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sword: 13 I know [thy works, thy wife Jezebel, who calleth

herself a prophetess, and teach. eth and seduceth my servants to commit fornication, and eat things offered to idols. 21 And I have given her time that she might reform; and she will not return from her fornication. 22 Behold, I will cast her on a

commit adultery with her into great affliction, unless they return from her deeds. 23 And I will kill her children by the pestilence; and all the churches shall know that I search the reins and the hearts, and will give to every one of you according to your works.

and] where thou dwellest, even where the throne of the adversary is and yet thou holdest fast my name, and didst not deny my faith, [even] in those days [in] which Antipas was my faithful witness, who was slain among you, were the adversary dwelleth. 14 Neverthe-bed of sickness, and those who less I have a few things against thee, because thou hast there such as hold the doctrine of Balaam, who taught Balac to cast a stumbling-block before the sons of Israel, that they might eat things offered to idols, and might commit fornication. 15 So hast thou also such as hold, in like manner, the doctrine of the Nicolaitans. 16 Reform therefore; or else I will come to thee quickly, and will war against them with the sword of my mouth.' 17 He who hath an ear, let him hear what the spirit saith to the churches. To him who overcometh I will give to eat of the hidden manna; and will give him a white stone, and on the stone a new name written, which no one knoweth but he who receiveth it.

18" AND to the messenger of the church in Thyatira write: These things saith the Son of God, who hath his eyes as a flame of fire, and whose feet are like fine brass; 19 I know thy [works and] thy love, and service, and faith, and patience, and thy last works, which are better than the first. 20 Nevertheless I have something against thee, because thou sufferest

24" But to you I say, even to the rest in Thyatira, as many as receive not this doctrine, and as have not known the deep things of the adversary, (as they speak;) I will put on you no other burden. 25 But what ye have, hold fast till I come. 26 And he who overcometh, and performeth my works to the end, to him I will give power over the nations; 27 and he shall rule them with a rod of iron; as the vessels of a potter they shall be broken in pieces; even as I have received from my Father. 28 And I will give him the morning-star.' 29 He who hath an ear, let him hear what the spirit saith to the churches.

CH. III. 1" AND to the messenger of the church in Sardis write: These things saith he who hath the seven spirits of God, and the seven stars: I know thy works, that thou hast

I will make them) to come, and do obeisance before thy feet, and know that I have loved thee. 10 Because thou hast kept my commandment concerning patience, I also will keep thee from the hour of trial, which is about to come on all the world, to try those who dwell upon the earth. 11 I shall come quickly: hold fast what thou hast, that no one take away thy crown. 12 Him who overcometh, I will make a pillar in the temple of my God, and he shall go out no more: and I will

the appearance of being alive, | gogue of the adversary* (who and yet are dead. 2 Be watch-say that they are Jews, and are ful, and strengthen the things not, but speak falsely, behold, which remain, which are about to die for I have not found thy works perfect before my God. 3 Remember therefore how thou hast received, [and heard, and keep those things,] and reform. If therefore thou shalt not watch, I will come [on thee] as a thief, and thou shalt not know what hour I will come on thee. 4 Yet thou hast a few persons in Sardis, who have not defiled their garments: and they shall walk with me in white; for they are worthy. 5 He who overcometh shall be clothed in white rai-write upon him the name of ment; and I will by no means blot out his name from the book of life, but I will confess his name before my Father, and before his angels.' 6 He who hath an ear, let him hear what the spirit saith to the churches. 7 AND to the messenger of the church in Philadelphia write These things saith he who is holy, he who is true, he who hath the key of David, he| who openeth and no one shutteth, and who shutteth and no one openeth: 8 I know thy works behold, I have set before thee an open door, which no one can shut: for thou hast but little power, and yet hast kept my word, and hast not denied my name. 9 Behold, I will cause those of the syna

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my God, of the new Jerusalem, which will come down from heaven from my God; and I will write upon him my new name.' 13 He who hath an ear, let him hear what the spirit saith to the churches.

14" AND to the messenger of the church in Laodicea write: These things saith the Amen, the faithful and true witness, the chief of the creation of God:† 15 I know thy works, that thou art neither cold nor hot: I would that thou wert either cold or hot. 16 So then because thou art lukewarm, and neither cold nor hot, I will soon cast thee out of my mouth. 17 Because thou sayest, I am rich, and grown wealthy, and have need of nothing; and knowest

* By the Synagogue of the adversary are to be understood those of the Jews who opposed the gospel.

+ Or, the beginning of the creation of God. The first born of the new creation, being the first who was raised from the dead. See Col. i. 15, 18.

not that thou art wretched, and pitiable, and poor, and blind, and naked; 18 I counsel thee to buy of me gold purified in the fire, that thou mayest grow wealthy; and white raiment, that thou mayest be clothed, and that the shame of thy nakedness may not appear: and to anoint thine eyes with eyesalve, that thou mayest see. 19 As many as I love, I rebuke and chasten: be zealous therefore, and reform. 20 Behold, I stand at the door and knock: if any one hear my voice, and open the door, I will come in to him, and will sup with him, and he with me. 21 To him who overcometh I will grant to sit with me on my throne.' 22 He who hath an ear, let him hear what the spirit saith to the churches." CH. IV. 1 AFTER these things I looked, and, behold, a door was opened in heaven: and the first voice which I heard was as it were of a trumpet talking with me, and saying, "Come up hither, and I will show thee things which must happen shortly." 2 [And] immediately I was in the spirit: and, behold, a throne was placed in heaven, and one sat on the throne.* 3 [And he who sat] was in appearance like a jasper and a sardius: and a rainbow was round about the throne, in

appearance, like an emerald. 4 And encircling the chief-throne were twenty-four thrones: and upon the thrones I saw twentyfour elders sitting, clothed in white raiment; and on their heads crowns of gold. 5 And from the throne proceed lightnings, and thunderings, and voices. And seven lamps of fire were burning before the throne; which are [the] seven spirits of God. 6 And there was before the throne, as it were, a glassy sea, resembling crystal: and in the midst of the throne, and round about the throne, were four living creatures full of eyes before and behind. 7 And the first living creature was like a lion, and the second living creature like a steer, and the third living creature had the face of a man, and the fourth living creature was like a flying eagle. 8 And the four living creatures had each of them six wings, full of eyes round about and within: and they rest not day nor night, saying, "Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty; who was, and is, and is to come." 9 And when those living creatures give glory, and honour, and thanks, to him who sat on the throne, who liveth to the ages of ages, 10 the twenty-four elders, fall down before him who sat on the throne, and wor

* "We are not to imagine,' says Doddridge, 'that the person sitting on the throne, [or the Lamb or the twenty-four elders, or the four animals, were real beings, existing in nature; though they represented, in a figurative manner, things that did really exist. I think it pro bable, that all which passed was in the imagination of St. John.' This observation is very just and important. The whole scenery of this vision passed in the imagination of St. John; and we can no more argue the real external existence of such beings as angels and devils are commonly conceived to be, from the appearance in this vision, than we can infer the real existence of a lamb with seven eyes, or a dragon with seven heads. All these visionary characters are alike symbolic of the means by which events, whether good or evil, are brought to pass under the direction of divine Providence." Im. Ver. note.

ship him who liveth to the ages of ages, and cast their crowns before the throne, saying, 11 "Thou art worthy, O Lord, to receive glory, and honour, and power: for thou hast created all things, and by thy will they were in being, and were created.".

having, every one of them, harps, and golden phials* full of incense, which are the prayers of the saints. 9 And they sang a new song, saying, "Thou art worthy to take the book, and to open its seals: for thou wast slain, and hast bought [us] to God in thy blood, out of every tribe, and language, and people, and nation; 10 and thou hast made them kings and priests to our God; and they shall reign on the earth.”

CH. V. 1 AND I saw in the right hand of him who sat on the throne a book, written within and without, sealed with seven seals. 2 And I saw a mighty angel proclaiming in a loud 11 And I looked, and I heard voice, "Who [is] worthy to the voice of many angels who open the book, and to loose its encircled the throne, and the seals? 3 And no one in hea- living creatures, and the elders; ven, or on the earth, or under (and the number of them was the earth, was able to open the myriads of myriads, and thoubook, and to look therein. 4 sands of thousands;) 12 saying And I wept much because no with a loud voice, "Worthy is one was found worthy to open the lamb that was slain, to rethe book, and to look therein. ceive power, and wealth, and 5 Then one of the elders said wisdom, and might, and honour, to me, "Weep not: behold, and glory, and blessing." 13 the lion of the tribe of Judah, And every creature that [is] in the root of David, hath prevail-heaven, and on the earth, and ed so as to open the book, and under the earth, and those that its seven seals." 6 And I be- are on the sea, and all things held, in the midst, between the that are in them, I heard, saythrone and the four living crea-ing, "Blessing, and honour, tures, and in the midst, between the elders, a lamb standing, as if it had been slain, having seven horns, and seven eyes; which are the seven spirits of God sent forth into all the earth. 7 And he came and took [the book] out of the right hand CH. VI. 1 AND I saw when of him who sat upon the throne. the lamb opened one of the se8 And when he had taken ven seals; and I heard the first the book, the four living crea-of the four living creatures, tures, and the twenty-four eld- as with the sound of thunder, ers, fell down before the lamb, saying, "Come [and see]." 2

and glory, and dominion, be to him who sitteth upon the throne, and to the lamb, to the ages of ages." 14 And the four living creatures said, "Amen." And the elders fell down and worshipped.

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[And I looked,] and, behold, a white horse: and he who sat thereon had a bow; and a crown was given to him: and he went forth conquering, and to conquer.

3 And when he had opened the second seal, I heard the second living creature saying, "Come." 4 And another horse, that was red, went forth; and a command was given to him who sat thereon to take peace [from] the earth, [so] that men should kill one another; and there was given to him a great sword.

5 And when he had opened the third seal, I heard the third living creature saying, "Come [and see]." [And I looked,] and, behold, a black horse: and he who sat on him had a pair of balances in his hand. 6 And | I heard a voice in the midst of the four living creatures, saying, "A small measure of wheat for a denarius, and three small measures of barley for a denarius but hurt thou not the oil and the wine."

7 And when he had opened the fourth seal, I heard the fourth living creature saying, "Come [and see]." 8 [And I looked,] and, behold, a pale horse; and the name given to him who sat thereon was Death, and Hades* followed him. And power was given him over the fourth part of the earth, to kill by the sword, and by famine, and by pestilence, and by the wild beasts of the earth.

9 And when he had opened the fifth seal, I saw under the altar the souls of those who had been slain for the word of God, and for the testimony which they had borne. 10 And they cried with a loud voice, saying, "How long, O sovereign Lord, holy and true, wilt thou not judge and avenge our blood on those who dwell upon the earth?" 11 And a white robe was given to every one of them: and they were told to rest yet for a time, till the number of their fellow-servants also and of their brethren, who were about to be killed as they were, should be filled up.

12 And I looked when he had opened the sixth seal, and there was a great earthquake; and the sun became black as sackcloth of hair, and the whole moon became as blood; 13 and the stars of heaven fell to the earth, as a fig-tree casteth its untimely figs when it is shaken by a mighty wind. 14 And the heaven departed, as a parchment when it is rolled together; and every mountain and island were moved out of their places. 15 And the kings of the earth, and the great men, and the commanders, and the rich, and the strong, and every slave, and [every] freeman, hid themselves in the dens and in the rocks of the mountains; 16 and said to the mountains and to the rocks, "Fall on us, and hide us from the face of him who sitteth on the throne, and from

* See ch. i. 18, note: and so in all places where the word occurs.

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