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One of the nine Muses is called Terpsichore.-It was in f. s'appeler Ce ind-3 the thirty-first year after the peace, that war (broke out again). année f. paix f. se rallumer ind-3 -William, surnamed the Conqueror, king of England and Guillaume, surnommé Conquérant

duke of Normandy, was one of the greatest generals of the ind-3

eleventh century.-Of ten thousand combatants, there were siècle m. Sur combattant il y EN eut one thousand killed, and five hundred wounded.—The admiral blessé


showed me a thousand civilities.





Adjectives of dimension, such as haut, high; long, long; large, wide or broad; épais, thick; profond, deep, which come after the word of measure in English, come before it in French, and are followed by the preposition de; as,

Un mur haut DE sept pieds. Une chambre longue DE vingt pieds.

Un mur DE sept pieds DE haut, or DE hauteur.

Another construction, frequently used, is to let the words remain in French as in English, and to put de both before the number and before the word of measure or dimension. In this case, the substantive of dimension is often used instead of the adjective; as,

A wall seven feet high.

A room twenty feet long.

Une chambre DE vingt pieds
DE long, or DE longueur.

A wall seven feet high.
A room twenty feet long.

Ce mur A sept pieds de haut, or de hauteur.

The English manner of expressing dimension is to use the verb to be; but the French, in general, make use of the verb avoir. In this case, de is left out before the number, and the phrase is rendered thus :

That wall Is seven feet high.



The walls of Babylon were two hundred feet high and fifty Babylone avaient +

broad.-The great wall, on the north of China, is about largeur muraille f. à Chine f. a environ twelve hundred miles long.-The highest of the pyramids of pyramide f. Egypt is, at least, five hundred feet high.—The Monument of +


a au moins


London is a round pillar two hundred feet high.-—The Tiber trond pilier m. +

is three hundred feet wide at Rome.-The famous mine of





Potosi, in Peru, is more than fifteen hundred feet deep. dans Pérou m. a de




1. By, after a comparative, is expressed by DE; as,

Il est plus grand DE deux pouces.

He is taller BY two inches.

2. In English, when the adverbs more and less are repeated to express a comparison, they are preceded by the article; as, THE MORE difficult a thing is, THE MORE glorious it is to do it well. But, in French, the article is suppressed; as, PLUS une chose est difficile. PLUS il est glorieux de la bien faire.


1. An adjective in the superlative degree governs the preposition DE; as,

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2. When the substantive precedes the superlative, both take the article before them; but the substantive takes no article, if the superlative goes first; as,


The ablest men.

3. The article placed before plus and moins preceding an adjective, is always invariable, when there is no comparison; as, La lune ne nous éclaire pas autant que le soleil, même quand elle est LE PLUS brillante, The moon does not light us so much as the sun, even when it shines brightest. But the article takes gender and number, when there is a comparison; as, La lune est LA PLUS brillante de toutes les planètes, The moon is the most brilliant of all the planets.

Les gens les plus habiles.
Les plus habiles gens.


She is taller than her sister by the whole head.—The more 2 1tout tête f. one reads La Fontaine, the more one admires him.- Seneca Sénèque


was the richest man in the empire.—The highest mountains ind-2 montagne f.



are the reservoirs (from which) issue the largest rivers. réservoir m. d'où sortir grand fleuve m. Those whom I have always seen most struck with the writings Ceux que frapper de écrit m. of Homer, Virgil, Horace, Cicero, are minds des esprit m.


of the first


t t order.-Although the Chinese boast of being the most ancient Quoique Chinois se vanter



nation, they are far from being the most enlightened.





† See Note to Rule VII., page 191.



Place of Personal Pronouns.

THE Personal Pronouns, whether subjects or objects, are placed before the verb in simple tenses, and before the auxiliary in compound tenses; except, 1st, When the pronouns take a preposition before them in French; 2dly, In interrogative sentences; 3dly, When the verb is in the imperative affirmative (the third persons excepted). Such is the general principle of the position of personal pronouns, which will be fully developed in this chapter.

(See what has already been stated on this subject, page 32.)


I. The personal pronouns, I, thou, he or it, she or it, we, you, they, are expressed in French by je, tu, il, elle, nous, vous, ils m., elles f., when they are the subjects or rominatives of the verb; as,

Je parle, I speak; il chante,

he sings.

Elle danse, she dances;
nous jouons, we play.

II. I, thou, he, they m. are rendered by moi, toi, lui,

eux :

1st, When used in answer to a question; as,

Who has done that ?—I.

Qui a fait cela?-Moi. I

2d, When joined to a noun or pronoun by a conjunction, or when a verb has two or more pronouns as subjects; as,

Mon frère et moi.

Lui et moi.

Vous, lui, et moi, nous irons.

My brotner and I.
He and I.

You, he, and I will go.

3d, When they come after a comparative; as,

Il est plus riche que lui, qu'eux et moi. | He is richer than he, they and I. 4th, When followed by the relatives qui, que, the adjective seul, or a present participle; as,

Moi QUI suis son fils.
Eux QUE j'aimais tant.
Lui SEUL respecte la vertu.
Eux, VOYANT qu'ils avaient


5th, When they mark opposition or distinction, or point out the part taken in an action by different persons; as,

Eux l'ont relevé, et LUI l'a


They raised him up, and he
dressed his wounds.

It is I,
It is he,

6th, When coming after these expressions, It is, it was, it will be, it would be, or similar ones, whether in the affirmative, negative, or interrogative; as,

C'est moi.
C'est lui,

I who am his son.

They whom I loved so much.
He alone respects virtue.
They, seeing that they were in
the wrong.

I come from Dover.


It is thou,
It is they,


C'est toi.

Ce sont eux, m., elles, f.

You like the town, and I the

country. Who read last? -He. I am not so tall campagne f. ind-4 le dernier fem. si grand as your sister, but she is older than I. —They alone have que âgé

seul fought the enemy; they alone deserve to be rewarded. combattre mériter d' récompensé He, perceiving their intentions, gave up his project. s'apercevoir de + abandonner projet m. Your uncles and your brother take charge of the enterprise; se charger they find the money, and he will manage fournir fonds pl. conduire ind-7

Was it he that was singing ?-No, it was I.
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c' ind-2


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the work. travail m.

† Most words ending in ion are alike in both languages. See Observations, page 30; also Remarks on Genders, page 5.

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