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Un homme seul, a man alone. Tableau unique, a picture, the only one of its kind, incomparable.
Un vilain homme, a disagree- Un homme vilain, a mean man. able man.
He opened the presses with false keys.—As an actor ind-3 armoire f. de
tiptoe to represent the great
marcher ind-2 le bout des pieds pour
Agamemnon, they cried out to him that he was making him a
tall man, and not a great man.-Bonaparte had a loud
tone of voice. He has (got on)a new-fashioned coat.-A lady,
seeing Chapelain and Patru, said that the first was an author ind-2 auteur
without genius, and the second a poor author.
† See 4th Example, page 34.
§ III. GOVERNMENT OF ADJECTIVES.
One of the difficulties of the French language is to know what preposition must be used after an adjective, as the French prepositions are not always in this instance correlative to the English prepositions.
Adjectives which govern the preposition À.
And in general all adjectives denoting inclination, habit, aptness, fitness. And, when followed by a verb, it is most commonly put in the present of the infinitive.
Your intentions are conformable to my wishes. He is slow désir m.
to punish, and prompt in rewarding.—Are you ready to go out? récompenser
-He is fit for (anything).-He is deaf to
Sicily is subject to great earthquakes. That man is useful Sicile f. ‡m. tremblement de terre and dear to his family.-That is easy to say.-It is ridiculous famille f. Cela facile
to put oneself in a passion against objects which are insensible de set en colère
of our anger. colère
I objet m.
† Place of Se, page 34.
Rule V., page 189.
enchanté de, delighted with. sûr de,
As likewise adjectives expressing plenty and scarcity, and in general all those which are followed in English by the prepositions of, from, with, or by.
I am very glad to see you in good health.-Voltaire was
bien ind-3 always greedy of praise. The vine is loaded with grapes.— louange pl.
I am pleased with your answer.
Virtuous men are always
réponse f. art. 2vertueux
worthy of esteem.-I am tired with running after him.—A
heart free from cares enjoys the greatest felicity possible.-
soin m. jouir de
He is very grateful for the services
you have rendered him.
fort -Here is a purse full of louis † and napoleons -I am bourse f.
satisfied with my lot.
SOME Adjectives are often followed in French by the preposition envers, and in English by the preposition to;
A gold coin of France, worth about twenty shillings; so called, since Louis XIII., from the name of the kings who coined it.
A gold piece of twenty or forty francs, with the effigy of Napoleon. It is more commonly said of pieces of twenty francs.
such are affable, bon, complaisant, cruel, généreux, indulgent, or any other expressing kindness or unkindness of feeling towards individuals; as,
Il faut être poli ENVERS tout le | We must be civil To everybody. monde.
Adjectives expressing gladness or regret at a thing, such as aise, charmé, enchanté, fâché, contrarié, etc., require the infinitive with DE, or the subjunctive mood; as,
Je suis bien aise D'être de retour | I am very glad that I have returned in time.
à temps. Je suis bien aise que vous soyez I am very glad that you have rede retour. turned.
In the first example, there is only one subject, Je, and the second verb is in the infinitive.
In the second example, there are two subjects, Je and vous; the verb, therefore, is put in the subjunctive mood. IL EST, impersonal, joined to an adjective, requires de before an infinitive. C'EST requires à; as,
Il est horrible DE penser, DE voir.
It is horrid to think, to see.
We must be charitable to the poor. -I do not like people
Il faut who are cruel to animals.-Scipio Africanus was respectful Scipion l'Africain ind-2 respectueux to his mother, liberal to his sisters, good to his servants, just domestique juste and affable to everybody.-He will be delighted to see you.
come. It is agreeable to
live with one's friends.—It is noble to die for one's country. vivre
-This is painful to see and to hear.
§ IV. ADJECTIVES OF NUMBER.
1. Of all the cardinal numbers, un is the only one that takes an e for the feminine: UN homme, UNE femme. 2. Unième, first, is never used but after vingt, trente, quarante, cinquante, soixante, quatre-vingt, cent, and mille. C'est la vingt et UNIÈME fois, it is the twenty-first time.
3. We say second, or deuxième, but we cannot say vingt-second, trente-second, we must say vingt-deuxième, trente-deuxième, quarante-deuxième, etc.
There is this difference between le second, and le deuxième, that this last makes you think on the third, it awakens the idea of a series, whereas le second awakens the idea of order without that of series. We say, therefore, of a work which has only two volumes: Voici le SECOND tome, and not le deuxième; and, of a work which has more than two volumes: Voici le DEUXIÈME tome, or also voici le SECOND tome. (Chapsal, Boniface, etc.)
4. The French say, le onze, le onzième, du onze, du onzième, au onze, au onzième, vers les onze heures, vers les une heure, or sur les une heure, pronouncing the words onze, onzième, and une, as if they were written with an h aspirated.
NOTE.-Dumarsais thinks that if we write and pronounce le onze, it is in order not to confound l'onze with l'once.
Vers les une heure is an elliptical phrase, for, vers les moments qui précèdent ou qui suivent une heure. The article is allowed to remain in the plural, although the substantive is not expressed.
5. When a cardinal number is preceded by the pronoun en, the adjective or participle which follows that number must be preceded by the preposition de; as,
Sur mille habitants, il n'y EN a Of one thousand inhabitants, pas un DE riche. there is not a rich one.
6. Cent and mille are sometimes used for an indefinite, but very large number; as,
Il nous fit cent caresses.
He showed us a hundred
Heureux, heureux mille fois,
marks of kindness.
L'enfant que le Seigneur rend docile à ses lois !(Racine.)
(For several important remarks on Nouns and Adjectives of Number, see pages 27, 28, 29.)