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A.D. 1767.

WAR WITH HYDER ALLY.

97

who they thought were retreating ; and thus, to Cananôr miscarried, with considerable loss. In their mutual surprise, they encountered. The first May, 1768, Hyder suddenly appeared before struggle was for the hill, which Capt. Cooke se- Mangalôr, with an overwhelming force ; and the cured for the English. The two armies were then English were obliged to quit the place with such drawn out in array of battle. The English had precipitation, that they left behind them all their 1400 infantry and 30 cavalry, Europeans, 9000

Europeans, 9000 artillery and stores, and even their sick and Sepoys, and 1500 of Mohammed Ally's good-for-wounded,

wounded, consisting of 80 Europeans and 180 nothing cavalry. The army of the allies is stated Sepoys. Hyder, declaring to the Malabar chiefs at 70,000, one half of which was cavalry. It was that he had found their country a source more of drawn up in a crescent, half-circling the British expense than profit, offered to give it up if paid army. The English cannon having nearly silenced his expenses ; and he thus was enabled to retire that of the enerny, was turned on the dense masses with a large sum of money for the war against the of their cavalry, who, having stood the fire for English. some minutes in the expectation of getting orders The war this year was adverse to the English, to charge, and receiving none, at length turned very much in consequence of the Presidency and fled. Hyder, wlio saw that all was lost, drew having imitated the practice of the jealous repuboff his cannon, and advised the Nizâm to do the lics of Venice and the United Provinces, in sending same ; but he spurned at the idea, and declared two members of council to the army as fieldthat he would sooner perish. The approach of the deputies, without whose consent no operations English, however, abated his courage, and he soon could be carried on, One of the first acts of these was one of the most forward in flight. The victors civilians was to cause the loss of the fort of Mulcaptured 64 pieces of cannon ; their loss was wâgul, by insisting on the European garrison being 150 men, that of the enemy was supposed to be withdrawn, and their place supplied by some of 4000,

the troops of Mohammed Ally. Col. Wood, in an As the rains were approaching, the English went attempt to recover it with a small force, fell in into cantonments. But the active Hyder continued with the entire army of Hyder, and he was on the his operations ; and having reduced one or two eve of being totally routed, when a stratagem of small places, he proceeded to attack Amboor, Capt. Brooke, who commanded the baggage-guard, which, seated on the summit of a granite moun

turned the event of the contest. This officer, who tain, was defended by Capt. Calvert, with a small had with him only four companies and two guns, garrison. Hyder having dismantled the lower drew these last by a circuitous and concealed route fort, Calvert retired to the citadel. The Killidâr | up to the summit of a flat rock, where they were being discovered to be in correspondence with to be served by the wounded artillerymen, while Hyder, he and his men were disarmed. Hyder, | all the rest of the sick and wounded, who were though disconcerted, continued to fire on the fort, able to move, were to swell the ranks on the sumand at length effected a breach, but in an inacces- mit. When all was ready, the guns opened a fire sible place. He made various attempts to surprise of grape on the enemy's left flank, and all, both the fort, but in vain; and he offered Calvert a sick and well, raised a shout of, “Hurra! Smith ! large sum of money and the command of half of Smith !" Both sides thought Smith was arrived ; his army, if he would surrender ; but he was told and Wood, taking advantage of the confusion it to send no more such messages, if he respected the caused, drew up his men in such a manner that he lives of his servants, as the bearers would be was able to repel all Hyder's subsequent attacks, hanged in the breach". The siege had commenced and force him to retire with loss 3 on the 10th November ; and on the 7th December, Some time after, Col. Wood, by making an atthe troops of Col. Smith, marching to the relief of tempt to relieve Oosoor, which Hyder was besiegAmboor, were in sight. At their approach, Hyder ing, left Bâglôr exposed to attack, of which the retired, and ascending the Ghâts, quitted the active enemy took advantage ; and the consequence Carnatic.

was, that two thousand persons lost their lives in The Nizâm, weary of the war, had already en- the rush which they made to get into the fort tered into secret communication with Col. Smith. when the Mysoreans entered the town, Wood, on It came to the knowledge of Hyder, who affected his return from Oosoor, again fell in with Hyder's not to be displeased regarding it, as being for their army, and would probably have been defeated, had eventual advantage. The Nizâm, thus relieved not Major Fitzgerald, on hearing the firing, hasfrom anxiety, speedily concluded a treaty, by which tened to the spot with the other division of the the revenues of the Carnatic Balagât, a country English army; and Hyder retired at his approach. now held by Hyder, were transferred to the Eng-Wood, though brave even to temerity, was now in lish, on their agreeing to pay the Nizâm seven lacs such a state of despondence that, on the representa year, and the Marattas their chout; and the tri- ations of Fitzgerald, he was removed from the bute for the Circars was reduced from nine lacs command, and ordered to proceed to Madras perpetual to seven lacs a year for a term of six under arrest. years.

The forts held by the English were now falling While Hyder was engaged in the Carnatic, some everywhere into the hands of Hyder. In Decemof the Malabar chiefs resolved to make an effort to ber he entered the district of Baramahâl; and, as recover their independence. A force was sent by he was advancing to the reduction of Eroad, he sea from Bombay to their aid. Mangalôr and fell in with a party of 50 Europeans and 200 some other places were taken ; but an attempt on Sepoys, under Capt. Nixon. When the enemy

advanced to the attack, the Europeans fired, and 2 It is lamentable to read that this gallant officer was afterwards tried by court-martial, and convicted, of defraud- 3 The Rornans defeated the Samnites by a similar strataing the Company by false returns.

gem. See our History of Rome, p. 157.

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then rushed on with the bayonet. They perished,

They perished, , rectors threw much vague blame on them, especioppressed by numbers ; the Sepoys were cut down ally for the very wisest part of their conduct, the in their ranks; and of the whole party no one conclusion of peace, which they said would tend to escaped but Lieutenant Goreham, whose knowledge lower them in the eyes of the natives. The reply of the language enabled him to obtain quarter of the presidency was, that they were compelled from one of Hyder's officers. Hyder then made to make peace for want of money to wage war.” Goreham translate into English a summons to While such was the state of affairs in the CarCapt. Orton to surrender Eroad, inviting him at natic, Bengal was enjoying tranquillity. Clive had the same time to come in person to Hyder's tent, been succeeded by Mr. Verelst as chief governor; and assuring him of liberty to depart if a surrender and at the close of the year 1769 this gentleman could not be arranged. Strange to say, he came, resigned, and was succeeded by Mr. Cartier. and was of course detained ; for, as Hyder alleged, In 1767, the Dûranee Shah made the last of and as we regret to say was the case, Capt. Robin- those expeditions with which India has been so son, the second in command, had been taken some often afflicted, from the mountains of Afghanistân. time before, and was dismissed under parole not to His march was directed for Delhi, in which case serve again during the war. Hyder, however, he would probably have encountered the troops of offered Orton leave to depart, if he would write an the English. But he did not come beyond the order for the surrender of the place, the garrison Punjab, where he had some contests with the having liberty to retire with their property to Tri- Sikhs. An expedition was soon after sent by the chinopoly. He at first refused, but finally con- government of Calcutta to restore the rajah of sented ; and Robinson actually obeyed the order! Nepal who had been expelled; but from the nature The garrison, as might have been expected, were of the country it was unable to effect its purpose. marched prisoners to Seringapatam, and there In 1768 came out a peremptory order to end Robinson ended his days in a dungeon. The same the trade of the Company's servants in salt and was the fate of the garrison of another fort, which the other articles, and to leave it entirely to the surrendered on the condition of being allowed to natives; the governor's one and one-eighth on the depart on parole ; Robinson's conduct, and that of revenue was also to cease. To replace these, a the government who employed him, being in both commission of two and a half per cent. on the net cases Hyder's excuse.

produce of the dewannee revenues was granted, to Nearly all their previous acquisitions had now be divided into one hundred equal shares, of which been wrested from the Company; and in the be- the governor was to have thirty-five, and others in ginning of 1768, Hyder sent one of his generals to proportion. Madura and Tinnivelly, while he himself ravaged the country about the Caveri. The Presidency, partly to save the unfortunate peasantry from ruin, partly urged by want of money--for they had been obliged to suspend their investments for England,

CHAPTER XIII. and even so they had not funds to carry on the war more than four months--made proposals for an

Revenues of Bengal--Proceedings in England-Appointaccommodation. At Hyder's desire Capt. Brooke

ment of Supervisors Distress of the Company - Bills was sent to him, on whose report of his intentions,

regulating it-New Government of Benga). Mr. Andrews, a member of council, repaired to his camp, and returned with proposals to be submitted WHEN Clive obtained the dewannee of Bengal for to the Council. These, however, being deemed the Company, he expressed a decided opinion that, inadmissible, hostilities were resumed. Col. Smith after paying all the expenses of government, it again took the command of the army ; but no en

would leave

a considerable annual surplus revenue. counter of any moment occurred. In the latter Had Clive remained in India, and had his plans end of March, when the two armies were about and suggestions been acted on by the Directors at 140 miles south of Madras, Hyder, suddenly dis- home, such might have been the result. But this, missing his infantry and the greater part of his

as we have seen, was not done ; adequate salaries cavalry, put himself at the head of 6000 horse, were not secured to the servants of the Company; and, on the 29th, he appeared on Mount St. Thomas, the restrictions on private trade were withdrawn, near Madras, whence he despatched a letter to the and, moreover, a new mode of diverting to indigovernor, requesting that Mr. Dupré, a member of viduals a large share of the revenue sprang up. council, might be sent to him. As it was in Hy. This was the civil and military charges for buildder's power to plunder the town, ravage the country, ings, &c. Every man now," says Clive, “ who is and pillage and destroy the garden-houses of the permitted to make a bill, makes a fortune.” president and council, before Smith's troops could The division of the powers of government bearrive, his demand was complied with at once, and

tween the Nabob and the Company was productive a treaty was concluded, of which the two principal of mischief, and had its effect in diminishing the articles were, a mutual restitution of conquests and revenue, which was further reduced by the evasion mutual aid in defensive wars.

of the payment of duties by the servants of the Thus was terminated, and with more advantage Company. Capital was continually going out of to the English than they had any reasonable right the country, for the investments to England and to expect, a war imprudently, if not unjustly com

China, which now, instead of being purchased by menced, and feebly and unskilfully conducted by goods and bullion sent from home, were to be furthe president 4 and council of Madras. The Di- nished from the revenues of the province; and as

these revenues were every day more absorbed in 4 The President was Mr. Palk, a clergyman, and a rela- the expenses of government, and checked or inter

cepted in the ways we have mentioned, the diffiA, D. 1768-70.

ive of Gen. Lawrence.

4* TEL.

PROCEEDINGS IN ENGLAND.

99

culty of obtaining the necessary sums continually and a half per cent., a bill passed the house forincreased. Add to this, that the war with Hyder bidding any increase of dividend for the present, was a great drain on the exchequer of Bengal, and directing that dividends should only be voted

Toward the end of 1769 it appeared that there by ballot, and in general courts summoned exwas an excess of disbursements over receipts, and pressly for the purpose. It was insisted on the the remedy proposed was, “ to open their treasury part of the ministry, that the territorial acquisidoor for remittances;" that is, to receive the large tions of the Company, or those of any subjects, sums which the servants of the Company were belonged to the crown. But they did not observe annually sending home, and to give bills for them that the dewannee was of quite a different nature; on the Company in England. This was, no doubt, and that the Company was merely a zemindâr to a very agreeable mode to all parties in Bengal, the emperor, to whom, or to the Nabob, the debut it threw the Company at home into great wannee should of right revert, if the Company difficulties when the amount of these bills hap- were required to resign it, or if their charter pened to exceed that of the sale of the investments should expire; and the only question was, whether out of which they were to be paid. To prevent the crown or the Company should have the surthis evil, the Directors limited the amount for plus revenue of Bengal, a thing which, in reality, which they permitted the government of Bengal had no existence at the very time they were disto draw bills on them, and their wealth-amassing puting about it. After a vast deal of argument servants then paid their surplus cash into the and contention, an act was passed in April, 1769, French and Dutch factories, getting in return bills allowing the Company to retain the revenues of on Europe, and thus these Companies were enabled, Bengal for a term of five years, on condition of in a great measure, to trade on British capital. paying every year 400,000l. into the exchequer ;

Such was the condition of the finances of Bengal they might, if the revenues allowed it, increase when Mr. Cartier succeeded to the office of gover- their dividends up to twelve and a half per cent., nor on the 24th December, 1769. In the follow- at the rate of one per cent. in each year ; if the ing year, the annual rains were withheld by Pro- dividend fell below ten per cent., the payment into vidence, and India was visited by dearth and the exchequer should be reduced in proportion, famine, which swept away one-third of the popula- and should cease altogether if it fell to six per tion of Bengal, and made a proportionate reduction cent. It was also provided that the Company in the revenue. In the same year the young rajah should annually export a certain quantity of British died, and was succeeded by his brother Mubark- goods, provide for the payment of their simple ud-dowlah. The president and council continued contract debts, the reduction of their bonded debt, the allowance to him which had been arranged by &c. &c. Clive, but the Directors wrote out that, as he was The whole blame of the disappointment of the a ininor, they thought sixteen lacs of rupeees quite golden dreams of India was thrown on those who enough for his support, and ordered no more to be had the management of the Company's affairs in paid, and thus, how justly we need not say, they that country, and it was resolved to institute a added thirty-four lacs a year to their revenues. strict investigation on the spot. For this purpose,

While such were the proceedings in India, the under the title of Supervisors, and vested with proprietors at home were not negligent of their nearly the whole powers of the Company, Mr. Vanown interests. Filled with vague notions of the sittart, Mr. Scrafton, and Col. Forde, all of whom inexhaustible wealth of the East, and having be- had been high in office in fore their eyes the huge fortunes accumulated in a proceed thither. They sailed in a frigate which few years by the servants of the Company, and was sent out at the desire of the Company ; but which were displayed in many cases with an Ori- the frigate and those on board of her were never ental pomp and magnificence, they panted for

heard of more. She probably foundered or went share in the golden harvest.

For some years

down in a hurricane. past, the dividends on East India stock had been The debt of the Company in India went on acsix per cent.; but, in 1766, a vote of the Court of cumulating ; they were utterly unable to provide Proprietors raised it at once to ten per cent. In for the bills drawn on them, and yet, with all their vain did the Directors, who knew the real state of difficulties staring them in the face, the Directors things, and that money must be taken up at a had the temerity to propose to the proprietors, in heavy rate of interest to pay this dividend, remon- 1770, to raise their dividend to 12, and in the two strate; in a general court on the 6th May, 1767, a following years, to 127 per cent. These augmentadividend of twelve and a half per cent. was voted 5. tions were cheerfully voted ; but such a desperate But their cupidity was destined to meet a check. course had its inevitable results. In July, 1772, The idea of the wealth of India and the desire to the deficit in their accounts was 1,293,0001. They partake in it, had also seized the ministers of the applied to the Bank for a loan of 400,0001., and Gr'own ; committee of the House of Commons to when they had obtained this, for a further loan of inquire into the state of the Company had been 300,0001., but that body would only give 200,0001. ; voted by parliament, which met early in Novem- and on the 10th August, the chairman and deputy ber, 1766, chiefly for this purpose, and a few days waited on Lord North, the minister, and told him after the proprietors had voted themselves twelve that nothing short of the loan of a million would

save the Company from ruin.

The minister had the Company now completely 5 The Directors had instituted legal proceedings against

in his power. There had been two committees Johnstone, and the others who had taken presents at Nujum-ud-dowlah's accession. These men, who were now

sitting on the subject of Indian affairs; the one at home with plenty of money, and of course of influence,

called the Secret, the other (which was open) the seized the present occasion of procuring a vote of the pro- Select Committee ; and thus some, though rather prietors to drop the prosecutions. Life of Clive, iii. 185. imperfect, knowledge of the subject had been eli

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cited. The proposal of the Company to send out to the eye of candour they will perhaps appear as another set of supervisors was negatived, and a good as could well have been devised at the time. determination to regulate their affairs, whether The one which, as we shall see, proved the greatest they would or not, was openly expressed. A bill, failure, was the Supreme Court; but with the high embodying the views of the ministry, was brought ideas which prevailed, and still too much prevail, in ; and as by it the constitution of the Company of the absolute perfection of English law, we need would be greatly altered, all possible opposition to not wonder at its establishment. it was made, both in and out of Parliament. The The governor-general appointed under the act Company and the shareholders who would be dis- was Warren Hastings, Esq., the actual governor of franchised by it petitioned, and were heard by Bengal; the councillors were Mr. Barwell, a civil counsel at the bar of both houses against it. The servant of the Company, Gen. Clavering, Col. city of London also petitioned against it, as of

as of Monson", and Mr. Philip Francis 8. The chiefdangerous consequence to all corporations what- justice was Sir Elijalı Impey ; the puisne judges, ever. But in vain : the propositions of the minister Messrs. Hyde, Lemaistre, and Chambers. were carried by large majorities; and in June and July, 1773, two acts respecting the Company received the royal assent.

The first was financial Government agreed to lend the Company 1,400,0001. at 4 per cent., and

CHAPTER XIV. not to demand the 400,0001. a year till that debt had been discharged; the Company during that

Early History of Warren Hastings-New Mode of collecting time was not to divide more than 6 per cent., and

the Revenue--New Courts of Justice-Arrest of Mohamnot more than 7 per cent. till their bond-debt was

med Reza Khân and Shitab Roy-Arrangement of the reduced to 1,500,0001. After this, the Government Nabob's Household-Emperor joins the Marattas - The was to receive three-fourths of the surplus re- Rohillas---Treaty of Benâres-Treatment of the Emperor ceipts, and the other fourth to go to the liquidation --Extermination of the Rohillas. of the bond-debt, or to the formation of a fund for contingent expenses ; the territorial possessions to

Mr. CARTIER was succeeded in the beginning of remain to the Company for the remaining six 1772, as governor of Bengal, by Warren Hastings, years of their charter.

Esq., the second member of council at Madras. By the other bill, the qualification for voting in

This distinguished man, whose name will ever the Court of Proprietors was raised from 5001. to

be associated with that of the British empire in 10001. ; the holder of 30001. stock to have two of India, was born in the year 1732, of an ancient, 60001. three, and of 10,0001. four votes ; the stock honourable, but greatly reduced family. After to have been in the possession of the voter for having been at one or two ordinary schools, he was twelve months. The Directors were to be elected placed by his uncle at that of Westminster. Here for four years, a fourth to go out annually. The he greatly distinguished himself; but on the death government of Bengal, Bahâr, and Orissa was to of his uncle, the charge of him fell to a very distant be vested in a governor-general, with a salary of relation, who being an East India Director, and 25,0001. a year ; and four councillors, with 8000l. a not liking to be at the expense of giving him a year each. The other presidencies were to be

classical education, resolved to send him out as subordinate to that of Bengal. A supreme court

a writer to Bengal. of judicature was to be established at Calcutta,

Hastings reached Calcutta on the 8th October, consisting of a chief justice, with 80001. a year, 1750, just within two months of completing his and three puisne judges, with each 60001. a year, eighteenth year. After stopping a couple of years to be appointed by the Crown. The first governor

in that city, he was sent to the factory of Cossimgeneral and councillors were to be named in the bazar, and he was there when it was taken by act, and were to hold their office for five years ; Sûraj-ud-dowlah. He was made a prisoner, but the Company were then to appoint, subject to the

suffered to go at large, the chief of one of the approbation of the Crown. All the Indian cor

Dutch factories giving bail for his appearance, and respondence relating to civil, military, or financial he remained at Moorshedabad. He afterwards affairs was to be laid before the ministry. No joined the fugitives from Calcutta at Fulta. In person in the King's or Company's service was to the subsequent negotiations with that prince, Hastreceive presents ; the governor, councillors, and ings was joined with Mr. Amyatt, and after his judges were not to engage in trade.

overthrow he was placed as a kind of resident at Such were the legislative acts which led to a new

the court of Meer Jaffier. Clive saw his talents, æra in the history of the Company. For those and seems to have reposed much confidence in who, writing long after the events, judge all mea

him. After Clive's departure he remained at the sures and events by an imaginary standard of

court of Meer Jaffier, and had a share in the act right, and make no allowance for human ignorance

of his deposition, though it does not appear that he and fallibility, nothing is more easy than to find approved of it. When Mr. Sumner and others fault with, and condemn all these measures 6 ; but

were dismissed, he became a member of council at

and the best that could be devised. On one point Mr. Mill 6 Mr. Mill is, if we may use the term, of the Smell-fungus gives a decided opinion in favour of a measure, namely, the school of philosophy, whose followers find fault with every use of the ballot in popular elections; but with the example thing, propose nothing, and their censures are frequently of the United States before our eyes, few now, we hope, will contradicted by experience. Thus he sneers at the idea of be found to share his admiration for that mode of voting. large salaries being any security against corruption, "as if 7 See above, p. 82. there was a point of saturation in cupidity;" yet experience, 8 Suspected to be the author of The Letters of Junius. both in India and England, has shown that it is a security, He had all the requisite malignity and disregard of truth.

A. D. 1772.

ARREST OF MOHAMMED REZA KHAN.

101

successor.

lated on.

Calcutta, and he there gave his support to Mr. acted in the Khalsa as superintendent of the disVansittart against the domineering majority. In trict dewans. 1762 he was sent on a mission to Meer Cossim; As the new system did away with the zemindary but his prudent and moderate suggestions were courts, those great instruments of oppression, two rejected by Johnstone and his party. In 1764, new ones were appointed in each district ; a criMr. Hastings returned to England in the same minal named Foujdaree Adawlut, presided over by ship with Mr. Vansittart. He was then the pos- the collector with the Câzee and Muftee of the dissessor of only a very moderate fortune, and no trict, and two Moolavees or Mohammedan lawyers ; servant of the Company had ever left India with a and a civil, named Mofussul Dewanee Adawlut, of fairer character.

which the collector also was president, aided by the The narrowness of his circumstances soon obliged dewan of the district, and other native officers. Hastings to seek for employinent again in India. Two courts of appeal were established at Calcutta, The knowledge which he displayed when ex- a criminal, named Nizâmut Suddur Adawlut, and amined on Indianı affairs in the House of Com- a civil, named Suddur Dewanee Adawlut. mons had increased his friends in the Direction; The office of Naib Dewan of Bengal had been and in 1769 he was appointed second in council held by Mohammed Reza Khân, whom Clive had at Fort St. George, and a member of the select made Naib Nizâm to the young Nabob. Against committee there, nominated for the purpose of this man serious charges, all apparently originating restoring the Company's affairs in the Carnatic. with the infamous Nundcomar, had reached the His succession to the office of president after Mr. Directors, and they sent out strict orders to seize Dupré, the present occupant, was also secured to himself, his family, his partizans and adherents, him.

and bring them prisoners to Calcutta. This busiIn Madras, Hastings devoted his energies to im- ness was managed with great secrecy and dispatch proving the mode of providing the Company's in- by Hastings; and one of the chief reasons he as. vestments; and his conduct gave so much satisfac- signs for so doing is, that Mohammed Reza Khân tion to the Directors, that, in 1771, they nominated must, from his great wealth, have established “an him second in council in Bengal, with the assurance

interest with such of the Company's agents, as, by that, on Mr. Cartier's retirement, he should be his actual authority, or by representations to the

. This event took place early in 1772, Honourable Company, might be able to promote and Hastings became governor of Bengal.

or obstruct his views ;" in plain English, he must The plan of divided sovereignty between the have bought them. Shitab Roy, the upright and Nabob and the Company, devised by Clive, had honourable Naib Dewan of Patna, probably as a not been found to answer, and the produce of the partizan or adherent, was also arrested and sent to dewannee was nothing like what had been calcu- Calcutta. Neither of them, however, was thrown

It was therefore deemed advisable in into prison, they were only required not to leave 1769 that servants of the Company, named supervisors, should be placed in each district, for the The charges against Mohammed Reza Khân purpose of superintending the native functionaries; were, monopoly of rice in the time of the famine, and two councils, with authority over the super- embezzlement of the money of the Nizâmut, a visors, be established, the one at Moorshedabad, balance due and not accounted for by him since the and the other at Patna. This plan, however, was death of Meer Jaffier, as renter of Dacca, and a not found to answer any better than the former; correspondence with the emperor and the Maand the Directors, anxious to get an income in any

On all these charges he was honourably way, determined to effect a social revolution, such acquitted, after all the evidence that could be obas had never hitherto taken place in India, and, as tained against him had been produced. Shitab they expressed it, " to stand forth as Dewan," and Roy, against whom there was really no charge, manage and collect the revenues by the direct was likewise acquitted, and he was immediately agency of their own servants. The plan adopted appointed Roy Royan and Naib Nazîm of Bahâr"; by Mr. Hastings and the council for collecting the but he died soon after his arrival at Patna, and his revenues was, to let the lands on leases of five son was appointed to succeed him in both his years; a committee, composed of the president and offices. It is due to Mr. Hastings to observe, that four members of council, should make circuits of throughout all this business he seems to have acted superintendence through the country; the super- with great fairness. visors should be named collectors, and each have A very important part of the office of the Naib a native dewan joined with him ; no collector's Nazîm was the superintendence of the person and banyam or servant should be allowed to form any household of the Nabob. This it was resolved to part of the revenues, and no presents should be divide into two offices, analogous to the guardianaccepted by any person high or low; and no money ships of the person and of the property appointed be lent on interest to any persons connected with by our court of Chancery. There were two perthe land. As the terms offered for the lands did sons who seemed to have a claim to the former not prove satisfactory, the plan of letting them by office ; the mother of the Nabob, and his uncle auction was adopted, the preference being given to Ateram-ud-Dowlah, the brother of Meer Jaffier, the actual zemindâr or other middleman, when he Yet both of these were set aside, and the office offered a fair value; if not, he was pensioned off, was bestowed on Mooni Begum, a second wife or and the lands let to another. The ryot was secured concubine of Meer Jaffier's. The reason assigned against taxation by a lease.

was, the ascendancy she had over the mind of the The Khalsa, or supreme court of revenue, was Nabob, being the only person of whom he stood in removed to Calcutta ; the office of Naib Dewan awe, and her having no children of her own, was abolished; the council formed a board of reve- Hastings, in a private letter to the Directors, nue; and a native functionary named Roy Royan gives a further reason~her being the declared

that city.

rattas.

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