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elevated and rocky in some places, with several good the tongue when placed upon it, and allows water harbour's. The rivers falling into the Bay of B. on very slowly to percolate through its pores. The the Spanish shores are unimportant, none of them unglazed bottles employed in cooling water are having a course of more tban 30 or 40 miles. On the examples of Biscuit-ware. coast of France, it receives, through the rivers Loire, Charente, Gironde, and Adour, the waters of half of meat combined with a certain quantity of flour,

BI'SCUIT, MEAT, a preparation of the substance the surface of the whole country. Its chief ports made into the form of biscuits, by which process are Gihon, Santander, Bilbao, San Sebastian, and the nutritive qualities of the meat are preserved Passages, in Spain; and Bayonne, Bordeaux, Roche

for any length of time. One way of preparing these fort, La Rochelle, and Nantes, in France. Its chief islands--which are all situated north of the biscuits is as follows: Large pieces of beef are Gironde- are Belleisle, Ré, and Oléron. Navigation placed in a quantity of water sufficient to cover is rendered difficult and dangerous by the prevalence them, and are subjected to slow ebullition. The

fat being skimmed off, of north-west winds (which drive in through the

evaporation is allowed wide mouth of the bay large volumes of water from to take place, until the liquid is about the conthe Atlantic, to be again thrown back from the sistency of sirup, when it is mixed with fine long regular line of coast towards the centre, thus wheaten flour, rolled out to the thickness of causing great commotion, and high, short, broken ordinary ship-biscuit, cut into any shape required, waves), and by the existence of a current-called baked, and dried in the ordinary manner. Rennel's Current—which sweeps in from the ocean

pound of biscuit usually contains the soluble part round the north coast of Spain, along the west and of 5 lbs. of meat, and half a pound of flour. The north-west coast of France, then shooting across but boiled in about twenty times their own weight

meat-biscuits can be eaten like ordinary biscuits ; the British Channel, brushes the Scilly. Isles, and after approaching the coast of Ireland, turns west and of water for half an hour, with the usual condiments,

they make excellent soup, and for this they were south, till it joins the north Africau current.

chiefly intended. Meat-biscuits were first introduced BI'SCHOF, Karl Gustav, a distinguished chemist into Britain from America by Mr. Borden, in the and geologist, was born at Nürnberg (1792) and year of the Great Exhibition of 1851. They have became professor of chemistry in Bonn in 1822. been spoken highly of by medical men as food; they Having obtained the prize of the Scientific Society are also important as a means of preserving from of Holland for his treatise on Internal Terrestial waste much animal food, which the inhabitants of the Ileat, he published in England, in connection with Australian colonies and the Argentine Republic, it, Résearches on the Internal Heat of the Globe (Lond. having no market for, while it was fresh, were before 1841), which was followed by a number of papers forced to throw away. on connected geological subjects. The results of his researches (1837-1840) on inflammable gases in

BI'SCUITS (Fr. twice-baked), small, flat bread, coal-mines, and on safety-lamps, appeared in the rendered dry and hard by baking, in order to their Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal and other long preservation. They are divided into two periodicals. His chief work is his Manual of Chemical classesthe unfermented and the fermented. Unferand Physical Geology (Bohn, 1817-1850).

mented or unleavened B., generally knonn as common

sea-biscuits or ship-bread, are made of wheaten-flour BI'SCHOFF, THEOD. Ludw. Wilh., anatomist and physiologist

, was born in Hanover, 1807, became (retaining some of the bran), water, and common professor of anatomy in Heidelberg in 1836. From salt. The materials are kneaded together, either Heidelberg he removed, in 1843, to the University of the workmen-or by introducing the materials into

by manual labour--that is, by the hands and feet of Giessen, and in 1854, to that of Munich. He has devoted himself specially to embryology, to which

a long trough or box, with a central shaft, to which he has made many contributions. His Entwicke- revolve rapidly by machinery. The mass of dough so

a series of knives is attached, and which is made to lungsgeschichete des Kanincheneies (Bruns. 1843) obtained is then kneaded and thinned out into a received the prize from the Berlin Academy, of sheet the proper thickness of the B., by being his numerous writings in Müller's Archiv, and pub. passed and repassed between heavy rollers. lished separately, may be singled out the Beweis der sheet being placed below a roller with knife-edge von der Begattung unabhängigen periodischen Reifung shapes, is readily cut into hexagonal (six-sided) or und Loslösung der Eier der Säugethiere under Menschen (Giess. 1844), in which he establishes the import- biscuits. The indentation of the slabs of dough,

round pieces of dough of the required size of the ant doctrine of the periodic ripening and detachment in the case of the hexagonal B., is not complete, of the ova in mammalia and man, independency of

so that all the B. cut out of each slab remain generation. Being called upon in 1850, along with slightly adhering together. These slabs of B. are Liebig, to give his opinion in the famous Görlitz then introduced into an oven for about 12 minutes, process (q. v.), which involved the question of the and are placed in a warm room for 2 or 3 days, possibility of spontaneous combustion, he took occasion to give a dissertation Uber die Selbstverbrennung oven is open at both ends, and the B. being placed

to become thoroughly dry. The more modern (on Spontaneous Combustion), demonstrating its im in a framework, are drawn by chains through the possibility, which is published in Henke's Annals of

So rapidly is this operation conducted, that Legal Medicine (1850).

about 2000 lbs. weight of B. are passed through one BI'SCHWILLER, a town in the department of of these ovens every day of ten hours. the Bas-Rhin, France, siuated on the Moder, about

Captains' B. are prepared from wheaten flour, 14 miles north of Strasburg. B. was formerly fortified, water, with common salt, and butter, with an but was dismantled in 1706. It has manufactures of occasional small dose of yeast to cause partial ferearthenwares, coarse woollens, linens, and gloves, mentation. Milk is also sometimes employed. Water and a trade in beer, leather, and the agricultural or hard B. are made of flour, water, with variable produce of the district. Pop. about 7000.

quantities of butter, eggs, spices, and sugar. Soft B. BI'SCUIT, in Pottery, is the term applied to contain increased quantities of butter and sugar. sorcelain and other earthenware after the first Yeast B. are those the dough of which is mixed firing, and before it has received the glaze and with a small quantity of yeast, yielding more porous embellishments. See PORCELAIN and POTTERY. In biscuits. Buttered B. are made with much butter this condition, the ware is very porous, adheres to and a little yeast. Other varieties of B. are named in


oven. .


Water or Milk. Butter.



in ounces.


Water or Milk. Dried Yeast. Butter. Sugar,



25 to 30


the following table, which gives the materials added of a hospital founded by Bohemond for pilgrims to the sack of flower, 280 lbs. in weight:

from the Holy Land, and celebrated during the

Crusades. Pop. 17,600.
Butter. Sugar. Flavouring. Eggs.
Caraway seeds.

BI'SHOP, the title of the highest order of clergy quarts.

in the Christian Church. The name is in the Captains, 10 15

Saxon, biscop, and is from the Greek episcopos, an Abernethy, 84 174 177


The Athenians used to send officers called Machine, 54 58 14

episcopoi to their subject states. The word was American, 10 40

adopted by the Romans; and Cicero speaks of Jamaica, 83 174 171

himself as an episcopus in Campania ; it was also Coffee, 89 177


applied by them to the officers who inspected the Great care must be taken in the manipulative part the functions of a B. in the primitive church, which

provision-markets. There are two theories as to of the process to incorporate the ingredients in a systematic manner. Thus, the butter is mixed with the may be described as the episcopalian and the

Presbyterian theories. flour in a dry condition, and then the water or milk added; and when eggs are used, they are thoroughly Church of Christ were his apostles ; ‘for the office

According to the former, the first bishops in the beaten up with water, and the sugar (if the latter is whereunto Matthias was chosen is termed (Acts i. required) and the egg-paste added to the dough, 20) episcope—i. e., an episcopal office, which being which has been previously prepared with butter, or without butter. The various kinds of B. in the all; and therefore St. Cyprian, speaking generally

spoken expressly of one, agreeth no less unto them preparation of which yeast is employed, present a of them all, calls them bishops. The form of governmore spongy aspect than the unyeasted biscuits.

ment at first established by the apostles was, that Occasionally a little sesquicarbonate of ammonia (volatile salt) is added, to assist in raising the dough, of ecclesiastical persons appointed for that purpose

the laity or people should be subject to a college and make a lighter biscuit. There are three principal varieties of the yeast or fermented B., and the in every city. These, in their writings, they term following table gives the ingredients used in their St. Paul to the elders at Ephesus says: "Take heed

sometimes presbyters,' sometimes 'bishops.' Thus manufacture from a sack of flour, or 280 lbs. :

to the flock over which the Holy Ghost hath made

you overseers’mi, e., bishops. This explains the galls.

Presbyterian view of the office. But as the apostles Oliver, 107 41

could not themselves be present in all churches, Reading, 41 to 5

and as in a short time strifes and contentions Cheltenham, 104

arose, they appointed, after the order began at Soft or spiced B. are prepared from flour, with the rest, who had his authority established a long

Jerusalem, some one president or governor over much sugar, a great many eggs, some butter, and a time before that settled difference of name took small quantity of spices and essences. The eggs tend to give a nice yellow cream-colour to the B., which place whereby such alone were called bishops; and is occasionally imitated by the admixture of a chro- therefore, in the book of Revelations, we find that mate of lead ( chrome yellow); but this is dangerous, in the 2d c., says: We are able to number up

they are entitled angels.' St. Irenæus, martyr Several of the soft or spiced B. are referred to in the them who by the apostles were made bishops. In following table, a suck, or 280 lbs., being the amount Rome, he tells us, they appointed Linus ; and in of flour employed in each instance;

Smyrna, Polycarp. St. Ignatius witnesses that they made Evodius B. of Antioch.

St. Jerome says: Eggs. Sugar. Butter.

' All bishops are the apostles' successors;' and

St. Cyprian terms bishops 'propositos qui apostolis

Orange flower, vicaria ordinatione succedunt' (presidents who sucTunbridge

Water currants, ceed to the apostles by vicarious ordination). Hooker Cakes,

Citrons and Cara- says, in his usual judicious manner: ‘Such as deny ways.

apostles to have any successors at all in the office

Volatile salt, of their apostleship, may hold that opinion without Shrewsbury.

Cinnamon, contradiction to this of ours, if they will explain

Nutmeg or Mace. themselves in declaring what truly and properly Ginger Wafers, 600 112


apostleship is. In some things, every presbyter, in Victoria, 750 70

Essence of lemon. some things only bishops, in some things neither the

one nor the other are the apostles' successors.' And The extent to which B. are now consumed may he adds, what fairly states the Episcopal theory on be learned from the fact, that several of the largest this subject: "The apostles have now their true biscuit-manufactories each prepare and throw into successors, if not in the largeness, surely in the kind market every week from 30,000 to 50,000 lbs. weight of that episcopal function whereby they had power of B. of various kinds. One of the largest and most to sit as spiritual ordinary judges, both over laity complete biscuit-manufactories in England is that of and over clergy, where churches Christian were Carr at Carlisle, whose biscuits, sold in tin boxes, established. We find, also, that throughout those are well known. Another bakery of this kind is cities where the apostles did plant Christianity, that of Harrison of Liverpool.

history has noted a succession of pastors in the BISE'GLIÉ, a fortified town of Naples, in the seat of one, not of many; and the first province of Bari. It is built on a promontory in every rank we find to have been, if not some the Adriatic, about 21 miles west-north-west of Bari, apostle, yet some apostle's disciple. By Epiphanthe district around being studded with handsome ius, the bishops of Jerusalem are reckoned down villas and country-houses, and famous for its pro- from St. James to his own time; and Tertullian, duction of currants, which are considered equal to writing in the 2d c., has the following: •Let those of the Ionian Islands. The vine and olive are them shew the beginnings of their churches, also cultivated in the neighbourhood. B. has a let them recite their bishops, one by one, each cathedral, numerous churches, two monasteries, a in such sort succeeding other that the first B. of hospital, and ecclesiastical college, &c., with the ruins them have had for his author and predecessor some




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apostle, or at least some apostolical person who early as the end of the 2d century. While ancient persevered with the apostles; for so apostolical "Rome sought her secular dominion more in the south churches are wont to bring forth the evidence of and cast, modern ecclesiastical Rome turned herself their estates.' The judgment of the church of chiefly to the nations of the west and north; and England as to the primitive existence of bishops round the B. of Rome has grown a power—the is to be found in the preface to the ordination Roman Catholic Church-not less important than service drawn up in the reign of Edward V., where that of imperial Rome. it is said: “It is evident unto all men diligently In the Roman Catholic Church the episcopal office reading the Holy Scriptures and ancient authors, is the foundation of the whole system. Christ's that from the apostles' time there have been these apostles are held to have transferred their funcorders of ministers in Christ's church-bishops, tions to the episcopacy as a body. Every B., priests, and deacons.'

therefore, exercises within his own diocese, first, According to the other or Presbyterian theory of the jus magisterii--i. e., the right of maintaining bishops, the origin and general history of the institu- and propagating tne orthodox faith; and second, tion are thus sketched. In the earliest churches, no the jus ordinis, or regulating of the sacred and traces of a hierarchy, it is affirmed, are to be found. mysterious rights of the priestly office, some of which The superintendents or directors appointed over the are transferred to the inferior clergy, as jura comfirst churches by the apostles, or chosen by the mem- munia, while others remain the privileges of the bers of the congregations, were unquestionably styled bishop (jura propria). Among episcopal prerogaindifferently presbyters or bishops--the former title tires, in addition to those already pientioned as being borrowed from the Jewish synagogue, the assigned to them in the 3d and 4th c., are anointsuperintendent or director of which was called the ing of kings, consecration of abbots, preparation of Elder (Gr. presbyter); the latter (episcopos) being the chrisma, &c. They have also the management familiar to the heathen converts as the title of a of the church property in their respective dioceses, civil office corresponding in function to that of a and the oversight of all ecclesiastical institutions. Christian Pastor. But this original equality did Election of the office of B. rests generally with the not last long. As new churches multiplied, those presbyters of the diocese assembled in chapter, with formed round the original church, though each the sanction of the secular power and of the pope. having its own bishop or presbyter, remained in This is the case in Prussia. Where the sovereign is a confederacy; and in the meetings of the pastors to Catholic, the appointment is mostly made by him, regulate the common affairs, one must of necessity but subject to papal approbation. At consecration, preside, most likely determined by age, superior which requires the presence of three bishops, the new piety, or other qualification. From this simple cir- B. takes an oath to the sovereign and to the pope, cumstance, as is indicated by Clemens Alexandrinus and signs the articles of belief, on which he receives in the beginning of the 3d C., sprang the habit of the episcopal insignia—the mitre (q.v.); crosier (q.v.), looking upon one of the bishops as superior to the or staff; a gold ring, emblematic of his marriage to others; and this superiority, at first personal and the church; the cross upon the breast; the dalmatica accidental, soon came naturally to be regarded as (q. v.), tunic, pallium (q. v.), and peculiar gloves and attached to the B. of a particular congregation. chaussure; and being enthroned, as fornal installa- . In this case the word B. came to signify an over- tion into office, he then pronounces the blessing on seer of pastors rather than an overseer of people. the assembled people. In the discharge of his office, The monarchical form of state government favoured the B. has a nuniber of subordinate assistarts ; this tendency, and converted the president of a sometimes, in case of age or weakness, a coadjutor, presbytery into the privileged superintendent of his but ordinarily deans, archdeacons, &c. (q. v.). brother-pastors. The assumption was resisted by In the Greek church, the office of B. is essentially the presbyters at first, but from the middle of the the same, though less influential. Greek bishops, 5th C., Episcopacy, or the domination of bishops, however, are always chosen from the monkish continued to gain the upper hand over Presby- orders, and generally from the archimandrites--i. e., teria nism, or equality of all pastors.

abbots or priors. In the 3d c., bishops appear still dependent on the

As Protestantism met with its chief resistance advice of their presbyters, and the consent of the from the bishops, and, besides, laid the chief stress people, and shared with the former the office of on doctrine rather than on church order, the episcoteaching and the cure of souls. As yet their exclu- pal order in most of the reformed churches, either sive privileges or functions were limited to confirma- disappeared or sank_into comparative insignificance. tion, ordination of ministers, consecration of sacred of the continental Protestant churches, episcopacy things, settlement of secular differences among has kept the foremost hold in Sweden and Norway, Christians, and management of the revenues of the The Scandinavian bishops acceded to the reformation church. But the tendency to subordination and in 1531 only on compulsion from Gustavus Vasa, unity did not rest here. Among the bishops, at who confirmed them in their revenues and prerogafirst all equal, those of the larger and more import- tives. The B. of Upsala is primate, and has the ant cities began gradually to acquire a superiority prerogative of crowning the king, consecrating the over those of inferior cities. When Christianity was other bishops, &c. The bishops are named by the made the religion of the Roman empire, the bishops king out of three proposed by the chapters. They became more and more monarchical, and put them- preside in consistories, hold synods, visit the churches, selves on the footing of ecclesiastical princes. The examine and ordain ministers, cousecrate churches, chief cities of the larger civil provinces rose to be seats and watch over purity of doctrine and the property of extensive dioceses, the bishops of these assum- of the church. They have seats in parliament, and ing the distinctive titles of patriach, metropolitan, wear the pallium, mitre, crosier, and cross. There papa-- -titles of courtesy that had long been applied are only six bishops in Sweden and Norway, with an to all bishops; while the less important provinces, additional B. of the order of the Seraphim. with their capitals and bishops, became subordinate. In Denmark the Catholic bishops opposed the Among these provincial bishops, again, three, from reformation, and were (1536) deposed by Christian obvious causes, acquired a prominence that cast all III., and their extensive possessions confiscated. the rest into the back-ground-namely, Alexandria, The king appointed in their stead a general superConstantinople, and Rome. The beginnings of the intendent and 9 Protestant bishops, with a fixed ascendency of the Roman B. are discernible as I stipend. They are under the secular Government,


and have very limited authority over the clergy , him. The mode of election, confirmation, and con. under their charge. The first in rank is the B. of secration is the same in the case of bishops and Seeland.

archbishops, for each archbishop is also B., and has In Protestant Germany, the episcopal dignity and his own diocese. The B. is elected by the chapter rights passed into the hands of the secular sovereigns, of his own Cathedral church by virtue of licence from who, down to quite recent times, assumed the title the crown. The laity used to take part in the elecof supreme bishops, and exercised the prerogatives tion, but from the tumults that arose, the different of such. When the sovereign, as in Saxony, was of sovereigns of Europe took the appointment, in some a different confession from the majority of his sub- degree, into their own hands, by l'eserving to themjects, the episcopal authority was delegated to a selves the right of confirming these elections, and of minister. The bishoprics, however, were gradually granting investiture to the temporalities which now sccularised, and with the nominal or titular bishops began to be annexed to these diguities. This right of Osnabrück and Lubeck (1803) the old episcopal was acknowledged in the Emperor Charlemagne by dignities became almost extinct on the Protestant soil Pope Hadrian I., 773 A. D., and the Council of of Germany. The Lutheran Church, however, never Lateran. The right of appointing to bishoprics is formally abolished the office of B., and Melanchthon said to have been in the crown of England even in endeavoured to get it expressly recognised. In Saxon times. But when, by length of time, the Prussia, accordingly, the title of B. has had a fluc- custom of electing by the clergy only was fully tuating fate. The bishops in office at the time established, the popes began to object to the usual having acceded to the reformation in 1525, were method of granting these investitures, which was continued; but in 1554 the revenues were confis- per annulum et baculum-i. e., by the prince delivercated, and the duties assigned to superintendents. ing to the prelate a ring and pastoral staff or crosier. In 1587 this last remnant of the episcopal office also in the 11th c., Pope Gregory VII. published a bull disappeared; till Frederick I. conferred the title of of excommunication against all princes who should B. on two of his court-preachers on occasion of his dare to confer investitures. There were long and coronation. At their death it again ceased, and was eager contests occasioned by this papal claim, but not revived until at the peace-festival in 1816 Frede- at lerigth the matter was compromised, the Emperor rick-William III. raised two clergymen to the dignity Henry V. agreeing to confer investiture for the of bishops. One of them, the B. of Königsberg, future, per sceptrum; and the kings of France and received in 1829 the title of Evangelical Archbishop. England consented to receive only the homage for Several have since received the title of B., along the temporalities, instead of investing them by the with that of perintendent-general, entitling them ring and crosier, the pope keeping in his hands the to the first place in the consistories, a certain civil power of confirmation and consecration. This conrank, insignia, and salary. Of the other German cession was obtained from Henry I.; but King John, states, only Nassau has followed the example of in order to obtain the pope's protection against his Prussia, by naming (1818) a B. for the united evan- barons, gave up, by a charter to all monasteries and gelical churches of the duchy. Elsewhere, the cathedrals, the free right of electing their prelates. episcopal authority, mostly in very limited form, is This grant was confirmed in Magna Charta, and exercised by consistories, ministries of worship, was again confirmed by statute 25 Edward III. superintendents-general, inspectors, &c.

But by statute 25 Henry VIII., the ancient right of In the Church of Scotland, and other Presbyterian nomination was in effect restored to the crown. The churches on the Geneva niodel, the episcopal office sovereign, on the vacancy being notified, sends to is not recognised. Roman Catholic Scotland was the dean and chapter a letter missive, or congé divided into eleven dioceses or bishoprics.

d'élire, containing the name of the person to be In none of the Protestant countries have the pre- elected; and if they do not elect in the manner rogatives and revenues of bishops remained so little appointed by the act, or if the archbishop or B. impaired as in England, where the reformation was appointed for the purpose refuse to confirm, invest, taken into his own hands by the king, and being and consecrate the B. elect, the recusants incur propagated from above downwards, was effected in the penalty of a præmunire (q. v.). A bishop is not a very conservative spirit. Episcopacy was abolished consecrated more than once, and he cannot be about the time of the Commonwealth, but at the deposed, as it is supposed that the order itself cannot restoration the bishops were restored, and have absolutely be taken from him; he may, however, since retained their position in church and state. be deprived, as was done to the B. of Clogher in

The practice and history of the Church of England 1822 ; he may also resign his see; and he may be in the matter of bishops may be given somewhat removed from one see to another, which is called more in detail. The B. is the head of the clergy in translation ; but this practice is now less frequent his diocese; he ordains them, whereby he calls them than it used to be. The Dean and Chapter of Caninto existence as ecclesiastical persons; he institutes terbury claim it as an ancient right of that church, them to benefices, and licences them to cures, and to that every B. of the province is to be consecrated in preach; visits them, and superintends their morals; it, or the archbishop to receive from them a licence and enforces discipline, for which purpose he has to consecrate elsewhere; and it is said that a long several courts under him, and can suspend or deprive succession of licences to that purpose are regularly them for due cause.

entered in the registry of that church. When Over the laity he exercises a general pastoral elected and confirmed, a B. may exercise all spiritual authority, but they are more particularly brought jurisdiction, but he is not completely B. until conunder his notice at the time of their confirmation. secration. Bishops, upon their election, become The style, title, and privileges of the B. are inferior peers of the realm, and are summoned to the parliato those of the archbishop (q. v.). He is said to be ment as well as the other nobles; but the right installed in his bishopric; he writes himself, By under which they sit there, whether in respect of Divine Permission; and has the title of Lord, and their baronies, or by usage and custom, is a matter Right Rev. Father in God; and he may retain six of uncertainty. It appears, however, that the chaplains. A bishop must be at least 30 years of bishops sat in the Wittenagemote, under the Saxon age; the reason for which is, that Christ began his monarchs, as spiritual persons; for they were not ministry at that age. For many centuries after the barons until William the Conqueror turned their Christian era, the B. received all the profits of his possessions into baronies, and subjected them to the diocese, and paid salaries to such as officiated under | tenure of knights' service. The bishops created by




Hurry VIII.--viz., Bristol, Gloucester, Chester,

Gloucester, Chester, | Africa, six ; in Asia, six ; in Australia, twelve ; and Oxford, and Peterborough, as also the lately created. in Europe, one-that of Gibraltar. There is also a bishops of Ripon and Manchester-sit in parliament, B. of the United Church of England and Ireland at though they do not hold their lands by baronial Jerusalem. There are seven bishops of the Epi.

The bishops withdraw from the House | copal Church in Scotland (q. v.)- viz., of Edinburgh; (under protest, however) when any capital charge is Argyle and the Isles; Brechin, Glasgow, and Galloto be decided. The bishops sit in parliament next way ; Mora y and Ross ; St Andrews and Aberdeen. to the Archbishop of York; first, London ; second In the United States, there are thirty-nine bishops Durham ; third, Winchester; and then the rest of the Protestant Episcopal Church. according to their ancienties. In respect of their There are fourteen Roman Catholic bishops in persons, bishops are not peers with the nobility; England, four in Scotland, and four Roman Catholic and in cases of alleged crimes, they are tried by a | archbishops in Ireland. The assumption of territojury in the same manner as commoners, as was the rial titles by Roman Catholic bishops in England case with Cranmer and Fisher. When a see is and Scotland is illegal, but they are, nevertheless, vacant, the archbishop of the province is guardian commonly ascribed to them by members of that of the spiritualities ; but he cannot as such conse- communion. See Hooker's Ecclesiastical Polity, crate or ordain or present to vacant benefices. The Burn's Ecclesiastical Law, Cripps's Laws of the sovereign has custody of the lay-revenues during a Church, and Blackstone. See also ARCHBISHOP.

Queen Elizabeth kept the see of Ely BI'SHOP, Boy. See Boy BISHOP. vacant nineteen years. All the bishops of a province, with respect to their wine (claret, Burgundy, &c.) poured warm or cold

BI'SHOP, a favonrite beverage composed of red archbishop, are called his suffragans ; but originally upon ripe bitter oranges, sugared and spiced to taste, this term denoted the bishops who were conse- and drunk either hot or cold. The quality of the B. crated to assist and help the other bishops, and to depends upon the excellence of the wine employed supply their places when absent. They were also

in its preparation. The oranges must be carefully called chorepiscopi, or bishops of the country. The B. of Durham had formerly a palatine juris- pulp must be thrown away. If white wine be used,

selected, and the white part between the peel and diction, as it was called, in the county of Durham; the beverage is called cardinal; and with Tokay and the B. of Ely had a similar secular authority it becomes pope. Taken in moderation, B. is a in certain places; but these powers were trans- wholesome drink; but if partaken of too freely, ferred to the crown in 1836. The houses of bishops the æthereal oil contained in the orange-peel is apt are called their palaces. In old times their palaces to occasion headache. The beverage was known in London were extra-diocesan; and while residing under other names in Germany during the middle there, they exercised jurisdiction in the same manner ages, having been imported into that country from as in their own dioceses. This personal privilege is France and Italy ; its present name seems to have now extinct in the bishops; but Lainbeth House, been bestowed during the 17th c. Croydon, Winchester Place, and Ely House retain the privilege. A bishop makes a triennial visitation

BISHOP, Sir HENRY ROWLEY, an eminent Engof his diocese.

lish composer of music, was born in London in 1781. The conferring of orders rests, in a great measure, cisco Bianchi, an opera composer settled in London. with the . He ordain without giving any reason, but he can ordain In 1806 B. was appointed composer of ballet music no person who does not subscribe to the Queen's at the Opera. His most popular operatic entertainsupremacy, the Book of Common Prayer, and the ments were Guy Mannering; The Slave ; The Miller Thirty-nine Articles. A candidate for orders must and his Men; Maid Marian; Native Land; the be first examined and approved; and the person to Virgin of the Sun; &c.—all remarkable for their whom the right of performing this duty belongs, is long flowing melodies, animated style, and true by the Canon Law the archdeacon of the diocese. musical power. From 1810 to 1824, he was director

One of A B. may give letters dismissory to another B., of the music at Covent Garden Theatre. licencing the latter to ordain a candidate. No

the first directors of the Philharmonic Society, he person under 23 can be ordained deacon, and none for many years conducted the concerts of Ancient

He arranged several volumes of the can be ordained priest under 24 ORDINATION,

National Melodies, and succeeded Sir John StevenIn England, there are 28 bishops, including the son as arranger of the airs selected by Moore for two metropolitans--viz., Canterbury; York ; Lon- his Melodies. In June 1839 he received the degree

of Bachelor of Music from the university of Oxford, don ; Durham ; Winchester ; Bangor ; Rochester ; Exeter ; Peterborough; St David's ; Worcester

and in November 1841, was elected Reid Professor Chichester ; Litchfield ; Ely ; Oxford ; St Asaph

of Music in the university of Edinburgh. In 1842 Manchester; Hereford ; Chester ; Llandaff; Lin- he was knighted. In December 1843 he resigned coln ; Salisbury ; Bath and Wells'; Carlisle ; Glou- his Edinburgh chair, and in February 1848 was cester and Bristol ; Ripon ; Norwich ; Sodor and elected professor of music in the university of Man. Two of these, the B. of Sodor and Man, and Oxford. In his later years he was in very necesthe junior of the rest (provided he be not either of sitous circumstances. He died April 30, 1855. the archbishops, or London, Durham, or Winchester), BI'SHOP'S CASTLE, a town in the south-west of have no seat in parliament.

Shropshire 19 miles south-west of Shrewsbury. It In Ireland, there are twelve, including the two is irregularly built on a hill slope. Pop. 1851, 1961. metropolitans, whose sees stand first-viz., Armagh The bishops of Hereford had formerly a castle here, and Clogher ; Dublin and Kildare ; Meath ; Killa- now destroyed. During the civil wars of the 17th c., loe, Kilfenora, Clonfert and Kilmacduagh ; Tuam, the inhabitants took shelter in the church, which Killala, and Achonry ; Ossory, Ferns, and Leighlin; was demolished over their heads. Cashel, Emly, Waterford, and Lismore ; Down, BI'SHOP'S STO'RTFORD, a town of HertfordConnor, and Dromore; Derry and Raphoe ; Limerick, shire, on the Stort, 10 miles east-north-east of HertArdfert, and Aghadoe; Kilmore, Elphin, and ford.' It chiefly consists of two streets in the form Ardagh ; Cork, Cloyne, and Rose.

It carries on a trade in grain and malt, In British North America, there are nine sees; and has several-tan yards. B. S. was in Saxon times in the West Indies, four; in South America, one; in the property of the bishops of London. Pop. 5280.


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