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Art. VI. Medical Reports of the Efies of Polacco, principally

with regard to its diuretic quality in the Cure of Dropties and Dye suries, &c. By Thomas Fowler, M. D. Physician to the General

Infirmary of the County of Stafford. 8vo. 25. Johnson. EVERY medical man deserves well of the public, who

from practice and experience, adds to the store of medical knowledge any new substance the properties of which have not been properly ascertained, and which may procure relief in some obstinate cafes, which too frequently resist the powers of every ordinary medicine. This is the case with the author of this pamphlet, who from experiment and fact, has made us acquainted with the medicinal effects of to, bacco.

After a preface, stating the inefficacy and uncertainty of every known diuretic, Doctor Fowler, in his first chapter, relates the effects of tobacco in dropfical complaints, illustrated by a number of cases in which he adminiitered it with various success. These cases, seem to be detailed with accuracy and fairness; and the result is, that out of thirty-one trials, four cases of general anafarca, two of confirmed ascites, and twelve of dropsical swellings in the legs, in all eighteen, have been cured; a confirmed analarca in a fcrophulous habit, and confirmed ascites of twenty years standing. In a woman of seventy-two years of age, and eight cases of dropsical legs, in all ten, have been relieved ; and a confirmed anafarca, an ascites, and another complicated with anafarca, in all three, have not experienced any relief from this medicine.

The second chapter treats of the effects of tobacco in cases of dysury. The result is, that of eighteen cases of dysury, ten haye been cured, seven relieved, and one was not relieved, by an infusion of tobacco given in drops internally.

The third chapter gives observations on the use of clyfters of tobacco in the treatment of the cholịc; from which I shall take a short extract in the author's own words.

• I believe an ounce of the infusion will be found a mediun doze in a clyfter for an adult of an ordinary constitution; but I have not yet

had a sufficient nuinber of these cases, to enable me to ascertain this point with so much accuracy as I could wish. The general rule, however, which I have laid down for myself, is this. Suppofing 4 common clyster to have been administered without effect, I would order one of an ounce of the infusion, (agreeable to the preceding obfervation) in half a pint of milk, or common gruel, to be imme. diately injected. If this procured no relieving stool, or excited no giddiness, or naufea, continuing for the space of thirty, forty, or lixty minutes, (these laft effets, in obstinate constipations, most fre.


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quently preceding its laxative operation) then I would gradually increase the strength of the future injections, till one or other of thele effects should take place.'

The fourth chapter contains the several formulæ according to which the medicines mentioned in the forgoing cases have been prescribed. Of these I shall select only the preparation of the infusion of tobacco, because tļļat is the chief formula with which the trials have been made. This infusion is made by pouring a pint of boiling water upon one ounce of the dried leaves of Virginia tobacco; macerate the liquor in a close stopped vessel, placed in balnes mariæ, for an hour, after which fourteen ounces of this infufion are to be expressed, and when the liquor is ftrained off, two ounces of rectified fpirit of wine are to be added, in order the better to preserve it.

The fifth and last chapter contains general observations on the effects of tobacco, and practical rules and cautions for the internal adıniniftration of the infusion.

The Doctor began with administering fifteen drops in the morning, twenty-two in the afternoon, and thirty going to bed-He increased the drops till some of his patients took a hundred drops, some one hundred and fifty, and others two hundred twice a day in a cordial julep, or any other vehicle. The doze is to be varied according to the difference of fexes, the strength or weakness of constitution. Upon the whole, to infure the efficacy of the medicine the author advises to increase the dozes, till a vertigo, or nausea be excited, for the space of fifteen, thirty, or forty minutes.

The average doze, according to the author, for an adult, is eighty drops; or from sixty to one hundred twice

We recommend to our medical readers, an attention to this pamphlet; as introducing another valuable medicine into the materia medica. O

a day.

ART. VII. Rhetorical Grammar, or Course of Lessons in Elocution.

By J. Walker. 8vo. 35. boards, Robinson. THIS

HIS performance is chiefly defigned for the use of schools ;

and the express purpose of it is to afford to the young of both sexes an idea of the principles of reading and speaking. Upon this subject, the experience of the author as a teacher has been of great advantage to him; and his lessons are certainly calculated to facilitate in a very considerable degree the advances of young students. As an elementary work, his performance deseryes high praise. But it appears to us, that he


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is not profoundly versant in the science of grammar. It is a science, indeed, in which few even of the learned have been able to obtain any accurate knowledge, and it would not be difficult to point to writers of an extensive literary reputation, who must have written more from the car, than from any skill in the art of grammar,

As a specimen of the abilities of this writer, we shall extract his tenth lesson which he intitles a practical system of rhetorical punctuation.'

• Before we give such directions for pausing, or dividing a sen, tence, as will, in fone measure, enable us to avoid the errors of Coinmon punctuation, it will be neceffary to enquire into the nature of a fentence, and to distinguish it into its different kinds. Sentencés are of two kinds: a period, or compact sentence, and a loose fentence. A period, or compact sentence, is an allemblage of such words, or members, as do not form sense independent of each other; or if they do, the former modify the latter, or invertely. A loose sentence is an assemblage of such words, or members, as do forin fenle, independent of those that follow, and at the same time, are not modified by them: a period, or compact sentence, therefore, is divisible into two kinds; the first, where the former. words and members, depend for seule on the latter, as in the following sentence: As we cannot difcern the fladow moving along the dial-plate, fo the adrances'we make in learning are only ferceived by the distance gone over, Here we find, no sense formed till the last word' is pronounced ; and this sentence, for distinction's faks, we may call a direct period ; the fecond kind of period. or compact sentence, is that, where, though the first part forms sense without the latter, it is nevertheless modified by it; as in the following fentence: There are several arts which all men are in fome measure masters of, without being at the pains of Learning them. Here, if we top at masters of, we find complete sente formed, but not the whole sense ; because what follows modifies or alters the meaning of it: for it is not 'faid fimply, that there are fiveral arts, which all men are in some measure masters of, but with this qualification or change in the sense, without being at the pains of learning them, which reduces the general to a particular neaning :-and this sentence we may call an inverted period. The loose sentence has its first members forming fenfe, without being modified by the latter; as in the following sentence, Persons of good taste expect to be pleased at the same time they are informed; and think that the bef fense always deserve the best language. In which example, we find the tarter member adding something to the toi mer, but not modifying or altering it.

“ This difference of connection between the members of sentences, and consequently the different pauses to be amexed to them, will be better understood by attending to the different influence of the rejuives that and cwhich in the following paffage :

• A man should endeavour to make the sphere of his innocent pleafures as wide as poffible, that he may retire into them with safety, and find in them luch a satisfaction as a wise man would not blush to take. Of this nature are those of the imagination, which do not require such a bent of thought as is necessary to our more serious einployments, nor at the fame time Tuffer the mind to link into that negligence and remiffness, which are apt to accompany our more fential delights.


SPECTATOR, No. 411. • In the first of these sentences, we find the conjunction that modifies or restrains the meaning of the preceding member; for it is not asserted in general, and without limitation, that a man should make the sphere of his innocent pleasures as wide as possible, but that he should do fo for the purpose of retiring into himself: these two meinbers, therefore, are necessarily connected, and might have formed a period, or compact sentence, had they not been followed by the latte member; but as that only adds to the sense of the preceding members, and does not qualify them, the whole assemblage of members, taken together, form but one loose sentence.

* The last member of the last fentence is necessarily connected with what precedes, because it modifies or restrains the meaning of it : for it is not meant, that the pleasures of the imagination do not Tuffer the mind to sink into negligence and remiffness in general, but into that particular negligence and remiffness which is apt to accoma pany our more sensual delights. The first member of this sentence affords an opportunity of explaining this by its opposite : for here it is not meant, that those pleasures of the imagination only are of this innocent nature which do not require such a bent of thought as is necessary to our more serious employments; but that, of this nature are the pleasures of the iinagination in general; and it is by alking the question whether a preceding member affirms any thing in general, or only affirms fomething as limited or qualified by what follows, that we shall discover whether these members are either immcdiately or remotely connected; and, confequently, whether they form a loose or a compact sentence: as the former member, therefore, of the last sentence is not necessarily connected with those that fucceed, the sentence may be pronounced to be a loose sentence.

Sentences thus defined and distinguislied into their several kinds, we shall be better enabled to give such rules for dividing thein by pauses, as will reduce punctuation to some rational and iteady principles. Previous, however, to these rules it will be neceffary to observe, that as the times of the pauses are exceedingly indefinite, the fewer distinctions we make between thein, the less we shall embarTass the reader : I shall beg leave, therefore, to reduce the number of pauses to three, namely, the smaller paufe, answering to the comma ; the greater pause, answering to the semicolon, and colon; and the greatest pause, answering to the period. The ancients know nothing of the femicolon; and if we consider practice, and real utility, I believe it will be found, that the three diftinctions of the ancients answer every useful purpose in writing and reading.'

The practical nature of this performance conftitutes its chief value. For the exhibition of rules which can be followed in education with success is of the last importance. General speculations on grammar have, doubtless, their va




Jue; and may be the result of profound thinking and genius. But while philosophers, are intitled to a full admiration, it is not proper to neglect the humble labours of the teacher We must not despite the road that conducts to excellence. The individual who has an infinite contempt of commas and points, and who attends not to the minutiæ of language, will never speak with propriety, or compose with elegance.

Art. VIII. A Candid and Impartial Sketch of the Life and Goa

vernment of Pope Clement XIV. Containing many interesting Anecdotes during that period of Church History, In a series of Letters from Rome. Dublin printed for the Author. 12mo.

2s.6d. fewed, 1785. THE author of these letters, having given a general view of

the first institution and early government of the society of Jesuits, proceeds to give an account of the life and reign of Clement the Fourteenth by whom it was destroyed. He deduces his descent from his grand-father, a man who earned his living by selling skins. Even through the cloud of prejudice, which evidently involves the account given by the letter writer, of this Pope, we can discern, that John Vincent Ganganelli, was a man of good parts, and endowed particularly with a strong and happy memory. His temper was easy, open, and affable ; and in his younger years, he was not averse to pleasure and amusements. His converfation was agreeably tinctured with wit and humour, and he pofseffed talents for political intrigue and business.

He was particularly ftudious of secrecy in all that he said and did. Pasquin faid, that if Clement had expected to die, he would have taken down the clapper of the great bell of the capital, to prevent its tolling to publish his decease.

• But the mott striking part of Ganganelli's character, was a fin. gular ascendency, which he assumed over persons of all ranks, who approached him, and which he maintained by a surprising affability: Those who were most intimately acquainted with him, confider this as the chief source and spring of his fortune and elevation. Certain it is, that his attability was on many occasions of the utmost 1ervice to him. For as his air of dissimulation was very observable on one hand, and as the impression of his extraordinary afcend. ency was felt on the other, those who conversed with him, would naturally have put themselves upon their guard, if his great affability had not removed all miftruit, and counteracted the effects of both. The state, and the air of importance, which he well knew when to assume, was perfectly irresistible, and made several judici. ous persons fay : " That Friar will become a great man." Other predictions of his future grandeur might appear to be grounded op the same foundation, if they were not too particular, too exact, to be attributed to mere conjecture. The bishop of Forli, seeing fome


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