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Julian Period, 4766.

§ 6. TITUS iii. 1-8.

Vulgar Era, Titus is directed, in Opposition to the Judaizing Christians,


to impress upon the Minds of his Converts the Duty of
Submission to their civil Governors, of whatsoever Nation
or Religion; and from the Consideration of the great
Love and Mercy of Christ towards themselves, Titus is
desired to inculcate the Duty of brotherly Love and
Kindness to all.

1 Put them in mind to be subject to principalities and
powers, to obey magistrates, to be ready to every good

2 To speak evil of no man, to be no brawlers, but gentle, shewing all meekness unto all men.

3 For we ourselves also were sometimes foolish, disobedient, deceived, serving divers lusts and pleasures, living in malice and envy, hateful and hating one another.

4 But after that the kindness and love of God our Saviour toward man appeared,

5 Not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to his mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost;

6 Which he shed on us abundantly through Jesus Christ our Saviour;

7 That being justified by his grace, we should be made heirs according to the hope of eternal life.

8 This is a faithful saying; and these things I will that thou affirm constantly; that they which have believed in God might be careful to maintain good works. These things are good and profitable unto men.

§7. TITUS iii. 9.

St. Paul commands the Teachers of Christianity to avoid
the Discussion of useless Questions and Speculations.

9 But avoid foolish questions, and genealogies, and
contentions, and strivings about the law; for they are un-
profitable and vain.

§ 8.

TITUS iii. 10, 11.

St. Paul directs Titus in what manner he is to proceed
with respect to Heretics.

10 A man that is an heretic, after the first and second
admonition reject;

11 Knowing that he that is such, is subverted, and
sinneth, being condemned of himself.

by its directions. If, however, as we are sometimes told, the cir-
cumstances of mankind are such in the present day, that scrip-
tural precedents are to direct us no longer, we declare one part,
at least, of Scripture to be useless; and that part, too, which
the primitive Church, and after it Christians in all ages have
esteemed most valuable.


Julian Period, 4766.


Julian Pe

§ 9. TITUS iii. 12-14.

Titus is directed to proceed to Nicopolis, on the Arrival of
Artemas and Tychicus; and to provide for Zenas and
Apollos, if they should pass through the Island.

12 When I shall send Artemas unto thee, or Tychi-
cus", be diligent to come unto me to Nicopolis: for I
have determined there to winter.

13 Bring Zenas the lawyer, and Apollos on their journey diligently, that nothing be wanting unto them.

14 And let our's also learn to maintain good works for necessary uses, that they be not unfruitful.

§ 10.

TITUS iii. 15.

St. Paul's Salutations and Conclusion.

15 All that are with me salute thee.

Greet them that

love us in the faith. Grace be with you all. Amen.


St. Paul proceeds to Cenchrea.

ACTS Xviii. part of ver. 18.


18 -And sailed thence into Syria, and with him Pris- Cenchrea. riod, 4767. cilla and Aquila; having shorn his head in Cenchrea: for Vulgar Era, he had a vow 6.


45 See Ephes. vi. 21. Coloss. iv. 7.

46 It is uncertain whether St. Luke here refers to St. Paul or Aquila. Witsius supposes the vow to relate to Aquila, as being more zealous of the Jewish rites and ceremonies than St. Paul, who refused to consider the Mosaic law as any longer binding. Others, however, would rather interpret it of St. Paul; and impute to him the observance of a vow from prudential motives, that the Jews might not consider him as the enemy of the law of Moses. Witsius observes, that it is absurd to suppose the apostle would bind himself by that yoke, which he was so anxious to break away from the neck of others; but that he made certain compliances with the legal ritual, to avoid giving offence to the more ignorant or prejudiced among his countrymen. See Acts xxi. 26. This also was the opinion of Calvin.

Many commentators understand this vow to be that of the Nazarite. To the objection that the Nazarite was compelled to shave his hair at the door of the tabernacle, when the Israelites were in the wilderness, and in the temple when they had taken possession of Canaan, (Numb. vi. 18.) Grotius replies, that these laws, as well as many others respecting sacrifices, were not binding upon the Jews out of Canaan. The testimony of Maimonides is quoted to prove this point. Yet the difficulty in question seemed so great to Salmasius, that he endeavoured to shew the vow could not have been that of the Nazarite; but that either St. Paul or Aquila had made a vow that they would not shave the head till they had arrived at Cenchrea. This, however, is very improbable; it was useless in itself, and not required by existing circumstances.

A very curious interpretation of the passage is given by the learned Petit. He would refer the words, "for he had a vow," not to the previous cutting off of the hair, but to a previous vow which the apostle had before made, which was now the cause of his proceeding to Jerusalem. He supposes that St. Paul, while

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Valgar Era, From Cenchrea to Ephesus-where he disputed with the



ACTS Xviii. 19.

19 And he came to Ephesus, and left them there: but he himself entered into the synagogue, and reasoned with the Jews.



From Ephesus St. Paul proceeds to Cesarea; and having
saluted the Church at Jerusalem, completes his second
Apostolical Journey, by returning to Antioch, in Syria.

ACTS Xviii. 20-22.

20 When they desired him to tarry longer time with Cesarea, them he consented not; Jerusalem, Antioch in

21 But bad them farewell, saying, I must by all means Syria. keep this feast that cometh in Jerusalem: but I will return again unto you, if God will. And he sailed from Ephesus.

22 And when he had landed at Cesarea, and gone up, and saluted the church, he went down to Antioch ".

he resided among the Corinthians, let his hair grow: long hair being much valued among the Greeks. But when he was about to return to Jerusalem, he cut off his hair, and prepared himself for his own country. Among the Greeks he had become a , Greek, and among the Jews he showed himself a Jew, 1 Cor. ix. that he might by all means win them to Christ (a).

The vow, by others, is supposed to have been the same as that mentioned by Josephus. Berenice, he tells us, went to Jerusalem, to perform her vows to God. For it was the custom with those who had laboured under any disease, or had met with difficulties and afflictions, to pass thirty days in prayer before they sacrificed their victims; during which they abstained from wine, women, and shaving the hair. The custom prevailed among the Heathen, of offering the hair to the gods after any great calamity (b).

(a) Witsius Meletem. Leidens. de vit Pauli. chap. vii. sect. 15, &c. (b) See the whole subject discussed in Kuinoel and Witsius.

47 It does not seem necessary to make many observations on the condition of the Christian Church at this period. The very fact of St. Paul's journeying from Church to Church, and province to province, to superintend the converts, implies the only truth which it is at all necessary to prove; that the ministers or elders of the Churches were ordained, and the Churches themselves directed and ruled by a power which was superior to that of the stationary teachers. If the rulers of the Church of Christ had been as auxious and as clamorous for truth, during the last three centuries, as they have been for liberty, liberality, toleration, or any other popular cry, the worshippers of Christ would have been more united against the ancient superstition which preceded, and the unscriptural innovations which followed, the Reformation. Toleration and candour are the second class of Christian blessings. Truth and union are the first. That Church and nation alone are happy, in which they flourish together.

Julian Period, 4768.

Vulgar Æra,



Third Apostolical Journey of St. Paul.


St. Paul again leaves Antioch, to visit the Churches of
Galatia and Phrygia.

ACTS Xviii. 23.

23 AND after he had spent some time there, he departed, and went over all the country of Galatia and Phrygia in order, strengthening all the disciples.


History of Apollos, who was now preaching to the Church
at Ephesus, planted by St. Paul.

ACTS Xviii. 24, to the end.

24 And a certain Jew named Apollos', born at Alexandria, an eloquent man, and mighty in the Scriptures, came to Ephesus.

25 This man was instructed in the way of the Lord; and being fervent in the spirit, he spake and taught diligently the things of the Lord, knowing only the baptism of John.

26 And he began to speak boldly in the synagogue: whom when Aquila and Priscilla had heard, they took him unto them, and expounded unto him the way of God more perfectly.

27 And when he was disposed to pass into Achaia, the brethren wrote, exhorting the disciples to receive him: who, when he was come, helped them much which had believed through grace:

28 For he mightily convinced the Jews, and that publicly, shewing by the scriptures that Jesus was Christ.

1 In one of the early numbers of the Quarterly Review, is a very curious article; in which an attempt is made to prove the identity of the Apollos of the Acts, with Apollonius of Tyanea.

2 The publicity with which the apostles preached the new religion, is justly considered a decisive proof of their conviction of its truth. They uniformly appealed to those audiences who were most capable of examining the evidences of Christianity, and were at the same time prejudiced against its doctrines.

Even after the crucifixion of our Lord, the apostles and believers went to the temple, the most public place, and in the most public manner taught and worked miracles. Jerusalem, the seat of the doctors, the judges of religion, was the first place in which, by the command of their Lord, the disciples preached Christ crucified. They were therefore not afraid to have their cause tried by the most rigid test of Scripture, and in the very spot too where that Scripture was best understood.

When the same apostles carried this Gospel to Heathen countrics, did they go to the villages among the less informed, or

Galatia and


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riod, 4768. St. Paul proceeds from Phrygia to Ephesus, and disputes

Vulgar Æra,


there with the Jews.

ACTS xix. 1-10.

1 And it came to pass, that while Apollos was at Corinth, Paul having passed through the upper coasts, came to Ephesus; and finding certain disciples,

2 He said unto them, Have ye received the Holy Ghost since ye believed? And they said unto him, We have not so much as heard whether there be any Holy Ghost'.

3 And he said unto them, Unto what then were ye baptized? And they said, Unto John's baptism.

4 Then said Paul, John verily baptized with the baptism of repentance, saying unto the people, That they should believe on him which should come after him, that is, on Christ Jesus.

5 When they heard this, they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus.

6 And when Paul had laid his hands upon them, the Holy Ghost came on them; and they spake with tongues, and prophesied.

7 And all the men were about twelve.

8 And he went into the synagogue, and spake boldly for the space of three months, disputing, and persuading the things concerning the kingdom of God.

9 But when divers were hardened, and believed not, but spake evil of that way before the multitude, he departed from them, and separated the disciples, disputing daily in the school of one Tyrannus'.

comparatively ignorant Greeks, in order to form a party, and
protect themselves by thefavour of the multitude? They went
to Cæsarea, to Antioch, to Thessalonica, to Athens, to Co-
rinth, to Ephesus, to the very places where learning flou-
rished most, where sciences were best cultivated; where im-
posture was most likely to be detected, and where the secular
power existed in the most despotic manner, and could at once
have crushed them, if they could have been proved to be impos-
tors, or if they had not been under the immediate protection of
Heaven; for it is evident that these holy men feared no rational
investigation of their doctrines.

They preached Christ crucified, where it was the most so-
lemn interest of the Jews to disprove their doctrine, that they
might exculpate themselves from the murder of Jesus Christ.
They preached the same Christ, and the vanity of idolatry,
where idolatry existed in the plenitude of its power; and
where all its interests required it to make the most desperate
and formidable stand against those innovators. See Dr. Clarke's


* They had not heard of the miraculous descent of the Spirit on the day of Pentecost.


* Lightfoot was of opinion, that the school in which St. Paul


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