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because “ the main things are pro- ceived, unless we wilfully shut out
fitable for all," that therefore no eyes against the truth, all we have
farther instruction is needful? In to do is with humility and an
what part of Scripture bas Mr. honest heart to submit to whatever
O'C. discovered, that he, who has God is pleased to command.” p. 33.
imbibed a portion of the wisdom Thus then it is plain, that the
which is from above, acquires opinions, sanctioned by the Society
thereby a disrelish for receiving for promoting Christian Know-
farther instruction from his ap- ledge, not only go the length of
pointed teachers ? That a slender contravening the character of dif-
proficiency in religious knowledge ficulty in many parts of Scripture
is calculated to make us turn a not purely historical, but are ex-
deaf ear to those deeper mysteries plicit to show, that error in these
of the Gospel, or those practical cases can only arise from “wil-
lessons of holiness and obedience, fully shutting our eyes against the
which it is the duty of the clergy truth.” Is it possible that Mr.
to enforce, and of the flocks com- O'C. should deserve such reproof?
mitted to their charge to receive. If he does, and I see no means
Surely, good sense and truth are of eluding its direct and palpable
all on the side of those who'admit, application to him,--who is bold
with Archbishop Leighton, that enough to confide in such a
“the Scriptures are a depth that leader ?
few can wade far into, and none It would be easy to multiply
can wade through; but yet all may quotations from other divines of
come to the brook, and refresh established authority, if that were
themselves with drinking of the necessary. I shall, however, con-
streams of its living water, and tent myself with extracting two
go in a little way, according to passages; one from the justly ce-
ibeir strength and stature.” Vol. i. lebrated Charge of Bishop Horsley,

delivered to the clergy of his dioBut let us now turn to the view, cess in 1790; the other from a which is taken of the difficulties of sermon of that judicious and learned Scripture by the Society for pro- prelate. “We bave (says the Bishmoting Christian Knowledge, and op) experimental proof, that there see how far it accords with Mr.

is nothing in the great mystery of O'Ci's doctrine. In the tract be- godliness, which the vulgar, more fore cited, are to be found the than the learned, want capacity to following passages : “ The Scrip- apprehend: since upon the first tures must be read with submission, preaching of the Gospel, the illi, and obedience of faith. Since it terate, the scorn of pharisaical is God who speaks in them, we pride, who knew not the law, and have nothing to do but to be well were therefore deemed accursed, assured that we rightly understand were the first to understand and their meaning, which is never diffi- embrace the Christian doctrine. cult in things necessary to salva- Nor will this seem strange, if it be tion.” p

(p. 31.) Again; “ When we considered that religion and science read the coinmands and precepts, are very different things, and the which God has given us in his word object of different faculties. Science to be the rule of our actions, it is is the object of natural reason ; reour duty to believe that obedience ligious truth of faith.(pp. 13, 14.) and conformity to them is abso. This opinion of Bishop Horsley has lutely and indispensably necessary. a two-fold application to the subAnd as the sense of Scripture is ject before us : it completely rebuts never obscure in this respect, and (as far as weight, and authority, it is impossible we should be de- and talent can do it) the principle,

P. 338.

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upon which Mr. O'C. has raised so ing, he will become learned in imposing a fabric; and it furnishes every thing relating to his relia ready answer to all such obser- gion, in such degree, that he will vations as the following : It would not be liable to be misled, either be bighly desirable (says Mr. O'C.) by the refined arguments or by the that the peasantry of Ireland un- false assertions of those who enderstood and respected the laws of deavour to ingraft their own opintheir country more than they do ion upon the oracles of God. He at present; yet no society has yetmay safely be ignorant of all phistarted up, with the avowed object losophy, except what is to be of dispersing among them cheap learned from the sacred books; editions of Blackstone, or Coke upon which indeed contain the bigbest Littleton, without note or comment. philosophy adapted to the lowest A competent knowledge of natural apprehensions. He may safely philosophy, astronomny, metaphy. remain ignorant of all history, sics, and political economy, could except so much of the history of not fail to bumanize their minds, the first ages of the Jewish, and of lessen their taste for nocturnal de. the Christian Church as is to be predations, and quench their thirst gathered from the canonical books for blood; yet no sagacious re- of the Old and New Testament. former has yet come forward with Let him study these in the manner a proposal for circulating among I recommend, and let bim never them Newton, Laplace, Locke, cease to pray for the illumination Smith, or Stewart, without note of that Spirit by which these books or comment. Why? Because “ were dictated ; and the whole comligion and science are very differ- pass of abstruse philosophy and ent things and the object of differ. recondite history shall furnish no ent faculties. Science is the object argument with which the perverse of natural reason; religious truth will of man shall be able to shake of faith.” Well may we apply to this learned Christian's faith. The Mr. O'C. the words of our Saviour Bible thus studied will indeed to Nicodemus : “ Art thou a master prove to be what we Protestants of Israel, and knowest not these esteem it, a certain and sufficient

rule of faith and practice, a helmet But let us again attend to the of salvation, which alone may writings of the same prelate. “ It quench the fiery darts of the is incredible (says he) to any one, wicked.”—Nine Sermons, &c. pp. who has not in some degree made 226, 7, 8. the experiment, what a proficiency “We are not told, that the ig. may be made in that knowledge, norant man receiveth not the things which maketh wise unto salvation, of the Spirit of God, wbile the by studying the Scriptures in this literate man does receive them: manner, (i. e. by comparing parallel but we are told, that the natural passages,) without any other com- man, whether ignorant or literate, mentary or exposition than what receiveth them not; and the reason the different parts of the sacred assigned is, that they are foolishvolume mutually furnish for each ness unto him, neither can be know other. I will not scruple to assert, them, because they are spiritually that the most illiterate Christian, discerned.” These extracts require if he can but read his English no comment ; they are plain, and Bible, and will take the pains to go directly to the point at issue, read it in this manner, will not and may, I think, be safely left to only attain all

that practical work their own way against the knowledge which is necessary to sopbistries of Mr. O'C., heightened his salvation, but, by God's bless- and embellished as they are with

things ?

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various entertaining episodes of new publications, observes : " Two
Puritans, and Methodists, and excellent pieces, there are from an
Gospel Preachers ; episodes, made unknown hand, The Whole Duty
up of a strange admixture of truth of Man, and the Gentleman's
and misrepresentation, unworthy Calling."
of the cause which he has under- A more knotty question arises
taken to advocate, and discredit- in the inquiry respecting the au-
able to the temper and spirit of thor of this work ; and Junius
a Christian minister.

himself has scarcely called forth I am, Sir, &c. more improbable conjectures than

this writer. The concealment, so successfully studied, appears to be

alluded to, in the frontispiece to To the Editor of the Christian Observer.

the older editions, which represents The attestation respecting the Moses veiled holding the tables of author of The Whole Duty of Man, the Law in his bands: this motto together with my accompanying being subscribed, —" And till query, (inserted in Christian Ob- Moses had done speaking to them, server, Vol. XV. p. 435.,) not hav- he put a veil on his face.From ing produced any other notice from this some have concluded, (I think your correspondents than the la- incorrectly,) that Bishop Fell bimconic observations of R. W. D. (Vol. self was not made acquainted with XV. p. 643.) allow me to claim a the name, till the last work of the place in your columns for a slight author had been produced. attempt to solve my own problem. The ingenious method by whichi It is with some reluctance that I Bishop Fell would lead us to the occupy your valuable pages with a author is not, it must be confessed, discussion purely bibliographical ; very agreeable in its process, or but the subject being at present satisfactory in its result. « Let imperfectly noticed in your work, the pious reader live a whole age I shall, as briefly as possible, com- of great austerities, and maintain municate the information which I an undisturbed serenity in the have derived, and the ideas which midst of them, and he will himself have suggested themselves to my become a lively picture of our aumind, by looking more closely into thor." the question.

Neither this work, nor the other It is not difficult to ascertain the pieces confessedly produced by the period in which The Whole Duty same band, afford us any positive of Man appeared before the pub. data by which we can ascertain the lic, although your correspondent name of the writer. At the same expresses some doubt even on that time, there are some circumstances point. R. W. D. mentions the edi- sufficiently marked to exclude cerlion of 1677, as the earliest which tain pretensions ; and others which, be bas seen. I have seen an edition though more ambiguous, may serve of eighteen years earlier date, which as tolerable tests of the degree of is undoubtedly the first. Ballard probability which attaches to the states, that the work appeared in contested claims of authorship. 1657; but it is clear that he was I. The most d-cisive of these is, misled by the date of Dr. Ham- the period of the auíbor's death. mond's prefatory letter written in In the preface to the folio edition that year. It was published at the of the whole works, (Oxford, 1684,) beginning of the year 1659; for which has been ascribed without Dr. Hammond, in a letter to Mr. controversy to the pen of Bishop Peter Stajnenough, dated March Fell, the author is stated to be 16, 1659, among other notices of dead. Consequently, we may safely Christ. OBSERV. No. 183.




discard the pretensions of any schoolfellow, who makes a similar person who was alive after that assertion without bringing forward year.

any thing in the shape of evidence. II.

“ The Decay of Christian In short, to this eminent scholat Piety," a work by the same writer, we may apply test 1. which exwas first published 1667; and from cludes him, since be did not die its contents it plainly appears that till 1688. the author was alive in the year

2. That laborious antiquarian preceding We are thus neces- and philologist, Mr. Francis Peck, sarily limited in our researches to informs us, that he “ once thought some author whose death occurred The Whole Duty of Man had been in the period 1666_1684.

written by Dr. W. Chapel, Lord The two preceding remarks Bishop of Cork and Ross." This contain 'restrictions to ihe field of prelate having died in 1649, is exour speculations, as positive as the cluded by remark II. nature of the case admits: the fol- 3. Dr. Frewen, Archbishop of towing are less definite.

York, has no better title, since he IN. In the preface to " The died in 1664. Decay of Christian Piety," the 4. Dr. Richard Sterne, Archauthor speaks of the plague and bishop of York, is asserted to be fire in London (1666) as scenes of the author by bis biographer, Mr. desolation of which he himself was Drake. a witness.

5. Mr. Abraham Woodhead, of IV lo “ The Lively Oracles,” University College, Oxford, was (Section vii. paragraph 2,) he men- confidently reported as having writtions having travelled in popish ten the work in question. Wood countries during the troublesome may well express his surprise at times of Charles I. and having been such a notion, for Mr. A. W. lived in France.

and died a zealous Roman CathoThese general tests may be found lic. (See Athene O.conienses, under convenient chiefly in excluding Woodhead.) the claims of many pretended au- 6. The name of Mr. Basket was thors of the Duty of Man. In the mentioned, in my former communifollowing concise (but I believe cation, as the reputed author, from comprehensive) list of the writers, à MS. note in an early edition bewbose claims to this celebrated longing to the library of Queen's work have been advanced, it is in- College, Cambridge.' I have since tended to refer only to the two traced this opinion, and the auformer observations.

thority from which it was derived, 1. Mr. William Fulman, the to che learned author of Desiderata learned secretary of Dr. Hammond, Curiosa. “ Dr. R. Clavering,” saye has often been mentioned as the Mr. Peck, "now (1738) Lord Biauthor. I cannot find that the shop of Burgh St. Peter's, was claim which has been asserted for some time ago pleased to inforta him rests on any probable argu- me, that The Whole Duty of Man ments. Your correspondent R.W.D. was written by one Mr. Basket, a advocates his name ; but without clergy man of Worcestershire."* 'assigning any reason whatever to 7. Mr. Peck also mentions an sustain bis opinion. He quotes, idea wbich he bad once entertained, indeed, Dr. Oldfield,* Fulmau's that it was written by the famous

Obediah Walker, master of Uni* R. W. D. refers to " Oldfield's Di. vipe Discourses," p. 74. I am not aware “Mille Testes, by F. de Veteri Campo." that Dr. O published any work under p. 74. marginal note. that title. The intended reference * Nineteen Letters of Dr. Hammond, is, I presume, to a work of his entitled ' by Francis Peck, p. 53.

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versity College, Oxford. Mr. W., the name;" but it could not, by however, did not die till 1699, and any explanation, be reconciled to his claim is consequently excluded the integrity of the Bishop's chaby observation 1.

racter. 8. None of the preceding names 9. I shall now briefly sketch rely upon probable evidence; and the evidence by which Lady Pasome of them, it will be observed, kington's may probably be esta. are decidedly inadmissible. A blished. greater degree of plausibility at- Dorothy Lady Pakington was taches to the opinion that Bishop wife of Sir John Pakington, of Fell (who wrote the general pre- Westwood-house, Worcestershire, face) was himself the author of the and daughter of Thomas Lord Cominor pieces, if nut of The Whole ventry, Lord Keeper of the Great Duty of Man.

Seal of England. She was a lady Sir William Morice heard Bishop of considerable talents, and of such Fell preach a sermon at the King's exemplary conduct that she was Chapel, which so pleased bim that proverbially called

" the good he requested a copy. Some years Lady Pakington.” Her residence afterwards, " The Decay of Chris- afforded an asylum, during the tian Piety” came out, in which he

stormy period of Charles 1., to found the matter of the sermon in Bishop Morley, Bishop Fell, and the same words.

Dr. Hammond, who died there in Prideaux partly confirms the 1660. Dr. H. she considered as conclusion drawn from this state. ber preceptor, her adviser, and her ment. He is said (by his biogra- spiritual guide; and with Bishop pber*) to have declared, that he Fell she long enjoyed a close friendwas attending the press at Oxford, ship, and an uninterrupted correswhen another of the works ascribed pondence: thus she was intimateto the author of The Whole Duty of ly acquainted with two learned Man was reprinting, and that be prelates, the latter of whom, in all saw whole lines blotted out and probability, corrected and improved interpolated in Bishop Fell's hand- her work, while the former introwriting. Prideaux adopted the duced it to the public. She died opinion that the autbor of The in 1679, a date which accords with Whole Duty of Man was unknown; the preliminary observations in this but that the other pieces ascribed paper. to this anonymous writer were com- Thus far the evidence is merely posed partly by Dr. Fell, and consistent with the facts connected partly by Dr. Allestry.

with the publication of this work. So far as this evidence is adduced Some other circumstances must be to prove that Bishop Fell assisted mentioned which bear more immethe author by his corrections, and diately upon the question of her possibly by contributions of de- being the probable author. tached parts, it appears sufficiently (1.) In an anonymous pamphlet, conclusive. But the assertion that published in 1702, entitled, “A the Bishop is the writer of the Letter vindicating the Bill for the smaller pieces ascribed by himself Prevention of the Translation of (in bis preface to the works) to an Bishops,” it is asserted that Archauthor already dead, is to insinuate bishop Dolben, Bishop Fell, and a charge which charity forbids Dr. Allestry, declared, that Lady us to prefer without some more Pakington was the authoress of direct proof. It might answer - the most masculine religious the purpose for which, it has book in the English tongue, (the been imagined, such a step was Bible excepted,) called The Whole adopted, of "better concealing Duty of Man."" I quote this by no

Life of Prideaux, p. 17. means as evidence, but merely to

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