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4. After a negative sentence followed by the relatives qui, dont, que, à qui.


Il n'y avait personne à qui je pusse confier mon secret; Vous ne rencontrerez pas d'homme qui veuille d'un pareil marché.

there was no one whom I could intrust with my secret.

you will not meet a single man who will accept such a bargain.

5. After the conjunctions mentioned page 313. Ex.

Il ne donne rien quoiqu'il soit


he gives nothing, though he is rich;

6. After verbs expressing fear, doubt, apprehension, desire, command, as has been stated, page 318. Ex.

Nous désespérons qu'il en re- we despair of his ever recovervienne jamais ;


7. After falloir (p. 235), and vouloir, p. 320. Ex.

Il faut que je fasse cela;

I must do that.

Je veux qu'il fasse cela;

I will have him do that.


1,2. These are the best oranges I have ever tasted.—Tell Voici

Mr. Ingalton



to send me the best pens he has in his

shop.-Five shillings is the highest price we have ever paid

for a cricket ball.-Is not that the prettiest letter (that

could be penned) ?—I am the last who spoke to him; he Turn, that one could write?

died two minutes after I left him.-(Do you really expect s'attendre à ce que

that) she will give you the only sovereign she has ?

3. When you write to your brother, tell him how happy


we are that he has obtained the situation he wished.-She

is so vexed (at your going away) without speaking to her,

étre parti


for she had a great many things to tell you.-I am glad

your mother is better; I hope she will be able

pouvoir, fut.

(to join étre de

our party).-Jane was vexed that you did not write sooner, notre partie. avoir écrit for she refused an invitation, in the hope of seeing you in

the evening.

4. There was not one single individual that I knew.(Is there no one) in the house who could tell us whether N'y a-t-il personne

he is expected or no?-There was not one of his pupils who could speak fluently. He could not find one man in

his regiment who would go and deliver the message.

6. I do not think he will consent to do what you pro


pose. She wishes you would write to her





Do you wish me to make a new coat (for you)?—He is vouloir very amiable and very rich, I know; still I doubt her ever accepting him for a husband.—I cannot comprehend that

a man should act as he does.-All I require of you is that agir

you should do exactly what he tells you.-Shall I go and



fetch your gloves, which you have left in my room ?—Shall


I open the window ?-Shall I tell him the way?-My sister likes to be flattered, and to be told she is pretty. that they flatter her, that they tell her

-I fear the journey (will be too much for him), (had you étre au dessus de ses forces,

not better) wait till the weather is more favourable. m ieux



The nature of the five different sorts of verbs (the active, the passive, the neuter, the reflective, and the impersonal), is explained pages 98 and 99. If the classification of verbs was the same in both languages, that is, if an active English verb had for equivalent an active French verb, it would be easy to translate from the one into the other language; but it is far from being the case, and it frequently happens, on the contrary, that a verb which is active in one language has a neuter equivalent in the other, or that, when both are neuter, they govern a different preposition. Ex.

Je doute de sa sincérité ;
Nous écoutons ses avis;

I doubt his sincerity.
we listen to his advice.

To doubt is active in English, douter is neuter in French; to listen is neuter in English, écouter is active in French. Ex.

Nous pensons à nos amis ab


we think of our absent friends.

To think and penser are both neuter, but they require different prepositions.

From this arise difficulties with regard to the pronouns, (personal and relative), for they cannot be rendered literally; they must be in the same case in which the substantive, which they represent, would be. Ex.

C'est un fait singulier: j'en it is a singular fact: I doubt it doute beaucoup; much.

It, rendered literally, would be le, but en is used, because douter governs the genitive case, that is the preposition de. Again,

C'est une chose dont je doute beaucoup, car elle me paraît extraordinaire ;

it is a thing which I doubt much, for it seems extraordinary to me.

Which, rendered literally, is que, but dont is used, because douter governs the genitive case.

Tranquillisez-vous à ce sujet,
nous y penserons ;
C'est une chose à laquelle j'ai
beaucoup pensé, mais sans
pouvoir me décider;


make yourself easy about that, we will think of it.

it is a subject of which I have much thought, but, as yet, I have not been able to decide.

Of it is rendered by y, and of which by à laquelle, because penser governs the dative, in French, that is the preposition à before a noun substantive.

The only way to obviate this difficulty, when translating English into French, is to consider what case the French verb governs. Suppose the following sentence is to be

rendered in French:

You send me numbers of things which I do not want, but you neglect to send me my books, though I have told you I want them.

How are which, them, to be rendered? What is to want in French? Avoir besoin. What preposition does it govern? de. Avoir besoin de livres, to want books: then which must be rendered by dont, and them by en. Thus :

Vous m'envoyez nombre de choses dont je n'ai pas besoin, mais vous négligez de m'envoyer mes livres, bien que je vous aie dit j'en ai besoin.

The following rules may now be given :—

1. With active verbs, use these pronouns : PERSONAL, me, te, le, la, nous, vous, les; RELATIVE, que.

2. With verbs governing the preposition de, use-PERSONAL, de moi, de toi, de lui, d'elle, de nous, de vous, d'eux, d'elles; (of things), en, p. 55; RELATIVE, dont.

3. With verbs governing the preposition à, use-PERSONAL, me, te, lui, nous, vous, leur*: (of things), y, p. 56; RELATIVE, à qui; (things), auquel, à laquelle, auxquels, auxquelles; neuter, à quoi.

* Observation.-Besides me, te, lui, nous, vous, leur, there are also à moi, à toi, à lui, à elle, à nous, à vous, à eux, à elles. These last pronouns are used,

1. With reflective verbs. Ex.

Nous nous adresserons à lui;

we will apply to him.


Independently of the nouns being governed by the preceding verb, and requiring to be put in the proper case, verbs, in the infinitive, frequently also require a preposition. Ex.

Ils employèrent la session à faire de nouveaux règlements; Ils résolurent de prendre la route d'Edimbourg;

they employed the session in
making new regulations.
they resolved to take the road
to Edinburgh.

On this subject no rule can be given. Whenever a verb is in the infinitive, the learner must consult his dictionary, and ascertain what preposition the preceding verb governs. The prepositions have, for this reason, been given throughout all the Exercises.


My mother does not know it yet. We thought it would


be better to conceal it (from her) for some time.—It would étre mieux de cacher


be unkind to doubt his good intentions.-You speak much

douter de

of his generosity, but I am much inclined

porté à

to doubt it; he

gives largely, but with more ostentation than real cha



rity. Has he then at last yielded to those temptations

which he resisted so long?-You know what are his wishes,

résister à

do not resist them.-There was about him a sort of fascicharme


nating power which it was almost impossible to resist.— magique

2. After penser, songer, aller, venir, courir, boire, en avoir. Nous penserons à vous;

we will think of you.


3. After c'EST, in the sense of it is my turn, duty, or part. Ex. Est-ce à lui à faire des difficultés ?

is it for him to raise difficulties?

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