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sitions relate to the profound ques. that the wrath of man shall praise him, tion of the Divine predestination.

and the remainder of wrath-all that

would go beyond his purposes—' will he "God controls all things, yet without restrain.' In each case, what might have being the author of evil; surely Scripture been thought destruction, proved to be proclaims this, and reason must assent to only correction; it was pruning and not it. Yet man acts from choice without excision; and promoted, not prevented, constraint, and is therefore accountable; the production of good fruit, to the glory both consciousness and Scripture, and the of God, and the benefit of mankind.” pp. common sense of mankind assure us of 118, 119. this. And beyond these two propositions We conclude our extracts with we shall not advance far in our present state. Let us hold them both fast, not

our author's concise, but masterly suffering what we do know to be disturbo comparison of the great leaders of ed by what we do not know.*?"

the Reformation. We have not room to quote; but

« We will conclude this review of Cal. we must refer to two places in history, with a few remarks on him as

vin's character, and this portion of our which our author copes with the compared with some of his great contemgigantic Hooker, and proves that poraries, leaders in the work of Reformamisinformation had cast some pre

tion. Five persons of this description judice into the judgment of that tention, and we have now traced, even to

have more particularly engaged our atcandid and perspicacious divine, their close, the histories of Luther and (p. 366, &c., and p. 450, &c.) He Melancthon, of Zuingle, and Ecolampa. was, however, one of the most zeal- dius, and Calvin. These five persons may ous eulogists of Calvin, much as he perhaps be admitted into one class, which, objected to the Geneva system of concerned, must be exclusively their own:

as far as Germany and Switzerland are discipline.

though among them, whether we regard We are mistaken if our readers the mental powers which they exerted, will not thank us for the following knowledge afirst three,' unto which the

or the effect of their labours, we must acremarks:

others have not attained.' In Calvin we " Each of the three great branches of trace not indeed the chivalrous heroism the Reformation, at an early period, suf of the great Saxon reformer; nor the fered a check, which, to the apprehension sometimes 'too adventurous' elevation of of contemporaries must have threatened

the father of the Swiss reformation; nor, its destruction. Such was the case in certainly, the genius and the tenderness Switzerland by the victories obtained by of Melancthon; nor the meekness of the Roman Catholics over the Reformed wisdom' which peculiarly adorned Eco. (1531): in Germany, by a similar cause, lampadius. But in some other important followed by the suppression of the League qualities he excelled them all. Perhaps of Smalkald, and the introduction of the in learning he was superior to any one of Interim (1547), and in England by the

them: in sound and correct judginent, death of the good king Edward, and the formed upon a comprehensive and dispassuccession of the bigotted and bloody sionate consideration of all the points inMary (1553.) Yet in each case the fears volved in a great question, I should cerof its friends, and the hopes of its enemies, tainly conclude him to have been so. were alike disappointed. In each case

Firm as Luther, without his impetuosity, the church was taught that her help be avoided all the embarrassments which cometh from the Lord,' and that he will arose from the scrupulous anxiety of Me. not forsake his people, but in the time of lancthon. Inferior to none, superior to exigency will appear for their deliverance: most of them in sagacity and penetration,

he was more a man of system and order

in all things, whether relating to doctrine, *" It is truly a golden sentence of Dr.

to discipline, or to his compositions as an Paley's, in his Natural Theology, the wide author, 'than any other of their number. application of which I recommend to all The first among them we may perhaps promy younger readers to study— True for

nounce, in sheer intellect; he fell short of titude of understanding consists in not more than one of them in the powers of suffering what we do know to be disturb- imagination, and of all of them in warmth ed by what we do not know.' It contains

of heart. Hence, while he commands the seed' of answers not only to the

our veneration, he does not equally atgreat mass of infidel objections, but to al

tract our affection.” pp. 491, 492. most every perversion of Christian, if not also of philosophical truth."

Two reflections press on upon

our minds in rising from the study important questions than modern of this truly valuable volume. smattering self-sufficiency ever

The first is the great importance imagines. We rise above the times of genuine ecclesiastical history, in which we happen to be cast, and the history of good and great men: the fashion of the day, and imbibe of their times, their services, their the scriptural, broad, universal, principles; the errors into which permanent, beatifying truths, which they fell, or against which they the saints in all ages have in subcontended ; their holy temper and stance held, and which alone God frame of heart; their tempta- blesses to the awakening, the contions, their struggles with enemies soling, and the saving of mankind. within and without the spiritual Our second reflection was, the church; their blessed and triumph- admirable succession of eminent ant deaths. If it were only from men whom God is pleased to raise the pleasure which interesting nar up for different services in his ratives inspire, and the common church. Calvin was only one; but instruction they convey, the study what a man, take him for all in all! would be delightful. But the de- Abating a little for a severity which velopment of the Divine mercy undoubtedly ran through his chain carrying on the work of salva- racter, and for that overstatement tion--the exposure of the artifices of a particular doctrine to which and snares of Satan—the vindica we have adverted, what a majestic tion of the great and good from the mind did he display; what vigour calumnies of the day in which they of thought, what genuine force of lived—the illustration of the main intellect; what à commanding, commanding doctrines of vital leading spirit of deeply rooted pieChristianity, as the grand means of ty; what self-denial ; what supeblessing mankind-the confirma- riority to petty ends, what wistion of our faith when we see the dom, almost oracular, in his counsame Gospel, and the same doc- sels; what noble, dignified, and trines, and the same efficacy of simple disinterestedness under pograce, and the same objections of verty; what love to the Saviour the wicked, and the same perver and for the souls of

We sions of the unstable prevail, are quite agree with Mr. Scott, that additional sources of benefit. The he was not like Melancthon and vindication of Melancthon in the Ecolampadius, one of those at. last volume of our author, and of tractive loveable characters which Zuingle and Calvin in this, is of seduce an historian to pourtray eminent service to the cause of them in the most favourable light. Scriptural truth. How much is But neither Melancthon nor Ecothere to edify in this study of ec- lampadius, no, nor Luther, could clesiastical annals, thus impartial- have done what Calvin, at the par. ly conducted; how much to quick. ticular moment of his labours, and en, how much to humble, how much in the peculiar sphere in which he to instruct, how much to keep one moved, and, we may add, in the pestable and moderate, and to guard riod at which the Reformation had against the extravagancies into arrived, achieved. Each filled his which so many run on every side. assigned post. From Luther's noWe more than ever value that

ble magnanimity we would detract which has stood the test of ages. nothing ; from Melancthon's learnIn reading the history of such men ed sweetness, and Ecolampaas are presented to us in these vo dius's mild

perseverance, and lumes, we see how much more is Zuingle's heroic boldness, really required for the decision of would detract nothing; rather we



would recognise and admire that mitted it into our pages. But we succession of men of various have also said, that we should“ conpowers and endowments prepared test some of the Observer's asserfor the different scenes of service tions, in regard to the doctrines of to which they were brought. Two Calvin, and that if we were not things were common to them all greatly in error, should show that

a profound reverence for the he is so, in at least one point of no Holy Scriptures soundly interpret. inferior importance.". We proceed ed, and deep personal piety. They to redeem our pledge. had all emerged from the darkness We think that the “reflections and uncertainty of human tradi on particular points in the charactions into the light and authority ter and theology of Calvin," which of the word of God; they had all are contained in the first two patasted of the bitter cup of super- ragraphs of that part of the review stition, idolatry, and torment of which appears in our present numconscience, which the antichris- ber, are not well founded. Nay, it tian harlot had put to their lips, seems to us, that the reviewer, after and had found peace in the arms making his statement in the paraand grace of Jesus Christ, the one graphs referred to, immediately and only Sacrifice for sin, and the adds what invalidates the whole. one and only Mediator between 1. He states explicitly, that the God and man. To them Protest- doctrines of Calvin, which he had antism was the holy Book, and the just been censuring, "upon the Holy Spirit applying it profoundly deep and difficult subject of the to their own hearts. The cause Divine purposes were, upon the they opposed was human error and whole, no peculiarities of his.” opinion, and Papal formality and Again—"Calvin, though he resuperstition. They rested on God duced the truths he held on this and his inspired word and the holi. head to a more regular system, and ness it taught; and they resisted sometimes carried them, as sin and vice, whether under the have remarked, to a faulty exguise of Popery, or in the more treme, yet he invented none; he plausible form of a pretended Pro- has said nothing which St. Augustestantism.

tine had not said eleven hundred May God raise up such men in years before he was born. And our own day; and the Gospel will what is more important, he rather flourish yet again; error and folly softened than aggravated what had will be put to shame; missions and previously been taught by Luther, Bible Societies will be more large- Melancthon, Zuingle, and others, ly diffused; the Christian church in the earlier period of the reforwill be purified from its secular mation.” Again-"On free will, spirit, from torpid orthodoxy and he is far more moderate than Lufanatical excesses; and God our ther and Melancthon in their early Saviour will be known, trusted, writings." loved, and adored, from the rising 2. He was not the cause of di. to the setting sun.

vision among Protestants. How

could he be so? when, says the reThe Reviewer Reviewed. viewer, “ It is remarkable, as Mr. We have in our last number ex. Scott justly observes, that we pass pressed our opinion of the general through more than half of the twenfairness and candour of the fore- ty-eight years of Calvin's minisgoing review. Indeed, if we had try, without ever hearing of the not entertained this opinion of its question of predestination. His character, we should not have ad- sentiments were before the world



on that subject, and he never va not occur in the Bible, he alluded ried respecting it: but no contro- too frequently to the secret will versy arose upon it among Protest- and purposes of God, and spoke of ants" –"As that blessed work (the men in that point of view so as reformation] proceeded, the other sometimes to seem to contradict churches sunk back, and Geneva the general tenor of Scripture, and went somewhat beyond them, with the universal practice of the inout being considered as furnishing spired teachers, and he framed the least ground of variance be- too, boldly a system which tween them. To the last Calvin drawn, as he conceived, from Scripvenerated and loved Melancthon, tural principles, but certainly not and used to call him • The Divine,' found explicitly in the sacred voand it was not till 1552 that he lume.” Now let candour say, if published his work on predestina- this is reconcileable with the foltion."

lowing: “Read," says the review-' 3. He was not the blameable er, “ Read his able and most learnoriginator of those exceptionable ed Commentaries from one end of extremes, which, since his time, the seven folios to the other-you have been denominated Calvin- find the most luminous exposition ism. For what says the review- of the Holy Scriptures--a penetraer on this point ? “On nearly all tion that solves almost all difficulthe additional points which have ties—an honest and good sense been called Calvinism in later that seizes on the main point-a times, he took the opposite side to fairness and impartiality which that which his supposed followers seem to know no system. After occupied.” This statement the three centuries, the Commentaries reviewer afterwards confirms, by of John Calvin remain unrivalled.” a specification of particulars, in We think it must either be mainwhich Calvin differed distinctly tained that Calvin in his Institutes and avowedly, from those who pointedly contradicted his own have since usurped his name, to Commentaries on the Holy Scripsanction their indefensible tenets. tures, or that there is a palpable

4. Calvin did not, in his writings, inconsistency in the two preceding dwell chiefly, or at great length, and contrasted statements of the on the subject of the Divine de- reviewer. But we have no recol

For," says the reviewer, lection of having heard or read, “instead of these deep questions that even the enemies of Calvin filling the volumes of Calvin, there have charged his other works with is little comparatively on the sub- being in conflict or at variance with ject in them. Even in the Insti- bis Commentaries. If there ever tutes, they occupy only about a was an uninspired human mind, twentieth part of the work." Again in which truth, and especially theo-" The doctrine of predestination logical truth, was completely and was not his great subject; it was consistently systematized (whether not that which mainly engaged his the systein was right or wrong, is powers, much less that on which not now the question), that mind he exclusively dwelt."

John Calvin's. We must 4. The reviewer says, in the first think, therefore, that good and canparagraph in our present number, did men-lovers of the great and • He carried his metaphysical de- fundamental truths of revelation, ductions from Scripture beyond and yet not willing to be esteemed the statements of the inspired ora Calvinists-and such the princicles; he employed the word re- pal writers for the Christian Obserprobate in a sense in which it does

ver appear to us to be-will find



that the inconsistency is io them- for which indeed, we should have selves, and not in Calvin, when they suffered all the rest to pass unnotake, as they do, a great part of his ticed. It is contained in the folsystem and applaud it highly, and lowing unqualified assertion. " He yet reject and censure another [Calvin) did not hold the doctrine part; we mean a part on which he of the imputation of Adam's sin placed any considerable stress, and to all his posterity.” It does not regarded as an integral part of clearly appear whether this allegathe whole. We plead, not for tion is derived from the work of Calvin's infallibility, but for his Mr. Scott, or whether the reviewer consistency-his consistency in the makes it on his own authority-we great features of his system. We suppose the former. We regret are not prepared to swear in the that we have not been able to conwords of Calvin, nor in those of sult Mr. Scott himself, not having any uninspired man. We think heard that a single copy of his last him erroneous in some of his opi- volume has reached this country, nions in regard to the Christian The assertion, moreover, it should Sabbath; and we could mention be observed, is introduced as rewhat we consider as miñor errors in lieving. Calvin from some objecother instances. But take his doc- tions that have been made to his trinal system of theology, in its es- system. But we are persuaded sential or important parts, and we Calvin himself, if he could have verily believe that you must take the been consulted, would have said whole, with only an allowance for –non tali auxilio nec defensoslips and oversights, or charge ribus istis. We think we shall yourself, and not Calvin, with be- show abundantly and incontroing inconsistent.

vertibly from his writings, that he But we have not yet touched the did hold and teach “ the doctrine "one point of no inferior impor- of the imputation of Adam's sin to tance," mentioned in our last num all his posterity."

But this our ver, in which we think the Obser- space compels us to delay till the ver altogether in error; and but coming month.

Literary and Philosophical Futelligence, etc.


runs over, except by an extra quantity of

rain. Floyd County, Ky. April 25, 1832. After viewing it for a few minutes, a lightDEAR SIR.-In the prosecution of my ed taper was applied to the ascending gas, Sunday school agency I yesterday reach and instantly the whole surface of the waed this place, in the immediate vicinity of ter was covered with a bluish red flame, which is the celebrated Burning Spring, three feet high, emitting a smell similar to and truly it is a curiosity. On approach that of burning alcohol, and with an ining it I heard its boiling, with a noise si tense heat. Thus it continued to burn milar to that of a fifty gallon kettle over a for one hour while I remained, and I left hot fire. It is situated near the shore of a it on fire. small creek, which winds its way through This blaze, on a dark night, I am ina deep valley between the mountains, and formed, illumes the whole valley and cirnear ihe road side. There is a hole in the cumadjacent hills, and never goes out, exground about three or four feet deep, and cept by the effort of man, or the descend. about the same in diameter, which, after ing shower. a rain, is filled to the top with water that If nothing interferes to extinguish the is kept perpetually and briskly boiling, by flame, it continues to burn until the water the gas which issues from a narrow space

becomes heated, and finally evaporates, between two rocks at the bottom. This when the issuing gas, burning with more water is always kept muddy, but never intense heat, consumes whatever combus. Ch. Adv.-Vol. X.

2 L

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