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These children and those children, Ces enfants-ci, et ces enfants-là.

This, ceci, and that, cela, are used absolutely.

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These demonstrative pronouns are usually understood in English, but can not be omitted in French. They agree in gender and number with the noun for which they stand.

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In the same manner as the adverbs of place ci and là are used above, with the demonstrative adjectives, they can be used with the demonstrative pronouns, conveying then the idea of this one, that one, these (here), those (there).

We have this one, and you have that


Nous avons celui-ci, or celle-ci, et vous avez celui-là, or celle-là.

You have these, and we have those. Vous avez ceux-ci, or celles-ci, et

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To whom do these good pens belong? A qui sont ces bonnes plumes?

They are my cousin's.

Do you see my pen-holder?

I see your brother's.

You do not speak to Robert?
No, I am angry with him.

Elles sont à ma cousine.
Voyez-vous mon porte-plume?
Je vois celui de votre frère.
Vous ne parlez pas à Robert ?
Non, je suis fâché contre lui.

Charles gives his inkstand to his Charles donne son encrier à son brother.


*Placed before the verb, except in the imperative affirmative I see it, je le, (la,) vois.


N'avez-vous pas mon cahier? A qui sont ces enveloppes? A qui prêtez-vous votre dictionnaire? N'avez-vous pas soif? Ne connaissez-vous pas la sœur d'Arthur? Connaissez-vous ces enfants? Ne voyez-vous pas mes beaux crayons? N'avez-vous pas l'encrier de mon fils? Avez-vous l'encrier de Charles? N'êtes-vous pas mouillé? Fait-il humide? Fait-il froid? Aimezvous ces plumes? Ne sont-elles pas bonnes? Qui a tort? Qui a peur? Comment vous portez-vous aujourd'hui ? Comment se portent vos enfants?


When the nominative or subject of the verb in an interrogative sentence is a noun, it must be placed before the verb; and a pronoun agreeing with the subject in gender, number, and person, is placed immediately after the verb in simple tenses, or immediately after the auxiliary in compound tenses.

Is his brother tall?
Does his father love him?
Has your sister danced?

Son frère est-il grand?

Son père l'aime-t-il ?

Votre sœur a-t-elle dansé ?

When the third person singular of a verb ends with a vowel, and is immediately followed by a pronoun, a euphonic t is placed between the verb and the pronoun; as:

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Do you like my pen-holder? No, it is too small. Do you see my dictionary? I have it. — To whom are you writing this letter? To my mother. - Does she answer your letters? Yes, always. — Has your niece the paper and envelopes? Yes, and she has also the inkstand and pen. - Have you my pencil? No, I have your sister's. Have you my brother's copy-book? I have not your brother's; I have Robert's. — Are your sister's pens good? No, I do not like them. Whose large book is this? It is Paul's. Do you see that child? I do. - Do you know him? He is (c'est) my friend's son. — I do not like that letter paper; it is very bad. — Does your sister lend or give her book to my cousin (f.)? I do not know. - Is it not damp to-day? It is damp and cold. sister is cold.


- Are you cold? My young


Is this pencil your sister's? No, it is my cousin's (ƒ.). — Is George's book dirty? No, George is a good boy; his books are clean, but his cousin's are very dirty. To whom do you give

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chocolate? I give some to my friends. - Whose knife is this? It is my niece's. Are your brothers happy? They are very happy. Is not your aunt's daughter angry with your sister? I do not know. - Poor child! you have no bread. No, sir, I have not any. - Has your little daughter paper, pen, and ink? She has some paper and a pen, but she has no inkstand. Have you not too much wine? No, not at all. - Do you like wine? Yes, I like good wine. - Have you not too many penholders? I have only one. - Do you not like these eggs? I like them very much; they are very good. - How are your parents? I thank you, they are pretty well. Are you not very warm? I am too warm. Are you thirsty? Very. (J'ai bien soif).

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The feminine of adjectives is formed by adding a mute e to the masculine:

grand, grande; petit, petite; fort, forte, strong.

Those ending in e mute in the masculine remain unchanged in the feminine: aimable, honnête, sage.

Adjectives ending in el, eil, on, ien, as, et, etc., double the final consonant and add e:

cruel, cruelle; pareil, pareille, equal.

bon, bonne; ancien, ancienne, old, ancient.

gras, grasse, fat; muet, muette, dumb.

Those ending in f change f into ve:

neuf, neuve; vif, vive, quick.

Those ending in x change x into se:

heureux, heureuse; jaloux, jalouse, jealous.

The feminine of some adjectives is irregularly formed; as:

blanc, blanche, white.

doux, douce, sweet.

franc, franche, frank.

faux, fausse, false.

public, publique, public.

turc, turque, Turkish, etc.

Some words ending in eur change it to euse; and teur to trice;

a few words in eur form their feminine in resse:

trompeur, trompeuse, deceiver.

inspecteur, inspectrice, inspector.
pécheur, pécheresse, sinner.

REMARKS.-1. Let the student notice that the characteristic sign of the feminine is e, and that the feminine plural is always formed by adding s to the feminine singular.

2. Certain nouns are subject to feminine forms (e), according to the sex they denote-ami, friend (m.), amie, friend (f.).

3. The résumé given on p. 41 contains not only the general rules, but also the principal exceptions.

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