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P is generally sounded as in English. However, it is silent in baptême, baptiser, compte, compter, dompter, exempt, sept. P final is silent: coup, blow; drap, cloth, etc.; except cap, cape, and proper names. It is not carried to the next word,

except in trop and beaucoup.

Qu is pronounced like k: quatre, quel, qui.

R is like the English r in rich, with a little greater force.

rire, to laugh.

rare, scarce.

rougeâtre, reddish.

trouver, to find.

retrouver, to find again.

retourner, to return.

montre, watch.

arbre, tree.

Practice br, cr, dr, fre, gr, pr, tr, pourrai, pourra, pourrons, pourrez, pourront; croîtrai, croîtra, croîtrons, croîtrez, croîtrant; montrerai, montrera, montrerons, montrerez, montreront. R is not sounded at the end of the words ending in ier: premier, first; dernier, last; and at the end of words ending in cher, ger: cocher, coachman; berger, shepherd. etc. R is not sounded at the end of verbs ending in er, unless when followed by a vowel: aimer (aimé), to love; donner (donné), to give, etc. Aimer à chanter, pronounce aiméra chanté, etc. R is sounded at the end of verbs ending in ir, and in monosyllables: finir, choisir, car, cor, pur, voir, cher, fer.

s is pronounced like s in sum when beginning the word, or after a consonant, but like z between two vowels.

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Sc is pronounced as in English: scène, science, conscience, scandale. Sch is pronounced like sh: schisme, schelling. s final is generally silent: pas, step; mais, but; jus, juice; progrès, succès, etc.; but sounded like s in aloès, atlas, blocus, gratis, iris, maïs, moeurs, manners, etc. S, when joined to the initial letter of the next word, is sounded like z on the following vowel or mute h: les amis, lé-zamis: mes enfants, mé-zenfants; trois hommes, troi-zommes.

T is pronounced like t in English: toute, all. T has the sound of s in the combinations tial, tiel, tion: partial, essentiel, nation, providentiel, etc. T has this same pronunciation (8) in ineptie, minutie, prophétie, aristocratie, démocratie, etc. But t has its proper sound in garantie, moitié, amitié, chantier, métier, trade. Th always sounds like t: thé, tea; thèse, thesis.

v, W, have the same pronunciation, v.

X initial is pronounced gz: Xavier, Xénophon. X after an initial e is also pronounced gz: exemple, exil, examiner. X not following an initial e is pronounced ks: Alexandre, maxime, sexe.

Z sounds like a soft s: zèle, zeal; douze, twelve. Z final is generally silent: nez, nose; chez, at; allez, go; venez, come ; sortez, go out, etc.; except gaz, gas; Suez (z), Metz (ss).

UNION OF WORDS-Liaison des Mots.

The final consonant of a word is sounded with the initial vowel of the following word, whenever the two words are so connected with each other that there can be no pause between them.

Vos enfants sont-ils arrivés, pronounce vo-zenfants son-tilzarrivés. S sounds like z; d has the sound of t; g of k; x of z;

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In words ending in rt, rd, carry on r, not t, d: tort ou raison, pronounce to-rou raison. In words ending in ct, carry on c as k, not t: respect à la vieillesse, pronounce respè-ka la vieillesse. The ear, practice, and taste will be the best guides.

N. B. The union of words depends more on euphony than on actual rules.

D. F. M.-2.


FIRST LESSON *— Première Leçon.

The bread, le pain.
The meat, la viande.
The eggs, les œufs, m.
The wine, le vin.
The beer, la bière.

The glasses, les verres, m.



The sugar, le sucre.
The milk, le lait.
The water, l'eau, ƒ.
The knife, le couteau.
The spoon, la cuillère.
The fork, la fourchette.


1. Le, m, used before masculine singular words be-
ginning with a consonant or aspirated h.

2. La, f, used before feminine singular words be-
ginning with a consonant or aspirated h.

3. L', m and f, used before masculine or feminine
singular words beginning with a vowel or mute ħ.
4. Les, m and ƒ, used before masculine or feminine
plural words.

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When a noun is taken in a general sense, it takes the article le, la, l', les, in French.

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Wine, le vin.

Water, l'eau, ƒ,

Beer, la bière.

Eggs, les œufs, m.

The article is repeated before every noun, and before every word used as a noun having a separate meaning. The wine, beer, and water: Le vin, la bière, et l'eau.

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Let us notice immediately that besides the article, the pronoun, the preposition, etc., are repeated in French.

Study and conjugate, affirmatively and interrogatively, the present indicative of the auxiliary avoir, p. 130.

* Before committing to memory the words of every lesson, the student must be sure of the correctness of his pronunciation.


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The affirmative answer to a sentence without negation is oui; but with a negation in familiar style, the affirmative answer is generally si or si fait.

Do you not love your mother? I do love her.

N'aimez-vous pas votre mère ? Si, je l'aime.

Have you the bread?
Yes, sir, I have the bread.
Has he the meat?


Yes, madam, he has the meat.
Has she the eggs?

She has the eggs.

Have you the wine?
Yes, we have the wine.
Have they the beer?

They have the beer and glasses.
Have they the sugar?

They have the sugar and milk. Have you the knife?

I have the knife, fork, and spoon.


Avez-vous le pain ?

Oui, monsieur, j'ai le pain.
A-t-il la viande ?

Oui, madame, il a la viande.
A-t-elle les œufs ?

Elle a les œufs.

Avez-vous le vin ?

Oui, nous avons le vin.

Ont-ils la bière ?

Ils ont la bière et les verres.
Ont-elles le sucre ?

Elles ont le sucre et le lait.
Avez-vous le couteau ?

J'ai le couteau, la fourchette, et la cuillère.

Have you the glasses? Yes, I have the glasses. - Has he the bread? He has the bread and the wine. Has she the sugar? She has the sugar and water. Have you the beer? I have the beer? - Have you the knife and the fork? We have the knife, spoon, fork, and meat. Have they the milk? They

have the milk and the sugar. - Have they (f.) the eggs? Yes, they have the eggs and the bread. — Has he the meat? He has the meat, bread, and wine. Have you the water? I have the water, the sugar, and bread. - Who (qui) has the milk? We have the milk. - Have you also (aussi) the water? Yes, we have the milk and the water.

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Review present indicative of avoir in the four forms. Page 130.

A, an,




1. Un, m. s., used before masculine singular words.

2. Une, f. s., used before feminine singular words.

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Place ne before the verb, and pas or que after the


I have not a decanter,
I have not a dish,

I have only a bottle,

I have but one plate,

Je n'ai pas une carafe.

Je n'ai pas un plat,

Je n'ai qu'une bouteille.

J'ai seulement une bouteille. Je n'ai qu'une assiette.

* Most monosyllabic words ending with e mute reject this letter before a vowel or silent h.

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