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the horse, the horses.

the canal, the canals.

the animal, the animals.

le cheval, les chevaux.

le canal, les canaux.

l'animal, les animaux, etc.

Except bal, ball; carnaval, carnival; fatal, fatal; etc., which follow the general rule: bals, carnavals, fatals, navals, etc.

5. Words in ail follow the general rule.

a fan, fans.

the detail, the details.

a rail, rails.

un éventail, des éventails.

le détail, les détails.

un rail, des rails, etc.

Except the following, which change ail to aux:

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Some nouns have no singular; as, funérailles, fiançailles, etc. Some are used only in the singular; as, la crainte, la honte, etc.

Adjectives and verbs used substantively are employed only in the singular: as, l'agréable, le comique, le possible, l'avoir, le boire, le manger.

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Study and conjugate, affirmatively and interrogatively, the indicative present of aimer. See page 139.

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N. B.- Before a feminine singular noun, beginning with a vowel or mute h, mon, ton, son are used instead of ma, ta, sa.

My soul, mon âme, instead of ma âme.

His friend, f. son amie, instead of sa amie, etc.

Him, it, le, m.; her, it, la, f.; him, her, it, l', m. and f.; them, les, m. and f. plur.

These personal pronouns, third person, singular and plural, are placed before the verb, except in the imperative affirmative. They stand for the English objective case, or Latin accusative.

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Do you love your father?
I love him very much.
Does he love his mother?
He does love her.

Does she love her parents?
She does love them.

Do you know my sons?


I know your sons and daughters.

Do they like their niece?

Aimez-vous votre père ?
Je l'aime beaucoup.
Aime-t-il sa mère ?
Oui, il l'aime.

Aime-t-elle ses parents?
Oui, elle les aime.

Connaissez-vous mes fils?

Je connais vos fils et vos filles?
Aiment-ils leur nièce ?

They like her very much, she is very Ils l'aiment beaucoup, elle est

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Avez-vous du sucre? N'avez-vous pas de chocolat? Etesvous fàché? Etes-vous paresseux? Est-elle modeste? Fait-il froid aujourd'hui ? Avez-vous chaud? N'avez-vous pas faim? Aimez-vous le lait? Avez-vous soif? Aimez-vous la bière? Comment se porte votre père? Aimez-vous vos parents? Avezvous bien dormi cette nuit? Comment vous portez-vous aujourd'hui? N'avez-vous pas mon canif? Aimez-vous le café? A-t-elle son verre? N'avez-vous pas sommeil ?


My mother is very kind; she loves her children very much. Does she love her niece? She loves her niece and nephew.Do you like your uncle, Paul? I like my uncle and my aunt

very much. Have you a son? I have a son and a daughter. Do you like our children? I like your children very much; they are very good. My daughter loves her brother very much. My son loves his sister and his parents. Do you like coffee? I like coffee, tea, and chocolate. — Your niece loves her father, uncle, aunt, and cousins (f.) very much.- My uncle is very fond of beer. - Do you know your enemies? I know them very well. - Have you any friends? Yes, I have some good Are you hungry? I am not hungry, but I am thirsty. Is it cold? It is not cold to-day.


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Do you like eggs? I like eggs and butter. - Does he like wine? He likes wine and beer. - Does she like meat? Not much. My sister likes chocolate and sugar. We are fond of cheese. My brothers like good wine. My nephews are very well satisfied. My children are very fond of potatoes. Have you not any sugar? I have none. - Do you like milk? Yes, but I like cream better. - Have they no coffee? Yes, they have some. Have you any good knives? I have no good ones. Your brothers are very industrious. They are industrious and kind. - My mother loves her uncle and aunt. — Are they old? They are very old. - Have you not a niece? No, but I have nephews. My sister loves her young child; it is a beautiful child. - I am very well satisfied with my wine. -- Do you like our old friends? I like them very much; they are very agreeable.


It now becomes most advisable to study the verbs as a separate subject; a certain portion being assigned for each lesson.

Learn first the verbs avoir and être; then the terminations, which precede each of the regular conjugations ; and, finally, the formation of tenses.

Many of the verbs referred to in this and in the subsequent lessons, are conjugated in full; but the acquire

ment of the same can be more easily obtained through the formation of tenses. If the learner masters the regular verbs, and can form a verb, by means of the terminations and the formation of tenses, the task of memorizing. a whole irregular verb, and frequently a whole class of verbs, will require less study than to learn two or three tenses needed for a "Lesson."

SEVENTH LESSON-Septième Leçon.

The book, le livre.

The dictionary, le dictionnaire.
The copy-book, le cahier.

The letter paper, le papier à lettre.
The envelope, l'enveloppe. f.
The letter, la lettre.

The pen, la plume.

The pen-holder, le porte-plume.
The pencil, le crayon.

The inkstand, l'encrier. m.
The ink, l'encre. f.

A sheet of paper, une feuille de

Study and conjugate, negatively and interrogatively with the negation, the indicative present of aimer. See p. 139.

The possession, in French, corresponding to the Saxon Genitive, i. e., expressed in English by means of 's or s', is rendered by the preposition de, of or from, in connection with the possessive adjectives (see the table in the preceding lesson), or by means of the contracted articles du, m. de la, ƒ, de l', m. and ƒ. des, m. and f. plural.

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