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Never amuse yourself in reading bad books.-You can


never spend your time better than in reading and studying passer, v.

the history of your own country.-Learn to speak well;

but, above all, to speak the truth.-That science, which

dire, v.

teaches us to see things as they are, is highly worthy of being cultivated.—A good man always takes pleasure in obliging his friends.-Does your master teach you how to translate English into French ?—Do you begin to translate French well?-Why did you not oblige him to pay you what he owes you?-Why do you not (get ready) to set s'apprêter, v.

out with us?—I love to discourse with polite and sensible s'entretenir, v.

people. gens.


11. For the sake of euphony, the French verbs corresponding to the following, to begin, to continue, to constrain, to engage, to exhort, to compel or force, to endeavour, to oblige, may be followed by de or à, as most agreeable to the ear.

12. To, after the adverbs enough, on purpose, too, too much, or less, is rendered by pour.

13. Whenever in order to can be substituted for the English preposition to, this preposition must be rendered by pour.


I will do (every thing) in my power to please him.—


Good rules are useless, if the attention, industry, and assiduité, f. patience of the scholar be not put into practice to learn



Mrs. B. has too much pride to confess she

(is in the wrong).-To understand geography well, we

avoir tort

must have a clear idea of the globe. I assure you that I

came on purpose to see you.-The wicked live to die, but tout exprès

the righteous die to live. She has vanity enough to believe

all you tell her.—What makes the misfortunes of kings,

(is not to have) friends bold enough to tell them the truth. c'est qu'ils n'ont pas

I wrote to you some time ago, to let you know, that

faire, v.

your brothers were arrived.—He promised me that he would do every thing to deserve the honour of your protection.I sent yesterday my servant to your aunt's, to desire her to send me back again the book I lent her a month ago; but she was not at home.-We did all that we could faire, v. ce que nous púmes not (accomplish it).--Why en venir à bout, v.

to pass the river, but could

did you not punish her for having done what you (forbade) avez défendu her to do?—A man should live a century at least to know

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IN or AT.

Ex expresses a vague and indeterminate sense. Ex.

Ix mas 20:38. Ex tous leur le At all times, in all places, the guinis est agaste : public are unjust.

Duns expresses a precise and determinate sense, and conrers to the mind the idea of within; it means that the object spoken of is contained within another. Ex.

Jût ser est fans sa chambre ;
Ca dere est dans la budukothèque ;

my sister is in her room.

that book is in the library.

The preposition à expresses also a precise sense, and points out the station of the object spoken of. Ex.

58 sont à à promenade ;
Jus eins sind an spectacle ;

they are out walking.
my children are at the theatre.

Ciscrvutims — 1st. It often happens that the mind of I'm who speaks embraces at once the idea attached to ruka srl as to the situation of the object spoken of, and in such cases dans and à may be indifferently * Ex.

I se àms le jardin, or il est an

Là oùemaŭ est dans l'écurie, or à

he is in the garden.

the horse is in the stable.

23. Ex points out the duration, the length of time; as, in an hours in a short time; and answers this question: in whee time? in what length of time? Ex.

1 Ora le voyage en trois jours; he will accomplish the journey in three days.

Dage points out the period at which an event will take place; it answers this question-When? Ex.

li arrivera dans trois jours; he will arrive three days hence.

3d. The three following modes of speaking claim some attention::

Etre en ville; étre dans la ville; étre à la ville.

To say of Mrs. B., who lives in town, elle est en ville, is equivalent to this: elle n'est pas chez elle, she is not at


To say, Mrs. B. est dans la ville, means that she is somewhere within the town.

To say that she is à la ville, implies that she is residing in town.

Etre en campagne; étre à la campagne.

Etre en campagne means (speaking of troops) that they have taken the field.

Etre en campagne means also that we are travelling. Etre à la campagne implies that we live in the country. Ex.

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Most of the conjunctions are adverbs and prepositions, but always attended by de or que. They have been divided. into copulative, comparative, disjunctive, adversative, casual, dubitative, exceptive, conditional, continuative, conclusive, &c. Instead of following this arrangement, it will be of more importance for the scholar to understand, that different conjunctions govern the following verb in different moods. Some govern it in the indicative, and others in the subjunctive.



Ainsi que, comme, as.
Tout ainsi, just as.

Après que, after that, after.

A cause que,

Parce que,


A ce que, according as, or to, by what.
A condition que, on or upon condition that.
A mesure que, in proportion as, as.

Au lieu que, whereas.

Dès le moment que, the moment that.
Aussi long-temps que, as long as.

Aussi loin que, as far as.

Aussitôt que,

D'abord que,

Dès que,

Sitót que,

as soon as.

Attendu que, considering that, seeing that.

Comme, or

En tant que,

De façon que,


De manière que,

De sorte que,

Si bien que,

Tellement que,


in such manner that, so that.

Depuis que, ever since, since.

Puisque, since.

D'où vient que, how comes it to pass that? why?



Mais, but *.


Outre que, beside that.

A peine que, hardly, scarcely,-but, or when.

Pendant que,

Tandis que,


Peut-être que, perhaps.


Quand même, though (govern the conditional).

This conjunction, when beginning a sentence, is always rendered by mais. In the middle of a sentence, when it means only, the word but is always rendered by ne before the verb, and que after it. Ex.

Je n'ai parlé à votre frère que deux I have spoken to your brother but fois ; twice.

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