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a great backwardness, fearfulness charge; and I studied and prayed and even reluctance to enter into that I might know how to be usethe ministry. I thought I was not ful, and that I might be so. Befit for it—that if I had any grace, sides preaching in publick, as is I had not sufficient for that. I was usual, and delivering many leclike Moses and Jeremiah~I would, tures in private dwellings, and caif possible, have been excused. techising small children in various Like Jonah, I was almost ready to parts of the congregation, as was run away from the work. Other the common practice of ministers, ministers advised me to engage in I attempted several other methods it, and I did not care to set up my of rendering myself useful to my own judgment entirely against people: not that I exceeded others, theirs. And after I was in the mi- for at least some others did much nistry, for several years, I had the same. much the same difficulty. I thought One method I used was to give that I was unfit, because I had not the out questions in writing, and have readiness and promptness to the a time appointed to meet the peowork that was desirable-I moved ple and hear them answer the in it under and against a great questions as they thought proper, weight. I could speak but poorly and then to make my own obserin publick; and I was bashful, vations upon them. Another mebackward and unapt to speak in thod, adopted at other times, was, private. I often thought I would the people gave me questions, and give any thing in the world if I I, at a time appointed, answered might, consistently with duty, be and discoursed upon them—somefree from the ministry, and be en- thing like Pike and Hayward's gaged in some other calling—the “ cases of conscience," but much weight seemed too heavy for me to shorter. I also proposed many bear. I often had thoughts that I subjects myself to speak upon; should be willing to have some and gave previous notice of the scandalous sin falsely laid to my time when I would answer and charge, so that I should necessa discourse upon them. At these rily be put out of the ministry: meetings I thought it proper to but I believe, upon trial, I should speak upon some things, and in a not have chosen it.

manner, that would not have been And now to speak my own judg- proper for the pulpit: And at these ment, after so long a time, I think meetings, a free conference was alif there were a sufficient number lowed after I had done speaking, of persons properly qualified for and the people present had liberty the ministry, it would not be best to propose and say what they to introduce such as I was, and thought proper. Another method have been. My being so reserved I used was, to catechise the young in private, and so poor a speaker people between meetings on the in publick, with so little zeal and Sabbath. This I found was the engagedness in the cause, renders only time I could have them togeme unfit, if there were other per- ther. On week days they would sons upon the whole more fit. But not attend; and after both services considering the scarcity of minis were concluded, some of them ters, I know not but it may be would go home. I used to cateright to introduce such as I have chise the young men on one Sabbeen.

bath, and the young women the When I had actually entered next. My method was to have into the ministry, I considered it the questions which I intended to my duty to promote the good of ask written down; but I talked the people committed to my freely on the subjects brought into

view; and sometimes one question this, not without some good efwould introduce several new and fect. But the want of this disunexpected ones. This practice I cipline in all the other neighbourcontinued for several years, but it ing churches, prevented our carwas laborious and trying to my rying it to a proper extent. It was constitution. Another method I thought best by others that we took was, to visit families by name. should not, at least for the present, This I did for more than a year, proceed to suspension, or cutting till I had nearly or quite gone off from our care; and we found through the congregation. I usu that without this, we could do no ally visited two days in the week; more than give good advice, and and on the previous Sabbath told reprove in private. The elders them the families I would visit, on and myself also tried to promote such or such a day—This I did family government; and I wrote that they might have opportunity articles of agreement, by which to be at home. When I came to families should concur and join in the house, and the family was col- the same practice, for mutual help lected together, I first prayed with and encouragement to one another. them; and then I began with the In many such ways have I enyoungest, and so proceeded on till deavoured to promote religion I came to the heads of the family among the people of my charge; -asking questions and discours- but after all, I have done but little; ing, according to their several ca not so much as was my duty to do, pacities and circumstances. This and the effect has been but small.* method I continued but little more

(To be continued.) than a year, and once over my charge. In general, through my ministry hitherto, my visiting has been more occasional than stated - just as I have had opportunity. But I have been deficient in this

Doctrine of Power. duty; and in general people complain more of this deficiency in mi

The doctrine of power is more nisters than of any other.

perplexed than any other departTo promote religion in our se

ment of mental philosophy. For veral congregations, most or all this reason it will require careful of the neighbouring ministers en attention, and protract the discuscouraged family meeting socie- sion beyond what has been devoted ties of young persons, and days of to any other topic in this series of prayer. I used, when I could, to articles. Our present intention is meet with these societies in my

to settle the doctrine, and remove own charge, for prayer-some- some of its perplexities; reserving times in one part of the congregation, and sometimes in another.

* It will be recollected, as elsewhere This I did both for my own advan- stated, that this was written nearly thir.

teen years before Mr. Green's death; and tage, and for the encouragement that he died in the midst of a most reand edification of others—Another markable and general revival of religion, method which I, with my elders, among the people of his charge. They attempted for the promotion of re

were ripening for the harvest, which al

though delayed, was at last rich and abunligion, was the care and discipline dant Probably no congregation in our of the young people: Or more country was composed of a better instructproperly, of such of them as were ed people than his. Hence an entire freebaptised. These we looked upon

dom, from all that is so justly considered

as exceptionable and injurious, in many of as in a sort within the church, and those which have of late been denomiunder its care. We proceeded in nated revivals of religion.-EDIT.

MENTAL SCIENCE.

for a subsequent article certain of the connexion between cause and its applications and uses.

effect. This we can recognise and The terms used to indicate pow. describe, but it is not power. The er are so indefinitely and variously thing itself is utterly beyond our employed, that it need not be con cognizance. We cannot see it, sidered strange, if there should be describe it, or define it at all. But much confusion and perplexity at- since power is that which binds tending the investigation of cer the effect to its cause, we may use tain mental and theological sub- that relation in place of its definijects. These terms are used in tion, without error, and often with law, in government, in rights, in great advantage. Let any man faswealth, in martial operations, in ten his attention upon this inquiry physics, in mathematicks, in ar and seek to define or describe powgument and in mental philosophy. er; he will soon find himself in In some departments, as in num- difficulty, and at length yield the bers and mechanics, the terms are object, in despair of success. Some fixed in their meaning, but in a philosophers have found themgreat majority of the sciences they selves so perplexed with inquiries are not. Though they occur in all relating to power, that they have departments, their meaning varies chosen to do what we consider exceedingly, and it is oftentimes equivalent to a denial of its exis. impossible to ascertain their im- tence. They have denied, in theport.

ory, any other connexion between But the origin of all our appre

cause and effect than mere antehensions and conceptions of power cedent and consequent. Without is from a connexion between cause stopping to discuss the theory, and and effect. This connexion is a expose at length its absurdities, dependence of the effect upon the

we say

that
every

effect supposes a Whenever such connexion cause, with power to produce it. is recognised, we ascribe it to pow. Whether the power belongs to the er; but if none is recognised, no cause, inherently, incidentally, or existence of power is suggested. instrumentally, will not affect the It should here be observed, that question in its present aspect. The neither the effect, nor the cause, simple fact, to which we allude, is nor the connexion, but that on that the connexion between cause which the connexion rests, is the and effect, involves a dependence, power, and nothing else can be pro- which always denotes power. The perly so called. Now if men al terms have no appropriate meanways spoke and wrote on all sub- ing on any other supposition. It jects with this notion of power is absurd to speak of a cause withdistinctly in view, there would be out the idea of power; of an effect, no perplexity or confusion from without power to produce it. the use of those terms. But it is We recur again to the propriefar otherwise, as must be evident ty of using this connexion between to all who reflect carefully on the cause and effect, as a substitute for subject.

the definition of power. It cannot The question has often been mislead us to use that relation, asked, What is power? It is easily which power alone supports, and asked: but has it ever been an- which alone suggests the idea, as swered? Has it ever been defined? its substitute. In physiscs it is If it has, we confess it has not not necessary to employ any subbeen our happiness to see the an- stitute, but in mental philosophy swer or the definition. The best and theological discussions, it is substitute for a definition, that often very important. we have yet seen or conceived, is plexing vagueness and great diver

cause.

The per

source.

sity of meanings, attached to the phy, which claims to be rational, same term, render it necessary that can invalidate or contradict it. some terms, more fixed and certain Here we leave this remark, confiin their meaning, should be substi- dent that all thinking minds will tuted in its place. But this will be readily perceive its truth. We more evident, when we come to the might have said before, that powapplication and uses of power. er must have a living source. But

Before we proceed to the direct it was no part of our intention to object, a few remarks on the source engage in a philosophical discusof power are appropriate and ne sion of life. We, therefore, take cessary. The first remark is, that for granted, what none will doubt, power is always associated with that life, whatever its definition intelligence in its source. Instru- may be, is essential to the source ments may be employed to connect of power. Our object, at present, cause and effect, which have no in- is to show, that the source of all telligence; but, however numerous power is mind, which must live, ly or frequently they may be so em- know, feel, and choose. If mind ployed, they cannot be considered be capable of volition, it must feel. the source of energy. Whenever There can be no such thing as vowe recognise, or conceive of pow- lition without feeling. This has er, we greatly mistake if the idea been illustrated in a former article, of intelligence is not always, and and needs no further discussion for necessarily, associated with its our present purpose.

Matter is in itself inert, The original source of all power in all its forms of organization; it is the eternal, self-existent, and incannot, therefore, be the source of dependent Mind. He has infinite any action, energy, or even mo- power, and is irresponsible for its tion. All its motions, and the exercise; but He is infinitely good, laws of their regulation, indicate as well as infinitely intelligent and a governing energy from an intel- powerful; therefore his governligent source. We need not enter ment is infinitely safe and desirainto a minute and extended illus- ble. But what most concerns the tration of this remark. We think present discussion is, that all our all inquisitive minds will readily conceptions of divine power conarrive at the irresistible conclusion, nect with God's will: it is indithat intelligence is essential to the cated by the connexion between source of power.

his volition and the effects proAnother remark on the general duced. This connexion, accordsubject is, that the source of pow. ing to the sure testimony of divine er is voluntary. Its exercise is al- revelation, is illimitably certain. ways connected with will, or voli God has created minds, which tion, the operation of will. All are finite, dependent on his will the laws of motion, which philo- for existence, for all their faculsophy recognises, necessarily in- ties and all their power. These dicate both an intelligent and vo minds are, by God's will, constiluntary source. Whatever inate tuted immortal and indestructible. rial agents are instrumentally em We speak of two orders, angels ployed, earth, water, air, fire, elec- and men; whether there be other tricity, magnetism, or any of the minds we know not, and need not chemical agencies, we recognise inquire. We do not suppose that no power in them, but in some either angelick or human minds source of their motion, in which are incapable of annihilation by there must be design and volition. that power which gave them being, Experience demonstrates the truth but we know that it is his will they of this statement; and no philoso- shall live for ever. Our present

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men,

The gene

inquiry respects the ability of de- of God, as really and as certainly pendent, mortal and immortal as for life. We often see men ut

terly, or partially, deprived of it, One more general remark may while life yet continues. Derangehere be made. It relates to man's ment of intellect takes it away, or responsibleness, as connected with diminishes it; insensibility of feelpower. For all the power given ing destroys or misdirects it; and to creatures, they must be respon- various circumstances of its mesible to their Maker and Sove- dium and instruments change or reign; both for its estimation and destroy it. The whole phenomena employment. This is directly in- of power show its dependence on ferred from their relations to him the omnipotent source. That who made, sustains, and governs man's power is limited, admits of them. The basis of this respon no question. But to fix some of sibleness to God, so far as found its limits, and define its applicain men, is their faculties of know- tions, is very difficult. ing the use of power, of feeling ral fact of limitation to men's abithe influence of obligation, and of lity is admitted on all sides, but will, or volition, to direct its use. much controversy obtains among Mind is, therefore, the source of philosophers and theologians, conman's power, and responsible for cerning several particular límits. its employment. But mind, unin- . Were this controversy confined to telligent, insensible and inactive, subjects of speculative philosophy, could not be a source of power, it would not be worth the pains of nor be held responsible. Such a investigation. But since it has an supposition, however, takes away important influence in scriptural the essential properties of mind interpretation, and the discussion the faculties of intelligence, feeling of theological doctrine, it will be and action. This general remark necessary to examine some of those is all we need at present. The limits in question. But this also subject of responsibleness and its belongs to a consideration of the connexion with power, will occu uses and applications of ability. py more properly, and more fully, Here it is proper to say, that another place in this discussion. man's power, derived and limited

That men have power is demon as it is unquestionably, is man's strably certain. The whole face own, as certainly as life is man's of the inhabited earth bears testi- own, and in the same sense that mony to the fact, every man's con the faculties of mind are his. The sciousness certifies it, and the re- derivation, dependence, and limits velation of God abundantly con of the power affect not its connexfirms the truth. This power is ion with the mind, to which it esderived, dependent and limited. sentially belongs. We have said It is derived from the great Source that mind is the source of power of all things. God has endowed in man. To the mind or spirit bemen with life and faculties, capa- long, essentially, life, faculties of ble of producing certain effects. intelligence, feeling and volitionThis capability, like life, is the to it also belongs power. We are gift of God, and is found' in dif not able to determine which faculty ferent degrees in different persons, is the source of ability; nor is it just as the great Author has seen necessary to decide such a quesfit to bestow it on them. Can this tion. We know that the primary be doubted? The facts, in proof, source of agency or action in man are before every eye.

is the faculty of feeling, but this For the continuance of this abi agency is manifested by the will, lity, men are dependent on the will and has some connexion with inCh. Adv.-VOL. X.

O

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