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share of the profits, without involving partnership vigour, or when different kinds of polyps are liability. The contract must be in writing, and the similarly associated, and that is often, there may be lender ranks in a bankruptcy after other creditors. distinct advantage to the weaker form, since with: Commelyna'ceæ, an order of petaloid mono
out becoming a parasite it enjoys the privileges cotyledons, all herbaceous, chiefly neotropical, of of a messmate. Or the advantage may take which a few species are cultivated in herbaceous another form, when the associate is carried about borders on account of the beauty of their flowers, by its bearer. Thus, Cirripedes are common upon notably spiderwort, or Tradescantia (Virginica, and whales, and have evidently an advantage both other species), Commelyna coelestis, &c.
Others in security and continual freshness of feeding. are grown in bothouses, notably the peculiar ground over those which adhere to fixed objects. Cochliostemma.
This grade might be distinguished as that of fixed
external associates with the advantage on Commemoration, or ENCÆNIA, the great side. (3) It is, however, evident that if a crab le festival of the Oxford academic year, usually takes covered with acorn-shells, or polyps, or sponges, place on the third Wednesday after Trinity Sunday, there is no longer a one-sided, but a mutual advanIt is of very ancient date, public exercises and recitations having been held from time immemorial carried about continually to new pastures; but
tage. It is well for the sedentary growth to be in honour of the Act, or period when Masters
it is well also for the crab to be masked. Covered of Arts and Doctors complete their degrees. The
with a rich growth, either vegetable or animal, proceedings consist of a Latin oration in honour of founders and benefactors; the presentation of the
the crabs must appear all innocence, and like honorary degree of D.C.1. to strangers eminent in walking woods of Birnam, can steal unnoticed upon science, politics, &c.; and the recitation of the masked by polyps, and doubtless gives and reaps
A gasteropod may be similarly Newdigate or English prize poem, the Latin prize similar advantages. This grade nay be described poem, and the Latin and English prize essays. The
as that of fixed associates with mutual advantage, more strictly academic and solemn portion of the
to this extent, at least, that the weaker animals proceedings was frequently wont to receive scanty
are borne about, and the bearers are masked. (4) attention from a great part of the audience; and the noisy humours of the gallery have often encroached
But a higher stage of fixed association is some. on the stately periods of the public orator.
times exhibited, that, namely, where the partner.
In 1876, the undergraduates were removed from the ship is deliberate, where the masked bearer is pecial gallery they had hitherto occupied, and Probably the most striking case of such deliberate
not passively benefited, but is an active accomplice. includes ladies and strangers as well as members partnership is that referred to (and illustrated)
under the article ANEMONE-viz. the habit which of the university. Commencement' is the cor
some hermit crabs have of bearing about sea. responding festival at Cambridge, where, however, it is of less general observance.
anemones on the mollusc shell which they inhabit,
or even upon their claws. It would appear that in Commendam, an ancient manner of holding some cases the crustacean deliberately chooses its ecclesiastical benefices. When a living fell vacant ally, induces it to fix itself on the shell or claw, by the preferment of its holder, it was commended and takes care not to leave it behind at the epochs by the crown to the care of a clerk, usually a of shell-changing: When deprived of its combishop in one of the poorer sees, to hold till a mensal, the crab is said to be restlessly ill at ease proper pastor was provided for it. Such a living until another of the same species is forthcoming: was called an ecclesia commendata, and was said
Off some parts of the British coast, the beautiful to be held in commendam. A commendam in
sea-anemone (Adamsia palliata) is found envelopecclesiastical law may be defined as the power of ing the mollusc home of a hermit crab (Eupagurus receiving, and retaining a benefice contrary to prideauxii). The use of the sea-anemone as a positive law, by supreme authority. Holdings in mask, and also as equivalent to a stinging organ, commendam were abolished in 1836. —COMMEN
is obvious enough, while the hermit crab returns DATORS, in Scotland, in Roman Catholic times, the benefit by carrying about the sea-anemone were stewards appointed to levy the fruits of a and giving it a share of the spoil. This grade may benefice during a vacancy. They were mere trus- therefore be described as deliberate partnership tees ; but gradually the pope assumed the power with mutual advantage. of appointing commendators for life, without any So far only fixed commensals have been spoken obligation to account. This abuse led in 1466 to a
of, but organisms may be constantly associated proliibition of all commendams except those granted without being attached. Sometimes different by bishops for six months and under. See ABBOT. organisms, both plant and animal, are found in
Commensalism (literally, ‘at the same table'), almost constant association without any obvious the intimate, but never parasitic association of two connection obtaining between them. In many different kinds of organisms, for the benefit of one, cases this companionship may be simply due to or very often of both. Of such advantageous the fact that similar environmental conditions suit partnerships there are so many different forms and both. Small fishes are sometimes found as free degrees, that no precise definition of the term commensals within sea-anemones; the Remora can be given. (1) Every one who lias looked at (9.v.) attaches itself temporarily to sharks and shore animals must have observed how often other fishes; the little crabs (Pinnotheres, &c.) mollusc shells, for instance, are covered with found living freely inside various bivalves are probsponges, hydroids, worm-tubes, acorn-shells, and ably true messmates, and similar habitual partnerthe like. But this is a purely external association, ship is very common among crustaceans; a brittleand depends simply on the fact that the shells star is known to live as a free messmate on a atford convenient anchorage for the free-swimming crinoid ; many worm-types are found in constant embryos. In many cases no great advantage can though free associations with other animals; and accrue on either side. The habit is comparable the same habit is exhibited by some Calenterates to that of vegetable epiphytes upon trees. This and Protozoa. Many of the insects which frequent grade might be spoken of as mainly external and plants are in strict sense commensals, feeding not unadvantageous association. (2) In other cases, on their hosts, but on other visitors, &c. In some however, the association, though probably acci. cases they form an actual bodyguard. dental, brings its reward. When one sea-mat Commensalism must, of course, be distinguished (Polyzoa) grows entangled with another of greater I from Parasitism (q.v.), whether external or internal, COMMENSURABLE
for in parasitism the one organism more or less
In Surrye whylom dwelte a companye, directly preys upon the other. Yet it is evident
Of chapmen riche, and therto sadde and trewe,
That wyde wher senten her spycerie, that a commensal may readily degenerate into a
Clothes of gold, and satins riche of liewe. parasite. Commensalism must also be distin. guished from that most intimate kind of partner. The application of steam to machinery, the conseship, known as Symbiosis (q.v.), and illustrated quent rise of the factory system, increased facilities by the union of algoid and fungoid organisms to in banking, and improved means of locomotion, form a lichen, or by the occurrence of alga as con
have made the commercial traveller an important stant internal associates of Radiolarians, some
factor in the commercial world. Within recent Coelenterates, and some worm-types.
years a formidable competitor has entered the As part of the animate environment, commensals field in the person of the foreignerwhose have influenced one another in very direct ways. superior education and commercial training have See ENVIRONMENT; P. J. van Beneden's Animal hitherto placed the British commercial traveller at Parasites and Messmates (1876); and Semperis a disadvantage. A further development of comAnimal Life (1881).
mercial travelling is before us; there is room Commensurable. Two quantities or numbers especially for men possessing a thorough knowledge are said to be commensurable which are of the same
of foreign and colonial trade, and above all of kind, and each of which contains a third quantity modern languages. or number a certain number of times without
There are several excellent institutions co remainder ; or when both can be measured exactly nected with the body, owing largely to the efforts by the same unit, however small.
of men like George Moore and George Stockdale.
The Commercial Travellers' Schools for destitute Commentrey, town in the French department of Allier, 2il miles S. of Paris by rail, is close orphans and necessitous children were founded in
1845 : the school at Pinner accommodates 360 chil. to a great coal-field, and owes its rise to coal and dren.
The Commercial Travellers' Benevolent iron works. Pop. 9316.
Institution was founded in 1849 for the relief of Commerce, CHAMBER OF. See CHAMBER OF necessitous commercial travellers over the age of COMMERCE, MERCANTILE LAW.–For the so-called fifty-five years, being members, and for their Commercial System, see MERCANTILE SYSTEM. widows. The relief is given in the form of an
Commercial Travellers. A commercial annuity of £50 to members, and £30 to their traveller (C.T.') is a person whose occupation is widows. The Commercial Travellers' Society of to transact business as the accredited travelling Scotland was founded in 1838 for the relief of memrepresentative of a trading house to other trading bers incapacitated by disease, accident, or infirmity, houses. A further qualification is insisted upon by and for securing a payment at death. The British benevolent institutions connected with the body, Commercial Travellers Provident Society, like the in the rule that a traveller must have been last named, is based on the Friendly Societies Act.
on the road' for two years before he can claim There is also a Commercial Travellers’ Christian benefit. A townsman or town traveller' is one Association (1882); and the United Kingdom Com. who confines his efforts to a single town. In thirty mercial Travellers' Association (1883) has done years a fourfold increase in the number of com. good work in pushing forward hotel and railway mercial travellers is shown by the annexed sta. reforms, and in promoting social intercourse among tistics : In 1851 there were in England, 8378; in commercial travellers. A newspaper, On the Road, Scotland, 1017; in Ireland, 339; total, 9734.' In devoted entirely to the interests of commercial 1891 there were in England, 35,570; in Scotland, travellers, was established in 1883. 4793; in Ireland, 1558 ; total, 41,921. In the latter
In the United States the number of commercial year, 878 of the total number were European travellers has increased rapidly, till in 1890 it was foreigners; but at the present there is doubtless a computed that there were between 230,000 and much larger proportion. The death-rate of com
300,000. Amongst their benevolent associations mercial travellers in 1881, though it shows a
are the Commercial Travellers' Association of New considerable improvement on that of 1871, was
York (2000 members); the North-western Travel. high (34 per 1000), or nearly 50 per cent. 'above ling Men's Association of Chicago (4000); one at that of persons engaged in agricultural pursuits. St Louis (2100); an Order of Commercial Travellers, A very large proportion of deaths was due to a secret society organised in 1888 ; also a Travellers' diseases caused by intemperance. To this terrible Protective Association (9000 members), for provid. scourge must also be attributed the fact that the ing against overcharges by railroads and hotels, number of suicides is higher in this than in any &c. The organ of the travelling salesmen is The occupation save one. Happily, of late years a
Merchant Traveller, published at Chicago. marked improvement is noticeable, owing to the Commination (Lat., threatening'), the despread of temperance principles and an increased nouncing of God's anger and judgments against number of temperance hotels.
sinners,' read in the Anglican Church on AshOf the later half of the 18th century in Britain | Wednesday (9.v.). A solemn service, at which many districts remained completely excluded, penitents were expelled from the church, after in. 80 that foreign products never reached them structions and prayers for their amendment, appears at all,' and even at the beginning of the 19th to have been held on the first day of Lent from a century the Yorkshire yeoman was ignorant of very early date, perhaps from the beginning of the sugar, potatoes, and cotton.' It has been the work 6th century ; but the commination ottice used in the of the commercial traveller to materially assist in Church of England is rather a continuation of the altering this state of things, and to bring about medieval practice of reciting the articles of the "eqnality of distribution of produce, and corre. sentence of cursing, which were at one time read in sponding equality of prices, and generally to the parish churches four times a year; only the promote that facility of exchange which is the opening exhortation to repentance was composed very soul of industry.' Commercial travelling in by the English Reforiners. The present office is the specific sense is not an old institution. The nearly the same as those found in the Sarum
commercial traveller,' 'bagman,' or rider' (in and York uses. The curses contained in Deut. the United States, ‘drummer ') was the successor xxvii. are read as statements, not as prayers ; and to the chapman or travelling merchant, who the congregation answer . Amen'to every sentence, carried with himn not samples merely, but stock. as acknowledging the truth of what has been stated, Chaucer tells us that :
rather than as confirming the curse. The American
Prayer-book omits this office, but several prayers In the United States the army commissariat is taken from it are appointed to be said on Åsh- administered by a commissary.general of subWednesday, at the end of the litany.
sistence, having the rank of brigadier-general ; five Commissariat is a name for the organised assistant commissary-generals, ranking as colonels system whereby armies are provided with food, and lieutenant-colonels; eight commissioners of forage, fuel, quarters, and all other necessaries subsistence, ranking as majors, and twelve as except warlike stores. In feudal times, soldiers captains. Their salaries are from $5500 to $2000. were mainly dependent for food on their lords ; but they lived very much by plunder. During the the power and authority of another is committed.
Commissary, in general, is any one to whom wars of the Crusades, the commissariat was so
An ecclesiastical commissary is an officer of the utterly neglected that thousands died of starvation. bishop, who exercises spiritual jurisdiction in dis
The first germ of the modern British commissariat tant parts of the diocese. A military commissary appeared in the office of proviant-master in the time is an officer charged with furnishing provisions and of Queen Elizabeth. Under Charles I., commis- clothes to an army. saries were stationed in the different counties.
When the papal authority was abolished in ScotMarlborough's troops were supplied by contract; land, a supreme commissary court was established he received a percentage, and peculation was very After many changes during the 18th This court had jurisdiction in actions of divorce,
in Edinburgh in 1563, by a grant of Queen Mary. century, a commissary-general was appointed in declarators of marriage, nullity of marriage, and 1793 to superintend all contracts for food and forage, all actions which originally belonged to the bishops' The dire experience of the Crimean war showed ecclesiastical courts. how inadequate the small existing establishment
Its powers were gradually was to bear the strain of a campaign. In 1858 and conjoined with those of the
Court of Session, and 1859 the commissariat was newly organised ; and of its once important jurisdiction being united in
it was finally abolished in 1836, the small remains remained, until 1870, a War-office department, the sheriff of Edinburgh. See Alexander on under a commissary-general-in-chief. In 1870 it was merged with other supply, depart. (1858), and Fraser on Husband and Wife.
Practice of the Commissary Courts in Scotland ments in the great Control Department,' which, under the Surveyor-general of the Ordnance, per: Commission. As a commercial tern, com. formed all the civil administrative duties of the mission is sometimes taken to be synonymous with army, until its abolition in 1875. The Commissariat Brokerage, but there is a distinction. Brokerage and Transport Department' was then formed, and is the percentage paid to a passive intermediary in administered by the Director of Supplies, an officer a transaction, who incurs no responsibility; co
comon the staff of the Surveyor-general at the War mission is the percentage paid to an active agent in a Office, the supply of warlike stores being placed transaction, who usually does incur some pecuniary under the Ordnance Store Department (q.v.). The and always some moral responsibility. reorganisation of the War Office in February 1888, A commission as a certificate of rank is granted while leaving the duties of these two departments by the highest authority of a state. All military unaltered, has placed them under the Quartermaster and naval commissions in Britain must be signed general. In India this has always been the case by the sovereign : but in the United States a so far as the commissariat is concerned, which is commission may be issued by a governor of a state officered by appointments from the combatant as well as by the president of the republic, combranch. The present British staff consists of 2 com. missions in the volunteers (or militia) being genermissaries-general ranking as major-general, 10 ally granted by state governors. The appointdeputy-commissaries-general with honorary rank ment of justices of the peace in the United King. of colonel, 62 assistant and i11 deputy-assistant dom is also made by a commission of the commissaries general with honorary rank of major peace,' issued under the great seal. and captain respectively, 40 quartermasters (hono: seal itself is in charge of a Lord-keeper, but is put rary lieutenants), 3 adjutants, 1 paymaster, and into commission' when a change of ministers is 2 riding-masters. Their pay varies from 9s. 6d. taking place. This means that certain persons are a day in the lowest ranks to £1500 a year in the appointed to exercise jointly, but without individual highest. There are 37 companies, having each a powers, the functions of the office. Another inpeace establishment of 2 officers, 123 of other ranks, stance of the functions of a great public officer 63 horses, and 12 wagons.
being delegated to others 'in conimission is that of The war establishment laid down in 1888 for the Lord High Admiral, who formerly had control a commissariat and transport company with an
of all naval affairs. This, however, is a permanent infantry brigade is 5 officers, 192 non-commissioned commission, although commissioners of Lords of the officers and men, and 234 horses, and if with the Admiralty change with every change of the ministry. headquarters of a division of infantry, 7 officers, An office in commission is an office in suspense 157 of other ranks, and 184 horses. The establish: Yet, curiously enough, the phrase has a directly ment for an Army Corps (q.v.) in the field, with opposite meaning in naval affairs, for when a ship three days' rations for the men, and two days' is ordered to be placed ‘in commission,' it means forage for the horses, is 60 officers, 2494 non-com- that she shall be fully equipped and prepared for missioned officers and men, 2796 horses, and 438 active service. carriages. The wagons of the Army Medical and Permanent commissions are also constituted, not Ordnance Store Departments are horsed by the merely for the delegation of existing duties, but Transport Department. Camp equipment, fuel, also for the execution of duties with which no per. forage, food, &c. are supplied by the commissariat, son had been previously charged. As instances we the actual cooking being done by the regimental may take the Civil Service Commission in 1855 cooks. Clothing is supplied by the government (seě Civil SERVICE); the Railway Commission, factory at Pimlico, and, like all other stores, appointed in 1873 to carry out the act for the brought to the army, if in the field, by the trans. better regulation of railways passed in 1854, and port branch of this very important department. to otherwise act as a sort of court of arbitration
The Indian commissariat is, as indicated above, or appeal in disputes between railway companies; a local department, varying in strength with the the Irish Land Commission, appointed to carry out requirements of the moment. There is also a some of the provisions regulating the land laws in small local staff of 1 commissary, 3 deputies, and Ireland ; the Crofters Commission, appointed for 1 assistant on the west coast of Africa.
five years from 1886 to fix fair rents for the Scotch