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the list and assign the boats to the should embark at the first embarkabrigades. This was agreed upon tion, I could have taken those two by the brigadiers, and they appoint- which were together, and then ed to meet at Mr. Spooner's about Thayer for the second embarkation, sunset, as I think. I told them I but on the same day, the 16th, the would attend if possible; but as General desired me to endeavor to my health was feeble I might not be detain the volunteers five days able to. If I did not I should be sat- longer, and to assure them that he isfied with their doing it without me. hoped and expected to be ready the I called at the time appointed, but next day. And the General told the other brigadiers not having ar. them the reasons, fore mentioned, rived, I left, and thought I would for putting off the atttempt at that call again in the morning, and so time. returned to my quarters. The other It has also been said that I did general officers met and transacted not give the necessary orders for my the business to their own and my boats to repair the place of emsatisfaction. This disappointment barkation on the night of the 19th. about the boats, if on the 16th, was This is as false as the former, one reason for putting off the at- for as each brigadier was by agreetempt the following night; but there ment to take care of his own boats, were other reasons assigned by the I gave the necessary orders; but in General; the deficiency of arms the morning word was brought to and ammunition, and the want of head quarters that some of mine and tow ropes. I must here beg that Gen. Lovel's boatmen refused to go, Maj. Munroe may be inquired of upon which I was going to take my (under oath, if you judge it neces. horse, then eating oats, having been sary) what he knows about the boats, almost ridden down, when Major tools, workmen and materials ; also Kingsbury proposed to do the busiwhether he knows of any sail-boat ness in my behalf. going down the river on the 19th at I am, sir, a greatly injured stran. night, and if any, by whose orders ? ger, but with sentiments of esteem and whether this occasioned our be. your humble servant, ing discovered by the enemy? But

J. PALMER. it is also said that my brigade's not meeting on the 16th agreeably to Gen. Palmer did not long survive the orders of the 15th, prevented the Revolution. The exertions to the attempt on the evening of the which poverty drove him, proved 16th. My brigade consisted of three too much for his advanced age. regiments, Cotton's, Williams's and His property had been poured out Thayer's. The two former met like water during the first years of near the General's quarters agree

the war.

In one of Gen. Palmer's ably to orders; but Thayer having letters he speaks incidentally of hav. leave from the General, did not ing expended, out of his private come in till the morning of the 16th, purse, £5000 sterling for the public. when he came within about two At the time of Preston's massacre miles of the other regiments, but in Boston, two stores, belonging to did not join them, not being able to himself and his son, and richly filled find them, as he said; but they were with English goods, were burnt, and all in readiness for embarkation. the loss putting him into immediate Had it been ordered, it would have embarrassment for money, he was been as ready, I dare aver, as any obliged to mortgage the Germanbrigade then on the ground.

town estate. To relieve his propFor as it had been agreed that erty from this encumbrance, he only two regiments of each brigade went largely into the purchase of

He was

farms and tracts of land in Pomfret, the house of Gov. Bowdoin, (who Conn., hoping to realize from an was one of his most intimate friends advance in value, a handsome re- and a generous subscriber to the turn for his investment. But being works,) to communicate the joyful induced by his principal creditor, intelligence. He returned to Roxwho promised to receive his pay in bury that night after sunset, and incontinental money, he sold his Pom. cautiously sat down by a warm fire. fret lands at a disadvantage for that It was soon perceived that he could trash, which his creditor subsequent neither speak nor move. ly refused to take. We need not struck with palsy. Everything go largely into the details of this that love, or medical skill could do, business; it is sufficient to say that was done, but of no avail. His he was obliged to sacrifice all his mind was clear, and he died in the property, including the beautiful es- confident belief, that he had, in his tate of Germantown, leaving him new business, provided a compefree of debt, but without any thing tence for all he best loved. But in for his family.

this he was mistaken. The dam on His energy of character however, Boston neck is the only memorial soon put him upon vigorous efforts left of the good, ardent and upright to secure a livelihood. He and his old man. One of the subscribers son prosecuted plans of various withdrew his patronage on the death kinds for making salt, and dammed of the father, and, on this account, the eastern side of Boston neck for the son could not carry on the plan. the purpose. His plan was to evap- The pans were removed, to serve orate the sea water in extensive vats some other purpose, in a vessel that slated at the bottom. When the was going to Maine, and this vessel brine would bear an egg, it was to was wrecked. Thus perished the be drawn into pans, set in brick, by last remnant of the family estate. sluices, and then boiled into table salt. But Gen. Palmer died free from

These extensive works were just debt, according to his ardently excompleted to his mind, by the aid pressed desire. of a subscribed loan, when to his joy he discovered that the frost in In closing this sketch, it may inwinter, did better than the sun in terest our readers to know a few summer, to strengthen his brine, as general facts, respecting the descenthe ice formed upon it was perfectly dants of Gen. Palmer. His only fresh. He immediately set men to son, Joseph Pearse Palmer, we have work to chop and remove it, thereby seen acting with him, during the reducing the quantity of water in war, in the capacity-first, of brigthe vats, even faster than by evapo. ade major, and next of quarter masration.

ter general. On the decease of his It was one of our coldest days of father, he went to Vermont with the winter, clear and still, when he dis. late Col. Keith, to examine the fa. covered this fact. Eager to let his cilities for establishing themselves son know of this new source of hope in some branch of the iron business. and confidence, he took a piece of Shortly after he reached Windsor, the ice and walked into Boston. he lost his life by being precipitated “My dear,” said he to his son's from a bridge, then erecting over wife, “I have come to bring you a the Connecticut. He left a numercake," and taking the ice from his ous family. Gen. Palmer had also pocket, he explained to her the vast two daughters. One of them died benefits he expected to derive from unmarried. The other became the this operation of the frost. He could wife of her cousin, Mr. Joseph not be persuaded to stop, even to Cranch, superintendent of West rest, but stepped immediately into Point, but died without children.

ELEMENTS OF POWER IN THE PREACHING OF THE

REV. GEORGE WHITEFIELD.

mon.

It is on record that Geo.Whitefield fifteen persons mad by the first serwas a preacher of uncommon power. The worthy prelate, as I am This record is true. His first ser. informed, wished that the madness mon was an earnest of his subsequent might not be forgotten till the next greatness, and revealed him to his Sunday." audience a preacher of no ordinary His first appearance in London as character. That sermon, before he a preacher is thus described : “On delivered it, he sent to a clergyman entering the pulpit, his juvenile asto show him that he was unfit to pect excited a general sneer of contake upon him the important work of tempt; but he had not spoken long preaching. The clergyman “kept when the sneer gave place to uni. it for a fortnight, and then sent it versal symptoms of wonder and back with a guinea for the loan of pleasure. The sermon stamped his it; telling me he had divided it into character at once, and from that two, and had preached it morning time his popularity in London conand evening to his congregation." tinued to increase."

When he had preached the ser- From this time onward to the day mon, he thus wrote to a friend :- of his death, his preaching always “Glory! glory! glory! be ascribe awakened deep interest, and was ed to an Almighty Triune God. Last usually followed by important reSunday, in the afternoon, I preach. sults.' He studied, and prayed, and ed

my first sermon in the church of lived, to preach ; and when he St. Mary De Crypt, where I was preached, he spoke with authoritybaptized, and also first received the “ in demonstration of the Spirit and sacrament of the Lord's Supper. with power.” Unless he could ex. Curiosity, as you may easily guess, hort in a private or social way, or drew a large congregation together have opportunity to preach “Christ on the occasion. The sight at first and him crucified” to the multitudes, a little awed me; but I was com- he seemed to be out of his element. forted by a heartfelt sense of the When he could stand in the pulpit, divine presence, and soon found the no matter whether that pulpit was unspeakable advantage of having in the stately church with its lofty been accustomed to public speaking spire pointing heavenward, or under when a boy at school, and of ex- the solitary tree, or in the booth, or horting and teaching the prisoners in the open air with nothing but the and poor people at private houses canopy of heaven for a sounding whilst at the university. By these board, he felt that he was in his apmeans I was kept from being daunt propriate place, and engaged in his ed overmuch. As I proceeded, I appropriate calling. Here he uni. perceived the fire kindled, till at formly acquitted himself so as to last, though so young, and amidst a alarm the careless, convince the crowd of those who had known me sinner of his guilt and danger, and in my infant, childish days, I trust I strengthen and comfort the people was enabled to speak with some de- of God. Whether speaking to the gree of Gospel authority. Some polished congregations of London, few mocked, but most, for the pres. or the multitudes at Moorfields, ent, seemed struck ; and I have whether in England or Wales or since heard that a complaint had Scotland, whether in Great Britain been made to the bishop that I drove or America, he always spoke with an unction from the Holy One, and forms in religion was to be given ; was finally styled the prince of the necessity of bringing the great preachers." The testimony of a truths of the Gospel directly into Franklin and a Hume proves his contact with the heart and life was power to reach at least the intellect to be shown ; and some one was of scholars and philosophers; the required by the exigencies of the whitened furrows made by tears on case who should burst the trammels the faces of the colliers show with of prescription, and go out even into what effect he could adapt himself the highways and hedges to preach to the unlettered mind and the un- the Gospel to the poor and perishsophisticated heart. Houses crowd. ing. A man of Whitefield's pecued to suffocation, presenting him liar powers and temperament was with a “sea of upturned faces,” needed, and such an one was raised whenever he arose to address his up. “Every great and effectual dying fellow men; thousands upon movement in human society begins thousands gathering with eagerness in secret and in silence; in the difand haste to the field where it had fusion through the mass of those been announced that Whitefield was who are to be the actors, of those expected to preach ; hardened reb- elements of thought and feeling, els that came to scoff and raise a under the influence of which they mob, tamed and sent back weeping; are to act. As the movement draws hoary age and lisping childhood, towards its full development, it profeeble woman and hardy manhood, duces the leading minds which it entranced for hours under the spell needs; the men who first underof his voice and action ; many hun- stand, and cause others to underdreds dating the commencement of stand, what the movement is to be, new thoughts, new desires, new and under whose guidance the mul. purposes, a new life, in their own titude labor purposely for its accomsouls, from the hour they first heard plishment." him tell the story of the cross and invite them to Him who was crucifi. The powers of intellect with which ed thereon ;-all, all attest his won. nature had endowed Whitefield were

cultivated by various and long.con

tinued study. He was not a man We are to inquire into the secret to depend on native genius or hapof that powerto trace the elementspy impulses, or on what is someof that mighty influence which he times called good luck. Full well exerted over the minds and hearts he knew that the only price of inof his fellow men.

tellectual or moral excellence is In doing this, it may be well to hard study; and that if a man would state at the outset, that his original make his mark upon the world and endowments of mind were of a high accomplish the great end of life, he order, and such as admirably fitted must improve the talents he has him for the brilliant course of life and increase their productiveness which he run. This is clearly shown by judicious and varied cultivation. by the record of his whole life. It Hence, he never was one to decry would seem that the exact state of learning, or to undervalue a course things embraced in the history of his of thorough training for the work times was minutely foreseen, and of the Gospel ministry. He felici. that he was created with the express tated himself in after life that he design of meeting it. A great work could say, “My mother was very was to be accomplished in his day. careful of my education.” By this A signal illustration of the worth. he meant not only that she gave lessness and inefficacy of mere him good instructions, but sedulousVol. III.

4

derful power.

ences.

ly guarded him against evil influ- of desertion and temptation, the star

When he was ten years which I had seen at a distance beold, he says, “I was always fond of fore, began to appear again; the being a clergyman, and used fre. day-star arose in my heart.” This quently to imitate the minister's moral renovation, this introduction reading prayers, &c.” At an early to a new world of thought and feelage he was sent to a grammar ing, had a very marked influence school, and there his proficiency in upon his studies, and gave a pecustudy was quite remarkable.“ Hav- liar cast to his subsequent mental ing a good elocution and memory," training. He now began to study he says, “I was remarked for mak- in earnest, in order to prepare himing speeches before the corporation self for the work of the ministry. at their annual visitation.” Here Notwithstanding the ardor of his he contracted a great fondness for feelings and his desire to be immeplays, and absented himself for diately engaged in doing good to days together from school, that he others, he knew that his studies must might prepare for acting them. not be neglected. His circumstanThis relish for plays followed him ces were favorable, not only to the to the university, and its influence improvement of his intellect, but to was felt in after life in two ways: the correct training and full devel. first, “their dismal effects I have opment of his moral feelings. When felt and groaned under ever since ;" about twenty two years of age he and secondly, this early acting took orders, and began to preach doubtless contributed its share in " that true religion was a union of the formation of his habits of ora- the soul with God, and Christ formtory after he became a preacher of ed within us," - the new birth and the Gospel.

the upsearchable riches of Jesus While preparing for college, he Christ.” Having taken his bacheseems to have been intent on im- lor's degree at Oxford, he commenproving his mind, made “consider. ced in serious earnest the great buable progress in the Latin classics,” siness of his life ; and, as long as " was very diligent in reading and he lived, he continued to cultivate learning the classics, and in study with unwearied assiduity those powing (his) Greek Testament.” Short- ers which enabled him to surpass ly before he had completed his nearly all other men as a persuasive eighteenth year, he entered the uni- and effective preacher of the Gospel. versity of Oxford. During his residence at this seat of learning, he With such original powers of mind became acquainted with the Wes- and such opportunities for their culleys; and as “iron sharpeneth iron,” tivation, Whitefield had acquired a this contact of two powerful though remarkable knowledge of human na. differently constituted minds, must ture. In early life he was made have affected in no unimportant particularly sensible of his own sinmanner the intellectual training of fulness, and hence was prepared, Whitefield. His mental history at when he became a preacher of right'Oxford was very peculiar, and the eousness, to hold up to the view of different states of feeling through his fellow men the human heart in which he passed indeed remarka- all its corruption and moral deformable. At length that great crisis of ity. His own testimony on this moral character seems to have been point follows: “I can remember passed which separated him forever such early stirrings of corruption in from the world, and introduced him my heart, as abundantly convince into the light and freedom of God's me that I was conceived and born own children. “ After a long night in sin ; that in me dwelleth no good

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