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The lady you have married is my cousin. épousée


drink is very good.-I will never forget the favour you have prendre


grâce f.

wrote to you?ai écrite

done me. Have you received the letter I


tea we thé m.

I think he will come.-Titus spent eighty millions in the croire dans


public 1games he once gave to the Roman people. une fois

jeu m.

peuple m.

WHOSE, of WHOM, of WHICH, are generally expressed in French by dont, both in speaking of persons and things; as,

Le ciel, dont le secours est né- | Heaven, whose assistance is necessaire.

L'homme dont il se plaint.

La maison dont vous parlez.


The man of whom he complains.
The house of which you speak.

But, when the relative requires to be separated from its antecedent, instead of dont, we use duquel and de laquelle in speaking of things or animals; as,

La Tamise, dans le lit de laquelle, etc. | The Thames, in the bed of which, etc.

In speaking of persons, it is generally a matter of indifference whether we use de qui, or duquel, de laquelle;


Le prince à la protection DE QUI ou DUQUEL je dois ma fortune.


The prince to whose patronage I owe my fortune.

De qui parlez-vous ?
Duquel vous plaignez-vous?

FROM WHOM is rendered by de qui, and not by dont.

N.B. DONT can only be used when the antecedent is expressed; for, in the beginning of an interrogative phrase, of whom would be rendered by de qui, and of which by duquel, de laquelle; as,

Of whom do you speak?
Of which do you complain?

Note. We have said, page 41, that dont is never used to ask a ques tion, that is you never begin a question with dont; but, in the body of an interrogative phrase, the word is perfectly correct; as, Où est la femme DONT vous parlez? Where is the woman of whom you speak?

WHOSE, used without reference to a noun expressed before, implies the word person understood.

If it can be changed into of whom, it is expressed by de qui; as,

De qui êtes-vous fils ?

Whose son are you? i.e. of whom are you the son?

If WHOSE can be changed into to whom, it is expressed by à qui, as,

A qui est ce chapeau ?


There is the gentleman whose horse has won the +



Whose hat is this? i.e., to whom does this hat belong?



gagner prixde la course He is a man of whom I have a good opinion. The lady of whom C



you are speaking is gone.-Here is the book of which you ind-1 partir Voici

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made me a present. The daughter of Minos gave a thread to ind-4 présent ind-3 fil m. of the labyrinth.Thésée au moyen sortir ind-3 labyrinthem. The people from whom you expect so many services deceive gens attendre tant de tromper

Theseus, (by means) of which he got out

you. Whose daughter is she?-Whose house is that?

When WHOM and WHICH come after any preposition (except of), whom is expressed by qui, and which by lequel, laquelle, lesquels, lesquelles; as,

Le monsieur à QUI j'écris est très riche.

Il y a un Dieu, par QUI tout est

Le cheval sur LEQUEL il est.
La chaise dans LAQUELLE il est.
Le bonheur après LEQUEL j'aspire.

| The gentleman to whom I write is very rich.

There is a God, by whom all things
are governed.

The horse on which he is.
The chaise in which he is.

The happiness after which I aspire.

It follows from the foregoing rule, that qui, preceded by a preposition, is never said of things, but only of persons. So, we can say: La personne à qui j'ai donné ma confiance; but we cannot say: Les sciences à qui je m'applique. We must say: Les sciences auxquelles je m'applique.

Monsieur, not gentilhomme, which, in the French language, means nobleman.


The man, for whom you speak, is gone to Paris.-He is a

friend in whom I put my confidence.-There are two things mettre confiance f. y avoir


to which we must (accustom ourselves) under pain of finding
falloir s'accoutumer
peine inf-1
life insupportable: the injuries of time and the injustices of
injure f.

men.-Regulus, in his expedition against Carthage, had to

combat a prodigious serpent, against which it was necessary to
falloir ind-3 *
employ the whole Roman army.

―――――――――― m.

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§ V. OF INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.-See page 44. 1. Though the pronoun ON is generally followed by a masculine singular; as,

ON n'est pas toujours HEUREUX.

People are not always fortunate.

Yet, when it is quite evident that a female is spoken of, on should be followed by a feminine singular; as,

ON n'est pas toujours JEUNE et A woman cannot be always young
and pretty.

On may likewise be followed by an adjective or substantive plural, when the sense clearly indicates that this pronoun relates to several persons: the verb however remains singular; as,

ON se battit en désespérés. They fought like desperate men.
Ici ON est égaux. (Inscription sur la porte d'un cimetière.)

2. On must be repeated before every verb of which it is the subject or nominative; as,

ON le loue, ON le menace, ON le | They praise, threaten, and caress caresse; mais, quoi que l'on him; but whatever they do, they cannot master him.

fasse, on ne peut en venir à bout.

N.B. When they is used with reference to a plural noun expressed before, it is rendered in French by il or elles, and not by on.

Observe also, that although on frequently represents WE, THEY, PEOPLE, which are all of the plural number, yet on is always followed by a verb in the third person singular.


3. The English have an indefinite manner of expressing themselves, by means of the indefinite pronoun IT, which the French express by ON, at the same time changing the verb from the passive into the active sense; as, ON dit. On pense. On rapporte. It is said. It is thought. It is reported.

4. On is much used in French as the subject of an active verb, when the passive voice is used in English. So, instead of saying as the English: I am deceived;- -I have been told, the French say: On me trompe ;-On m'a dit; as if it were, They deceive me; They have told me.

CHACUN, each, everyone. This pronoun is always singular, but when preceded by a plural, it is sometimes followed by son, sa, ses, and sometimes by leur, leurs.

Chacun takes son, sa, ses, when it is placed after the direct regimen, or when the verb has no regimen of that nature; as,

Ils ont apporté leurs offrandes, | They have brought their offerings, chacun selon ses moyens. everyone according to his means. The two kings have retired, each to his tent.

Les deux rois se sont retirés, chacun

They voted, each in his turn.

dans sa tente.

Ils ont opiné, chacun à son tour.

Chacun takes leur, leurs, when it is placed before the direct regimen; as,

Ils ont apporté, chacun, leurs of- | Each of them has brought his offerfrandes.

Ils ont donné, chacun, leur avis.


Each of them gave his opinion.


When a woman is handsome, she (is not ignorant of it).— Quand on, ne l'ignore pas



We are not slaves, to endure such



pour endurer de si mauvais



that house, they laugh, play, dance, and sing.-It is believed



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that peace (will be made) this year. -We have been much

se fera

année f.


deceived. He is said to have succeeded.-Return those medals, réussi Remettre médaillef.

trompés each to its place.



§ I. AGREEMENT of the VERB with its SUBJECT or


GENERAL RULE.-A verb must agree with its subject in number and person; as,

Nous lisons; vous lisez.
La haine veille, et l'amitié s'endort.

We read; you read.


Hatred is awake, and friendship is

Observation. When a verb has more than one subject,

it is put in the plural; as, Mon frère et lui parlent français.

My brother and he speak French.

And, should the subjects be of different persons, the verb must agree with the first person in preference to the other two, and with the second rather than with the third. In this case, the pronoun nous (not expressed in English) is generally placed before the verb, if one of the subjects is in the first person; and the pronoun vous,† if the second person is used with the third. without a first person; as,

Vous et moi, Nous avons fait notre | You and I have done our duty. devoir. (Acad.)

J'ai appris que vous et votre frère I have heard that you and your VOUS partiez bientôt. brother were soon to set out.




1often attract friends, and poverty keeps them

2Riches richesses pl. away.-Religion watches over 2secret 1crimes; the laws watch

attirer art.


f. veiller


+ Observe, I say, generally, and not always, as most grammarians do; for nous or vous may sometimes be understood, as in this sentence of Fénelon Narbal et moi ADMIRIONS la bonté des dieux. Narbal and I were admiring the goodness of the gods.

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