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(blue), and 7 of Dragoon Guards, classified as heavy in front, and the 'serrefiles,' or supernumerary noncavalry; 3 regiments of Dragoons, and 5 of Lancers, commissioned officers, in rear. There is an interval classified as medium ; and 13 Hussar regiments or of 12 yards between squadrons. The pace is, walk light cavalry-all carrying carbines and swords. 4 miles an hour, trot 8, gallop 12. The maximum The war strength of each is 1 lieutenant-colonel, distance covered by cavalry is 68 miles by day I major, 8 captains, 9 lieutenants, 7 sub-lieutenants, (6 A.M. to 10 P.M.) and 18 by night—86 for the 1 adjutant, 1 paymaster, 1 quartermaster, 1 medical 24 hours; but after such a march there must be a officer, 1 veterinary surgeon, 75 non-commissioned rest all next day. For a continuous march 35 officers, 8 farriers, 8 shoeing-smiths, 8 trumpeters, miles a day, at 5 miles an hour, is a good rate. 4 saddlers, 2 wheelers, 15 bandsmen, 480 troopers, Duties on Service.--In large arinies, from oneand 22 drivers, 559 riding and 44 draught horses, eighth to one quarter of the whole force should be and 11 wagons.

cavalry. Their duties are to cover the movements The native Indian cavalry are all light, and some of their own army, and to find out those of the have the front ranks arined with lances, the rear enemy-besides taking part in the actual battles by with sabres. Bengal has 19 regiments, each of 8 guarding the flanks, seizing all opportunities of troops, consisting of 10 European officers (1 in com charging, completing success by an active pursuit, mand and I surgeon), 17 native officers, and 538 or covering defeat. The screening and reconnoitring native non-commissioned officers and 'troopers. duties are performed by the cavalry divisions, each Madras has 4 regiments of only 6 troops each, the of two or more brigades, one or two days' march in same number of European, but 12 native officers front of the main body. The light Brigades (q.v.) and 396 of other ranks. Bombay has 7 regiments are perhaps best for the actual scouting, but must with the same organisation and numbers as Bengal, be supported by heavy cavalry in order to meet that but only 518 native non-commissioned officers and of the enemy, which would otherwise have the troopers. Besides these regiments there is a troop advantage of greater weight in the charge. Each of native cavalry at Aden, and one as a body-guard brigade of two or more regiments is accompanied for each lieutenant-governor, and the governor by a battery of Horse Artillery. general of India.

The battle of Mars la Tour in the Franco-German The auxiliary cavalry in Great Britain comprises war of 1870, supplies the best examples of a cavalry 39 regiments of Yeomanry, 2 of Volunteer Light fight on a large scale, and of a charge (that of Horse, and 1 of Volunteer Mounted Rifles, of various Barby and Bredows' brigades) directed against in. strengths. There is a cavalry depôt at Canterbury, fantry. The action of the German cavalry through: and a school instruction for auxiliary cavalry at out the same campaign illustrates the screening

and Aldershot.

reconnoitring duties of the arm. The capture of After the American civil war, the United Cairo by the rapid advance of the British cavalry States' cavalry was reduced to 10 regiments of after the battle of Tel-el-Kebir (1882), shows its 936 privates each. The commissioned officers of value after a successful engagement. a regiment consist of 1 colonel, 1 lieutenant- Tactics.-Unless acting dismounted, cavalry must colonel, 3 majors, 12 captains, 14 first lieutenants, either attack or retire ; it cannot otherwise defend and 12 second lieutenants.

itself. Against cavalry it must therefore manœuvre History. -For the place of cavalry in the ancient with its first line, so as to attack to the best advanarmies, see Army. In the middle ages horsemen tage-i.e. against the adversary's Hank. Its second -knights, esquires, and their attendants-formed line following, en échelon, in order to have a clear the most important part of the great armies ; but front, protects the flanks of the first from counter after the disappearance of the Roman cohort with attack, and supports its movement, completing, its its 132 highly trained horsemen, the organisation victory, or covering its retreat. Horse artillery of cavalry, as we now understand the word, was on the protected flank fire upon the enemy up to the neglected until 1445, when Charles VII. of France last moment before the charge. A third portion, grouped his men-at-arms into companies 100 strong. formed into a reserve, follows, and behind it the The method of fighting, from 1643 until Frederick other two can rally after the charge, which, even the Great introduced the charge or shock tactics, when successful, creates great confusion. Cavalry was to advance to close quarters, fire pistols from attacks artillery in two bodies—one in line forma the saddle, and then commence cutting with the tion charges the escort, and the other in extended sword.. The value of dismounted cavalry able to order, the men a horse's length apart, converges act as infantry was then recognised, and dragoons upon the guns. Infantry can defend itself from a armed with muskets were much in vogue until the cavalry charge, unless surprised by a flank attack, beginning of the 19th century. They then lost which would generally be delivered by comparafavour, and they were taught that the sword was tively small bodies in successive lines, but such an their proper weapon, and the saddle their proper opportunity rarely occurs on a modern battlefield. place. Mounted infantry, however, using their Cav'an, an inland county in the south of Ulster. horses merely as a means of rapidly covering the It lies in the narrowest part of Ireland, 18 miles ground, have been found so useful in the British

from the Atlantic, and 20 from the Irish Sea. Area, army that in 1887 a school for this arm was formed

746 sq. m., of which less than a third is under crops. at Aldershot. The great importance of this branch Bogs and hills, with many small lakes, are found in was experienced in the Transvaal war (1899–1900), the north-west, where Cuilcagh attains a maximum where all the Boer army were practically mounted altitude of 2188 feet. The chief rivers are the Erne, infantry, and their mobility gave to them enormous the Woodford, and the Annalee. The eastern half of advantage in proportion to their numbers. The Cavan rests on clay-slate and graywacke; the moun. future development of all armies is bound to be tain district in the west is carboniferous formation. very largely in this direction. The usefulness of Of minerals, Cavan affords coal, iron, lead, and the lance as a weapon for regular cavalry in pursuit copper, with many mineral springs


The climate is and other tactics has led the British war authorities cold and damp; and the soil is poor, wet, and to arm part of nearly all their cavalry regiments clayey, except along the streams. The chief crops with it in addition to their other arms.

are oats and potatoes, the cultivation of flax having Formation.--A cavalry regiment in the field is greatly decreased since 1850. The farms are small. divided into 4 squadrons, each of 2 troops. The Agriculture forms the staple industry, but linen is men of each squadron when in line are 6 inches manufactured to a considerable extent. The chief from knee to knee, and formed in two ranks, a horse's towns are Cavan, Cootehill, and Belturbet. Cavan length apart. The officers are at a similar distance I returns two members to parliament. Pop. (1851) CAVATINA



174,064; (1881) 129,476 ; (1891) 111,879, of whom these are simply great blisters or hollows formed 90,329 were Catholics, and 16,325 Episcopalians.— by the expansive power of the highly heated Cavax, the county town, stands on a branch of the vapours contained in the lava at the time of its Annalee, 85 miles NW. of Dublin by rail. It has eruption. Others again may have been caused by a court-house and a grammar-school ; and the beau- the sudden conversion into steam of the water of tiful demesne of Lord Farnham lies between Cavan lakes or streams suddenly overwhelmed by a lava. and Lough Oughter, which is about 5 miles west. flow—the steam thus generated might either Pop. about 3000.

violently rupture the lava by its explosive force, or Cavati'na, a short form of operatic air, of a

produce great tunnels and irregular cavities under smooth and melodious character, differing from the

the liquid lava, already inclosed in its solid crust, ordinary aria in consisting only of one part, and by pressing, it upwards. The extensive Fossá frequently appearing as part of a grand scena.

della Palomba of Etna is supposed by some to have

had such an origin. Examples of cavatina are found in many well.

But probably the greater known operas, as Sonnambula and Les Huguenots. formed by the escape of the lava itself from its own

number of the larger caves under lava have been The term is also often used for a complete air or song, such as the 'Salve dimora ’in Faust.

solidified envelope. When lava pours out from a

volcanic orifice it very rapidly coagulates above Cave, or CAVERN (Lat. cavus, 'hollow'). The and below, so that the liquid rock® becomes im. natural hollows which occur in and underneath prisoned in a hardened crust of its own material. rocks have originated in various ways—some being The great pressure of the inclosed lava, however, due to the chemical and mechanical action of upon the crust at the terminal point of the flow water, others to dislocations and disruptions pro: suffices again and again to rupture it, and the lava duced by movements of the crust, or by superficial then flows out freely until it is again imprisoned in rock-falls and landslips, while yet others are tunnels the same manner. In the case of very liquid lavas which now and again occur in or under thick sheets this escape is often completed in a perfect manner of lava. Caves formed by marine erosion are fre

--and a long underground tunnel is left behind, quently met with along the coast-line of Britain and from the roof of which depend long stalactites of other countries, Fingal's Cave at Staffa (q.v.) being black glassy lava. Extensive caves formed in this & splendid example. They are not confined to any way-some of them measuring over 100 feet in particular kind of rock-although, other things width-occur in the Azores, the Canary Islands, being equal, they are of course more easily formed Iceland, and other volcanic regions. in readily yielding rocks than in more durable kinds. Another class of caves embraces such hollows It is rather the character of their natural division- as have originated during, earthquakes or other planes or beds and joints than their composition movements in the crust of the earth. At such and texture that determines whether the rocks at times rocks are rent asunder, and when they fall the base of a sea-cliff shall be hollowed out or not rudely together irregular cavities are left between by the action of the waves. If the rocks are thin the disjointed masses, and similar results often bedded and abundantly and regularly jointed, it is take place when great landslips occur. But the obvious that as soon as any portion is undermined most extensive caves and underground galleries by the sea, the overlying masses will immediately have been excavated by the chemical and mechan. yield along their division-planes and topple down. ical action of underground water. Sometimes If, on the other hand, the rocks are meagrely and these hollows continue more or less persistently irregularly jointed, and occur in massive beds, then in one direction, but most usually they wind they will not so readily collapse when undermined, tortuously about, and often open into similar and caves will tend to be formed. Caves which intricate galleries, which, in like manner, comhave had this origin are not uncommonly met with municate with lateral extensions of the same charalong the line of old sea-margins in many regions acter. There can be no doubt that caves of this which have been elevated in recent geological kind are the channels of underground streams and times. Most frequently, however, the entrances rivers, and that they have been excavated, in the to such caves are concealed by the rock-rubbish first place, by the chemical action of acidulated which has been detached from time to time by the water making its way downwards from the surface action of the weather from the cliffs above. along the natural division-planes of the rocks, Caves of erosion are also formed by river-action until eventually space has been licked out for the at the base of crags and cliffs in many valleys. passage of a subterranean stream. The cavities And now and again such hollows may be detected would then tend to be enlarged by the filing action at various levels in river-cliffs, as if they had been of the sand and gravel which the underground formed during the gradual excavation of the ravines stream and its numerous feeders might sweep in which they occur.

along. Many such underground watercourses are In Britain and other countries long occupied by well known at the present day, and the direction man most of such river-cliff caves or rock-shelters of some of them can be traced by the swallow-holes, have been artificially deepened and widened, and chasms, and sinks, which indicate places where this to such an extent that it is often hard to the roofs of the cavities have given way, or have say how much of the work can be attributed to been pierced by the action of acidulated water. In nature. By far the most important caves, how. certain regions almost all the drainage is thus con. ever, are those which owe their origin to the ducted underground-rivers after Howing for a action of underground water. But before these are considerable distance at the surface suddenly dis. described, mention may be made of the hollows appear, and follow a hidden course, for it may be which occur now and again in and under lava: many miles, before they emerge again to the light flows. Where lava has flowed over and solidified of day. Sometimes, indeed, they never come to alore a mass of snow and ice, the subsequent the surface again, but enter the sea by subterranean Inelting of the latter will leave a hollow behind. channels. Should anything occur (such as earth. Near the Casa Inglese, on the south-east side of the quakes, &c.) to interrupt such a system of underhighest cone of Etna, a mass of ice of unknown ground drainage, and the streams and rivers be extent and thickness, covered by lava, was seen compelled into new channels, the old subterranean by Lyell in 1828 and again in 1858. But this, courses will then become galleries more or less dry, it must be remembered," is at a height of 10,000 which may be accessible by one or even by several feet above the sea. In lava itself, however, openings. caves of considerable extent occur. Many of As it cannot be doubted that all such great

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underground galleries owe their inception entirely times many animals may have been entrapped in to the chemical action of water seeking its way the same way—for broken and rubbed bones often downwards from the surface, and following the occur, sometimes very abundantly, in the old torrenlines of natural division-planes in the rocks, it is tial accumulations of deserted subterranean water. obvious that caves will be of most common occur.

When the galleries ceased to be traversed rence in regions where the rocks yield most readily by streams, stalagmitic accretions would then begin to such chemical action. Among the more soluble to accumulate over the shingle and debris beds. rocks are rock-salt and gypsum, but these are only in course of time many of these subterranean locally developed in such quantities as to give rise hollows, becoming more or less accessible from the on their removal to underground cavities of any outside, were occupied by carnivorous animals, extent. Calcareous rocks, more especially limestone, who carried thither their prey, and thus by and have not only an almost world-wide distribution, by accumulations of bones were formed, which but they also occur in greater mass than either the drip of water from above gradually inclosed gypsum or rock-salt, and hence, although not so in calcareous matter, and eventually covered readily acted upon by water as the latter two, it is up under a sheet of stalagmite. Now and again in limestones that nearly all the most renowned the caves were occupied for shorter or longer caves and subterranean galleries appear.

periods by man-his presence being still evidenced Many caverns have à calcareous incrustation by his implements and weapons, by charred and lining their interior. Sometimes this deposit is split bones, &c., and occasionally by portions of his pure white; it is, however, more generally coloured own skeleton-and these relics, in like manner, by the impurities which the water, percolating subsequently became sealed up in a more or less downwards from the surface, has taken up from the thick accumulation of stalagmite. Some of these superincumbent rocks. To the incrustations which bone-caves contain the record of many physical are suspended from the roof like icicles, the name changes. Thus, we have evidence to show that stalactites is given, while those rising from the floor after having been the haunt of wild beasts or the are called stalagmites. The origin of these is as abode of man for some indefinite but often profollows: Water which has percolated down from longed period, the cave again gave passage to a flow the surface always contains a certain proportion of of water, and deposits of loam, clay, or gravel, &c. carbonic acid-it is acidulated water--the acid were laid down upon the stalagmitic pavement and being derived from the atmosphere and the decaying bone-breccia. Or, as in some cases, the stalag: organic matter of the soil, &c. Water thus charged mite, together with bones covered by and inclosed with carbonic acid has the power of dissolving within it, was broken up and partially or wholly limestone-i.e. it takes up a certain proportion removed. Then, at a subsequent date the stream of carbonate of lime and converts it into the soluble once more deserted its channel, while carnivores or bicarbonate. Arrived at the roof of a cave it oozes man again returned, and newer heaps of bones and out and is there subject to evaporation, the excess stalagmite accumulated. Commingled with these of carbonic acid is parted with, and a thin pellicle stalagmites of the bone-caves there is almost of carbonate of lime is deposited as an incrustation. always more or less of a reddish earth or clay, When the drops fall to the floor they are subject which is the insoluble residue of the limestone from there in the same way to evaporation, and are thus the dissolution of which the stalactites and stalag. compelled to give up the remainder of the cal. mites are formed. Some of the more remarkable careous matter held in solution. By this constant bone-caves which have yielded testimony as to the dropping and falling, icicle-like pendants grow contemporaneity of man with extinct mammalia, downwards from the roof, while sheets, bosses, and are Kent's Cavern (q.v) and Brixham Cave in Eng. domes gradually accumulate upon the floor--until, land, the caves in the valley of the Lesse in Belgium, not infrequently, these stalagmites come at last to the caves of Perigord and the Pyrenees in France, unite with the gradually lengthening stalactites, and the Kesserloch near Thäingen in Switzerland. and so to form, as it were, pillars which look as if Bone-caves containing the remains of post-tertiary they had been placed to support the roof. See the mammals are rare in North America; those of Brazil articles on ADELSBERG, AGTELEK, Kent's Cav. have many bones of large rodents and edentates. ERN, MAMMOTH CAVE, &c.

For caves at Wick, in Scotland, still occupied by BONE-CAVES.—Caves are of interest to geologists tinkers, see Sir Arthur Mitchell

, The Past in the not only because they testify to the potency of the Present (1880). For accounts of special caves, see chemical and mechanical action of underground the British Association Reports (for Kent's Cavwater, but on account of the remarkable evidence ern) and the Philosophical Transactions (1822-73). they have yielded as to the contemporaneity of man For general descriptions, see Buckland's Reliquice with many extinct and no longer indigenous mam- Diluviance, Dupont's L'Homme pendant les Ages mals. This evidence is furnished by the accum- de la Pierre, Lartet’s and Christy's Reliquiæ Aqui. ulations which so frequently cover the floors of tanice, Lubbock's Prehistoric Times, "Dawkins' caverns to a greater or less depth. The accumula Cave-hunting, J. Geikie's Prehistoric Europe. For tions in question consist partly of clay, sand, gravel, further information as to the European caveand shingle, and partly of red earth and sheets of dwellers of prehistoric times, see MAN, FLINT stalagmite. Some of these are doubtless the IMPLEMENTS, PLEISTOCENE SYSTEM. alluvial detritus carried forward by underground ARTIFICIAL CAVES. —The primitive inhabitants streams. This detritus often consists largely of of most civilised countries and many primitive angular, subangular, and water-worn fragments of tribes at the present day have been troglodytes or limestone, which have doubtless been derived from cave-dwellers. In many countries where natural the roof and walls of the underground galleries, caves are either of rare occurrence or do not occur but not infrequently the presence of other kinds at all, certain rock-exposures have been artifici. of rock-fragments shows that no inconsiderable ally excavated, and occupied either permanently amount of material has been introduced from the as dwelling-places or occasionally as retreats in outside by the streams as they plunged into their times of danger, while others have been used as subterranean courses. Much debris also may have cells, hermitages, or burial places. Such caves are been swept in by heavy rain or flooded torrents not unconmon in the cliffs of Scottish river ravines, washing down through the sinks and swallow-holes as at Hawthornden near Edinburgh, and in the that so frequently pierce the roofs of subterranean valley of the Jed, Roxburghshire. Caves of this watercourses. These sinks often become pitfalls to kind occur usually in rocks that are readily dug unfortunate cattle in our own day, and in former l into, such as soft sandstone. Now and again, CAVE




they have been excavated in conglomerate, as in blind insects, of which in some cases (Machærites) the case of Hobbie Noble's Cave, Roxburghshire. only the females are blind ; blind spiders and myriaIn volcanic regions it is the softer tuffs or ashes pods; many, Crustaceans (Niphargus puteanus, that are usually holed, as in the caves of the Titanethes albus, Crangonyx, Asellus sieboldii, &c.); Canary Islands. There the Guanches have also a few univalves and other forms. excavated caves under the lavas, by simply raking It is noteworthy that the blindness may exist in out the more or less loose scoriæ and cinders which various degrees, some being totally blind and others so commonly occur in that position. Vast areas in possessing rudimentary eyes. It is also to be Central China are covered with a coherent loam, remembered that not all cave-animals are blind, of the same character as the Loess (q.v.) of thé but forms with well-developed organs of vision also valleys of the Rhine and Danube, in which dug occur. Fish, insects, spiders, myriapods, and crus. out dwelling-places are of common

taceans with well-developed eyes have been recorded And a similar deposit, exposed along the bluff's from various caves, and the explanation of this of rivers in the far west of North America, has persistence of organs in such environment is still been utilised by some of the early inhabitants in to find. See DEGENERATION, ENVIRONMENT, and the same way. In Arizona, parts of Colorado, Semper's Natural Conditions of Existence as Nevada, Utah, and south-east California, the rocky they affect Animal Life (International Science precipitous walls of deep cañons are in places Series, 1881). riddled with human habitations, so as to look like CAVE BEAR, HYÆNA, Lion, &c.-(1) Ursus honeycombs. The strata forming the walls of the spelæus, a fossil bear, like those now living, found canons have been eroded in different degrees, and very abundantly in the Pleistocene caves of Europe. horizontal caves larger and smaller have been (2) Hyæna spelæa, once abundant in Britain and formed. The cliff dwellings are often adobe or other parts of Europe, and very closely allied to stone structures built on the ledges overhung by the H. crocuta now found in Africa. (3) Felis projecting rock masses ; smaller caves have served spelæa, a fossil lion, very like the modern form, as dwellings, and been partially completed by abundant in caves of England and Europe generadobe walls. Some of these houses are at a height ally. The prefix cave obviously refers to the fact of 700 feet above the level of the valley, and are that in caves the fossil remains of recent animals with difficulty accessible. They seem to have been are well preserved and abundantly found. made as places of refuge and defence by the same Cave, EDWARD, the founder of the Gentleman's ancient races as left the pueblos or stone ruins in Magazine, was born at Newton, Warwickshire, in the valleys, like those occupied by the Pueblos and 1691 ; received some schooling at Rugby; and after Moqui Indians now. Some assume them to have many vicissitudes, became apprentice to a printer. been the ancestors of the present Pueblos; others Obtaining money enough to set up a small printingthat they were akin to the Aztecs. See Hayden in office, in 1731 he started the Gentleman's Magazine, Stanford's North America ; Nadaillac's Prehistoric the earliest literary journal of the kind. Samuel America (Eng. trans. 1885); and the U.S. Survey Johnson became its parliamentary reporter in 1740; Reports since 1874.

and with his hand in Johnson's, Cave died on 10th Hermitages, belonging to all ages, some of very January 1754. simple, others of a more elaborate construction, have in like manner been excavated in rocks of Leicestershire, in 1637, from Oakham school passed

Cave, WILLIAM, divine, born at Pickwell, very different kinds ; so that we are presented with to St John's College, Cambridge (1653), and was every variety of artificial rock-excavation, from appointed to the vicarage of Islington (1662), to simple hollows scraped out of some soft yielding the rectory of Allhallows the Great, London (1679), material to the richly ornamented grottoes and temples of Ellora, near Daulatabad, which are cut He died at Windsor, 4th July 1713. Among his

and to the vicarage of Isleworth, Middlesex (1690). out in red granite. And so again in the matter of twelve works on church history are Lives of the rock-tombs we meet with artificial grottoes of all Apostles, Lives of the Fathers, and Primitive Chriskinds-from mere holes picked out without much tianity, which once were standard authorities. trouble in loess, tuff, sandstone, or other yielding substance, to the great rock-cut sepulchres of books of a court or a public office, that no step shall

Caveat is a formal warning, entered in the Egypt, and the no less famous catacombs of Rome. Many caves have been doubtless partly natural,

be taken in a particular matter without notice to partly artificial—the cells of the monks of the the person lodging the caveat, so that he may Thebaid in Egypt, St Serf's cave at Dysart, St appear and object. Thus, caveats are frequently Vinian's at Whithorn. For the cave-dwellers known

entered at the Patent Office to prevent the un. to the ancients, see TROGLODYTES, PETRA. For opposed granting of letters-patent; or at the the Indian cave-temples, see ELEPHANTA, ELLORA.

Probate Court to prevent the unopposed making up CAVE-ANIMALS.–Various caverns, both of the

a title to the property of deceased persons; or at the Old and New World, are tenanted by animals which Admiralty Court to prevent the unopposed arrestare usually more or less blind. From one point of ment of a ship. The term is also used in ecclesiview the eyes have degenerated from disuse and astical practice in England; although a caveatfrom the absence of the necessary light stimulus; e.g. against an institution to a particular beneficefrom another point of view they have degenerated has not now the high effect attributed to it by the because no longer of use, and no longer maintained Canon Law. In Scotland the term is confined to by that natural selection which through the struggle such notices as are placed in the Bill Chamber for existence is supposed by many to be necessary (the summary department of the Supreme Civil not only for the establishment, but for the main. Court) or in the Sheriff Courts to prevent any tenance of organs. The fauna of the Mammoth interdict being granted without notice to the person Cave of Kentucky has been most studied, and is interested. Such caveats require to be renewed catalogued with figures in Putnam and Packard's every month. description of that famous cavern. Leydig has Cavedoné, GIACOMO, an Italian artist of the made a special study of the highly developed tac-Caracci school, born in 1577 at Sassuola, assisted tile organs borne by some fishes frequenting German Guido Reni at Rome, and finally settled in Bologna, caves. Among the cave-animals may be noticed where many of his religious pictures are preserved. the amphibian Proteus (9.v.) with eyes in an em. He died in poverty in 1660. bryonic state; various Blind Fish (q.v.), such as Cavendish, the surname of the ducal House of Amblyopsis (q.v.), Typhlichthys, &c.; hundreds of | Devonshire, a family directly descended from the

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chief-justice Sir John Cavendish, who in 1381 was Cavendish, GEORGE, the biographer of Wolsey, beheaded at Bury St Edmunds by Jack Straw's was born about 1500, and became Wolsey's gentle. followers; and from Sir William Cavendish of man-usher at least as early as 1527. He remained Cavendish, Suffolk (circa 1505–57), a brother of in close attendance upon his great master till the Wolsey's biographer. His third wife, the cele. end (November 28, 1530), after which he retired to brated® Bess of Hardwick,' afterwards Countess of his house at Glemsford, in Suffolk, where he lived Shrewsbury, brought Chatsworth (q.v.) into the quietly with his wife, a niece of Sir Thomas More, family; and William, their second son, was in 1618 till the close of his own life in 1561 or 1562. His made Earl of Devonshire. His great-grandson, affection for the great cardinal was most devotedWilliam (1640-1707), was, under the last two he had attached himself to his household, in Stuarts, a steadfast member of the Whig opposi. Wolsey's own words, 'abandoning his own country, tion, Russell's friend to the death, and an active wife, and children, his own house and family, his promoter of the Habeas Corpus Act. He succeeded rest and quietness, only to serve me.' He never as fourth earl in 1684, and, for his services at the laid aside his loyalty to his memory, but in the Revolution, was in 1694 raised to be Duke of quiet meditation of after years brooded over his Devonshire and Marquis of Hartington. His fall, and from it learned for himself “the blessedgreat-grandson, William (1720-64) succeeded as ness of being little.' Thirty years after he wrote fourth duke in 1755, and was prime-minister from his Life of Cardinal Wolsey, one of the most in. November 1758 to the following May. William, teresting short biographies in the English language. fifth duke (1748–1811), was a bit of a poet; but Its pensive wisdom and simple sincerity reflect a is less remembered than bis beautiful duchess, pleasing picture of the gentle and refined nature of whom Gainsborough and Reynolds painted. Wil. its author, and enable us to see intimately with our liam, sixth duke (1790–1858), was chiefly distin. own eyes, but with singular clearness, the outlines guished by his sumptuous embassy to St Petersburg of one of the grandest figures in our history. The (1826). William, seventh duke (born 1808), had book, written by a devout Catholic, full of regrets for for twenty-four years been Earl Burlington when the past, could not well be printed in Elizabeth's he succeeded his cousin in the ducal title. He died reign, but circulated pretty freely in manuscript 21st December 1891, and was succeeded by his copies, as many as twelve of which are still extant. eldest son, SPENCER COMPTON CAVENDISH, ninth It is almost certain that Shakespeare had read it Duke of Devonshire, born 230 July 1833, and edu- before writing or collaborating in Henry VIII., as cated at Trinity College, and for thirty-three years all the redeeming features in the picture of the great known as Marquis of Hartington. He entered cardinal, and the lesson of his fall as a solemn parliament in 1857, being first returned for North homily upon human ambition, are directly due to Lancashire, then in 1869 for the Radnor boroughs, the tender and loyal touch of Cavendish. The in 1880 for North-east Lancashire, and in 1885 book was first printed imperfect, for party purposes, for the Rossendale division of that county. The in 1641. The best edition is that of s. w. Singer representative of a great Whig house, he was chosen (2 vols. 1815), the text of which was reprinted as early as 1859 to move the vote of want of confi. with a good introduction in Professor "Henry dence that overthrew the Derby government, and Morley's Universal Library' (1886). between 1863 and 1874 held office as a Lord of the Cavendish, HENRY, natural philosopher, eldest Admiralty, Under-secretary for War, War Secre son of Lord Charles Cavendish, and a grandson of tary, Postmaster-general, and, from 1871, Chief. the second Duke of Devonshire, was born at Nice, secretary for Ireland. Neither a born statesman October 10, 1731. From a school at Hackney, he nor great orator, he had yet shown an “infinite passed in 1749 to Peterhouse, Cambridge, but capacity for taking pains,' when, in February 1875, quitted it three years later without a degree ; on Mr Gladstone's temporary abdication, he was thereafter he devoted the whole of his long life chosen leader of the Liberal opposition. He led it to scientific investigations, a large fortune beadmirably, and in the spring of 1880, on the down; queathed him by an uncle enabling him to fall of the Beaconsfield administration, was invited follow uninterruptedly his favourite pursuits. A by the Queen to form a ministry. He rejected the silent, solitary man, he hated so to meet strangers, offer, and served under Mr Gladstone, first as Secre- that he had his library-a magnificent onetary of State for India, and then as War Secretary in London, four miles from his residence on Clapfrom 1883 to 1885. But he wholly dissented from ham Common, so that he might not encounter Mr Gladstone's scheme of Irish Home Rule ; and persons coming to consult it ; whilst his female from 1886, as head of the Liberal Unionists, he domestics had orders to keep out of his sight, on firmly supported Lord Salisbury, both when in pain of dismissal. His dinner he ordered daily by a power and in opposition.

note placed on the hall-table. He died, unmarried, His younger brother, Lord FREDERICK CAVEN at Clapham, 10th March 1810, leaving more than a DISH, was born 30th November 1836, and was also million sterling to his relatives. As a philosopher, educated at Trinity, taking his B. A. in 1858. He Cavendish is entitled to the highest rank. To bim sat in parliament as Liberal member for the it may almost be said we owe the foundation of northern division of the West Riding of Yorkshire pneumatic chemistry, for prior to his time it had from 1865 till the spring of 1882, when he succeeded hardly an existence. In 1760 he discovered the Mr Forster as Chief-secretary for Ireland. Between extreme levity of inflammable air, now known as seven and eight o'clock, on the evening of 6th May, hydrogen gas-a discovery which led to balloon having only that morning reached Dublin, he and experiments and projects for aërial navigation ; Mr Burke, an unpopular subordinate, were stabbed and later, he ascertained that water resulted from to death in the Phoenix Park. Eight months later, the union of two gases—a discovery which has twentyIrish Invincibles' were tried for the erroneously been claimed for Watt (9.v.; see also murder, and, Carey and two others having turned WATER). The famous Carendish Experiment was Queen's evidence, five of the rest were hanged, an ingenious device for estimating the density of three sentenced to penal servitude for life, and the the Earth (q.v.). The accuracy and completeness of remaining nine to various terms of imprisonment. Cavendish's processes are remarkable. So high an Carey himself disappeared ; but in July news came authority as Sir Humphry Davy declared that they from the Cape that he had been shot dead by an “were all of a finished nature, and though many of Irishman named O'Donnell on board an emigrant them were performed in the very infancy of chemi. ship. O'Donnell was brought back to London, cal science, yet their accuracy and their beauty and hanged.

have remained unimpaired.' Cavendish also wrote

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