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over the affections is obtained by address. anticipations which never become via es or writings in a dead language, will sionary. He is acquainted with naeasily conceive how far the most learned tions, not less than with human nature; and able foreigner will fall short of those and his suggestions do not overstep tones of tenderness, which belong to the his information. He is, moreover, enrecollections of infancy, and are implied titled to be heard with some deference, in the very term mother tongue.”—P. 18. The Missionary enterprize is by no utmost disinterestedness.
as he has evidently meditated with the means complete, when a general spi
The two great means of conversion rit and a liberal provision have been
recommended by Mr Douglas are, brought to its support at home, and colonizing and education, with the a few able and devoted agents are Missionary object of preparing the iga operating abroad. There is still need norant and untoward to a reception of of much prudent counsel and policy to the Gospel. meet the natural difficulties of the un
The influence of a colony situated dertaking.-There may be need, too, in the midst of a foreign people, with of experience in the characters and a destination merely political, has many prejudices of different people, that a well-known examples in history. The specific plan of operation may be ac
same policy has, more recently, been commodated to each. In Persia, they employed in the interests of the church, care little about any religion ; while and is now promoting the religion, in the Hindoo suspected of infidelity
some parts, at a rate which is doubled loses his cast. In China, it is danger- every succeeding generation. It might ous to teach a European their lan. be employed, indeed, with as much guage ; while the poor African deifies effect in promoting any other pretenå European blacksmith. It is evi- sion of the inferior people. dent, that one mode of introducing the new religion cannot be equally
“ But there is a method of colonizing," adapted to all these ; but that our says Mr Douglas, “peculiarly applicable measures must be varied with a cer- Polynesia, and consists in forming the ru
to America, Siberia, Southern Africa, and tain flexibility, which, in this as in diments of future cities and future civilizamost other matters, is a necessary tion, by small bodies of artisans and teachmean of efficiency.
ers, established at favourable points for inA considerable part of this little tercourse with the surrounding country. In volume is occupied with a detail of short, it is merely to follow the method by the obstacles which a scheme of con- which civilization has begun and proceeded version must encounter in different in all countries and times ; villages rising divisions of the Heathen world, and into towns, and towns into cities, having with hints of the expedients to be ad- been the origin and medium of all improve. dressed to each. It is not our
purpose to advert to the particular views of the In many parts of the world, no writer on these matters, farther than doubt, this scheme might be imprace , to observe, that they are, in general, ticable. But there is one country to judiciously, and sometimes even fine- which, we agree with Mr Douglas, ly, conceived ; and that from their no- that it is peculiarly adapted. velty and their importance, they have 66 Russian Asia affords the best illustraan especial claim to the attention of tion of what might be done to christianize the Missionary Societies.
an immense region, since the plan would But there are certain general views be carried into effect with the resources of in regard to Missions which have re- the state, as well as the efforts of private ference not to the characters which benevolence, and where all obstacles would distinguish, but to those which assi. immediately be removed by an Emperor milate every different people in one who is at once a politician and a Chriscommon nature. These are exhibited by
tian. Mr Douglas in a manner which evinces
“ The first step is to have Siberia surat once his philanthropy and his philo- veyed by geographical engineers, and the
sites determined which are most promising losophy. Every page, indeed, of his vo- for the erecting
of villages, which in time lume bears evidence of an understand
may become the capitals of as many proing, original in speculation, and sound- vinces ; and then, that a certain number of ly as well as keenly directed to mat- religious mechanics be annually located, ters of practice ; of a zeal which is re- till all the destined settlements are filled. mote from bigotry; and of sanguine Germany and the Moravians will afford the best settlers, the most plous, hardy, and ligion which is intruded upon him, industrious, and least likely to interfere and to maintain his own. It is not a with the established Greek church. There question of opinions, but one which would be no unusual expense to the state addresses his affections; and propoin this measure, since the wisest rulers of Russia have already been in the use of with whom he bears so little in com
ses-Will he unite himself to those establishing German colonies ; the only difference would be, that the religious would mon, or continue aniongst the people, be chosen instead of the needy;
and instead to whom he is attached by the memory of cultivating a patch of ground in the of his forefathers, and the love of his steppe, the moral culture of a vast empire kinsmen ?-His best natural feelings would be the sure and ultimate object. decide for hiin ; and he is as reluctant P. 96.
to abandon the faith in which he has It will be observed, however, that been nursed, as he would be to leave every mode of colonizing is a systema- the land which has been the scene of tic, and therefore a gradual process. his youth and his manhood, and the It promises not the rapidity nor the friends who have been his companions violence of a revolution; but a trans- at every period of his life. formation which is at once more gentle No doubt there are many people exand more complete. It is an experi- isting, in whom these feelings are but ment not so flattering to power, as it feebly felt. But they constitute, it is is agreeable to the sober legislature by couceived, that species of opposition which it is superintended; it operates which the direct attempts of the Misslowly, but according to anticipation; sionaries must experience in every and it may present, at no very distant part of the world. period, the gratifying spectacle of an Nor is this all. When the Heathen innovation accomplished, to which has declared himself a convert, we the subject people is no sooner sub- must suppose him to have been actu, dued than it is naturalized. It was evi- ated by a regard to the intrinsic mea dently no fortuitous miscarriage that rits of the new religion ; he feels a has attended the more direct experi- conviction of its truths, or an affection ments of the Missionaries; but a mis- to its sentiments ; either of which discarriage that had its origin in the in- positions it may be extremely difficult adequacy of the means that were em- to beget in him, as both the sympathy ployed.
and the intelligence may be wanting. When you propose to the Heathen But his impressions in favour of the a religion different from his own, it is new religion must be ardent and ennot with him a mere question betwixt ergetic, ere they prevail with him to two religions. Supposing him to be with cast away the idols of his own superout any prepossession, he is perhaps stition, and to embrace the only true incapable of comprehending the supe- faith. It is not the easy and unimriority of the doctrines offered to him, passioned belief of the native Christhough these were as superior as those tian which possesses him, but someof Christ to those of Buddhu. But the thing of that enthusiasm which apuncultivated Heathen cannot under- peared in the early converts to Chris. stand the religion submitted to him, tianity; and the presence of those by separately from his impressions of those whom his former error is still mainby whom it is professed. He is not tained, serves only to inflame the tone fond of strangers, who, in all their of his new professions. But all this must ways, and in their very countenances, give rise to a degree of passion which shew themselves so different from happens rarely in the course of his exhimself. But when they attempt, by istence, and which it will be found importunity, to subdue him to their that the human breast is generally peculiarities, he is apt to conceive at averse to, when the object is to shake once an aversion to their persons, off the rooted habits of years. The and a prejudice against all their pre- prospect of this unavoidable agitation tensions. He regards their most pious is disagreeable to a certain natural efforts to convert him as encroach- indolence; and it may effectually hinments upon his natural liberties; and der him from avowing himself a proa feeling which must be respected, selyte, long after the assent of his reaeven when it unconsciously repels a son and his affections. proffered good, arises to resist the rea 'Tis true, that in some parts of the VOL. XII.
world, the greater number of converts community of the enlightened with have been drawn over tamely, directed the ignorant people. It is not, howneither by their reason nor their af- ever, in every situation, where even fections, and shewing no enthusiasm a very small colony can conveniently in the religion they embraced. But be established. It is a means of conthese were followers of the body of version which must be employeil with their countrymen, who had been con- some political prudence. The more geverted by some of the gradual means neral, and perhaps the more easy mecontended for by enlightened Mission- thod of spreading the religion, is a aries. They required not the same preparatory system of education. inducements to believe, and they found The effects of a system of education not the same incentives to enthusi- have been exemplified in various parts asm, as those who had been the first of the world. The Jesuits owed their in making their apostasy. They fol- eminent success in Japan to the conlowed their own people, with all the vents which they erected in that prejudices which we have described. country. The Moravians, no less sueBut the people had been gained by cessful in Greenland, began by teachone means, and the individuals by ing the familiar arts. Their example, another.
perhaps, has suggested some of the Christianity,” says Madame de later improvements. In India, no less Stael, “ is slow and gradual in its than three colleges have been erected, progress, like the great operations of in the view of introducing an elementnature.” The same wisdom which so ary education among the Hindoos, long delayed its revelation, has meant who have been found to be neither that it should be delayed still longer, unwilling nor inapt to receive instructo certain parts of the earth. There tion, when it makes no interference is a season at which it may be engraft- with their religion. Mr Douglas, howed on every uninformed people, and ever, points out considerable defects in there may be a flagrant prematurity each of these colleges, and observes, in every attempt to engraft it sooner. that it would require the union of all But there are means of hastening the three, to form a complete institution. propitious moment: and one of these It is not to be anticipated, however, is colonizing
that the best mode of spreading the A colony, in the midst of a barba religion, shall act with the rapidity and rous people, does not unlearn the ci- power of miracles. Perhaps an idea vilization which it brought from home. of the divinity of the religion, has, This is kept up amongst its own by an illusion, given encouragement members, ever and anon refreshed by to the very inadequate means of excommunications from the mother tending it; as if there were some sucountry; and it is not incuriously ob- pernatural virtue in the cause, which served by the simple natives of the would second the feeblest efforts of spot. An intercourse begins in neces- its supporters. But it is signified by sity and convenience, and is soon con- Mr Douglas, that the religion is now tinued from sympathy. In acquiring fairly committed to itself, and must be the arts and manners, they cannot but advanced by the natural instruments have caught the sentiments of the su- and opportunities which it finds in its perior people. Then is the time to way. A system of education seems press their acknowledgment of the re- to approach the nearest to miracles. ligion. The loss of their own self- It is more immediate in its effect than conceit has unsettled their prejudices; colonizing, and more effectual than they admire the familiar science of the the spreading of translations - which, strangers, and they cannot but respect for obvious reasons, ought always to their science of Theology; the inter- have a subordinate part in the Miscourse which is now betwixt them, sionary scheme. and of which they feel the need, will Education, like colonizing, has g become more intimate by a common gradual operation. The Heathen soon religion ; and the spirit of that reli- discovers betwixt his religion and the gion, already reflected upon their science he has acquired, an inconsistminds, has disposed them to receive its ency which must be fatal to either: doctrines.
most probably it becomes fatal to tbat In this quiet and effectual manner which is false. is the religion extended, by the inter- Every missionary station, continues
Mr Douglas, should have a model cacy of all Missionary attempts, but as school attached to it. A single esta- to the political expediency of making blishment of this sort in the midst of any such attempts, in circumstances à population of two millions, might which do not singularly facilitate them. seem incapable of making any consi- On these points we do not venture inderable impression. But it is quite to any discussion. There may be reaanother thing, when the few natives sons of much weight to oppose the that issue from it become the teachers Missionary enterprize, as there unof their own countrymen, and transla- doubtedly are, to urge and encourage tors into their own language. It is it. But it seems pretty evident, that added, that five hundred of these mo- parties, in this matter, are at least as del schools might supply the whole much influenced by feeling, as by the Heathen world with teachers.
principles which they profess. There Besides the colleges in India, Mr are, indeed, few schemes in politics, Douglas recommends the erection of so calculated, at first sight, to beget three other colleges in different parts either favour or aversion. -one in the United States, for Central One class of men finds a charm to their Africa-another at Cape Town, for imaginations in the idea of a Mission. the Caffré-and a third in New South It is a message, of which the purport Wales, for the islands of the Southern seems to them above all estimation; Ocean,– situations very suitable to and they are pleased, as well as elevathat particular division of the Heathen ted, in beingthe instruments of its comworld, which is prescribed by Mr munication. The change which it may Douglas.
induce on the condition of so many * The last and crowning mean of suc
multitudes, and the very extent of the cess, is to combine into one system all the
enterprize, are in some sort gratifyvarious efforts and various instruments for ing. And when they seem to them. the diffusion of truth, so that every move
selves as performing a sort of rescue ment of advance may support and be sup- of their fellow-men, they lend their ported by all the rest ; and that each party,
hearts to their exertions. But the acfar from embarrassing another, by taking tive Missionaries feel the highest sense up part of the ground which it ought to oc- of their vocation, and have raised by cupy, may form, each and all, mutual
this a friendly feeling for their cause, points of support, resting on one common
in spite of the defects which have been centre along the whole line of operation.”
too apparent in the greater number * England, English America, Germany,
that have borne this character. The and Switzerland, and Russia, form the short list of those countries from which
Missionary sets out to labour in a work any external effort can reasonably be ex
which Christ himself began. He conpected, and are at present nearly in the
nects himself with the progress of a same scale of efficiency as they are here set religion which is, one day, to be unidown.-England has triple the resources versal, and which is to endure to the of all the rest put together; but America, end of the earth. His personal existence in a century, will, undoubtedly, have most is merged in the great scheme which he at its disposal, in allotting to each the is furthering; or he sees it in that ground which it should occupy.” “England scheme reflected, magnified, and subeing far in advance of all the rest, in the
blimed. His common sensibilities are multiplicity of its moral resources, and in the facility and intelligence with which it
in a great measure lost in his abstraccan concentrate and impel them upon any
tion ; exile, privations, and labour, given points, however distant, is naturally
cannot still be unpainful to him, destined to take the lead in every work of but they are the very elements of the beneficence, and to become the centre of glory which bis sombre imagination design and action. It is therefore requi. affects. The life of Him, whose name site, that there be English agents and su- he is proclaiming, seems thus to have perintendants in all these countries, to give been hallowed by all that overcast it. a unity to their siinultaneous movements; Nor is it a greater mystery that his but more than superintendance is not re- mind is pleased in contemplating his quired.”—P. 36.
own illustrious lot, dashed by such But when shall we look for this accidents, than that his eye is pleased last and crowning mean, executed by with the interchange of light and shaEnglish agents and superintendants? dow. Public opinion must continue to be Such is not the character which the divided, not only respecting the effi- ' most devoted Missionary shall at all times evince in the real conflict of his sible, that an individual can contribute undertaking; but such is the character amite to the Missionary Societies, withof his imagination. Many may still out omitting the duties which more deem it an affection too feeble to intimately concern him? Or is the withstand experience: while, at the Missionary more negligent of his civil same time, it has the power to concili- and natural ties, when he chooses the ate their interest in the Missionaries theatre of his life and action in a fo themselves; and, by an easy conse- reign land, than the soldier, or the quence, it wins their partiality to the merchant, who does the same? In the Missionary scheme.
general case, the active Missionary is Others are, by temperament, indis- not undutiful: and the friends of posed to zeal of every description, and Missions find no incompatibility be. cannot but regard it, as in all matters, twixt all that they are bound to do at a mere indiscretion. They remark, in home, and the little that they are rethe very aspect of enthusiasm, some- quired to do abroad. There is the less thing which offends them; nay, to need to caution them against the error some of these, it seems as if “ all ar- of concerning themselves too much in dour came from Hell.” There is at those who are situated at a distance ; all times a discord in the tone of ex- as the affections of all men are, by citement which is apt to confirm the nature, in more danger of being too indifferent in their indifference, or to much narrowed, than of being too convert it into opposition. Thus the much widened. The most enlightened Missionary enterprize must, like every people of the earth should recognise other, have its opponents. But it pos- the brotherly relation on which they sesses, undoubtedly, some peculiari- stand to every other tribe of mankind; ties which are calculated to aggravate and a people whose command is so exthe hostility against it; and ainongst tensive by land and sea, cannot be these is the Missionary character it- supposed to want the means of maself. This it is which chiefly revolts king its humanity effectual, beyond them ; nor can it be said that that cha- the bounds of its own nation. racter recommends itself in every re- “ Between Christians, and those who spect to minds of sound and proper feel- are called Philosophers, a great and iming. “ The vain world is passing away passable gulph seems fixed : While the like the wind of the desert,”-cannot be first are interested in nothing but what agreeably proclaimed on every occasion, concerns the next world, the second nei. to the most religious. It is more de- ther care for, nor believe in, any thing cently reserved for moments set apart but the • world of to-day,' as the Mahoto such impressions, or brought about metans speak. It is rather singular, how. by the accidents of life. Otherwise,
ever, that those who are looking to the futhere takes place an incongruity be.
ture and the invisible, are the men of actwixt the situation and the sentiment the present, have never advanced one step
tion, and that those whose only world is which may sanction either ridicule or beyond professions of philanthropy, nor disgust. The ignorance and mean- made the least effort to introduce the imness that unfit the great number for provements of philosophy into the greatest their commission, are apt moreover to and uncivilized portion of the world. Still beget, along with an objection to the it is to be regretted, that Christians will individuals, a more unreasonable ob- not shew them what Christian benevolence jection to the measure in which they can do for the comforts and embellishments are employed.
even of this transitory life ; and thus there But though there are many striking might be some common feeling between reasons to be dissatisfied with the mode the two parties, who might gain much by of conducting the Missionary opera- stead of filling their journals with the ex
mutual intercourse. The Missionaries, intions, the reasons have yet to be periences of particular converts, which pointed out, which should persuade us have often more connexion with the state to abandon them.
of the body than the soul, might be gainWhen the result is so insignificant, ing experience themselves of the climate as for the most part it has been, this and the country, the modes of thinking, may afford an apology for indifference; and the prevalent superstitious notions of but it ought not to dictate that opic of the people by whom they are surroundnion which considers the whole mea
ed.” - P. 112. sure as of no obligation, and incon- The above passage may be considersistent with the practice of more im- ed as a sample of the style of these portant duties. Is it a thing impos. Hints.