven is from the Lord: for angels, as well as men, have both respiration and the pulsation of the heart; and their respiration is according to their reception of divine wisdom from the Lord, and their pulsation of the heart according to their reception of divine love from him. But more of this in its proper place.
That the Holy Spirit is the Divine Truth from the Lord, further appears from the following passages : “When they bring you unto the synagogues,-take ye no thought—what ye