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A T L A N T I C
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John Bartholomew & Co., Edin?
Copyright 1889 in U.S.
rugged, forming remarkably grand and picturesque and seal fisheries having declined. Oyster-fishing scenery: The people are still almost purely Celtic. is engaged in largely and very systematically, as In ancient times the O'Connors were kings of Con is the taking of fish for oil and fish-guano. The naught. In 1590 the province was divided by the manufactures of Connecticut are carried on upon English into six counties, its present five, with a very extensive scale, and are of exceedingly Clare, afterwards joined to Munster. In 1874 the varied character; and notwithstanding its small title Duke of Connaught was conferred on Prince the state stands in the first rank as Arthur, third son of Queen Victoria. The terri- spects the amount and aggregate value of manutorial regiment, the Connaught Rangers, once the factured goods. Clocks, hardware, india-rubber 88th foot, now comprises the old 88th and 94th goods, firearms, silks and other textiles, and smallregiments (with four battalions of militia). Pop. wares in great variety, are produced on a large (1841) 1,420,705; (1851) 1,015,479 ; (1861) 919,135 ; scale. Life, fire, and accident insurance, and the (1881) 817,197 ; (1891) 723,573, a decrease due to publication of subscription books, receive great famine and emigration.
attention. The state is well supplied with railways. Connecticut (kon-net-e-cut), one of the six In very few parts of the world has more been done New England states of the American Union, is for popular education than in this state. Private, bounded N. by Massachusetts, E.
denominational, and parochial schools of every by Rhode Island, S. by Long by J. B. Lippincott grade supplement the work of this public school Island Sound, W. by the state of
system. The latter dates from 1644. Yale UniNew York. It is the smallest in area of all the versity at New Haven comprises collegiate and states, excepting Rhode Island and Delaware ; but post-graduate courses, besides medical, theological, there were in 1880 ten states smaller in population scientific, law, and art schools, and takes a very than Connecticut. Its area is 4845 sq. m., or nearly high place among the seats of learning in the two-thirds that of Wales. It is one of the most country. Mention should be made of Trinity densely peoplel states of the Union. A great College, Hartford, and of the Wesleyan University part of the surface is rocky and uneven, and the
at Middletown. There are also divinity schools Green and Taconic Mountains of the Appalachian at Hartford (Congregationalist) and Middletown system occupy a considerable part of the western (Episcopalian). The state supports a full compleextremity of the state ; but the mountains here ment of institutions for correction and charity. are all insignificant in respect of height. Much of Among the principal cities and towns are Hartford the surface is not easily cultivated, and rather (the capital), New Haven, Bridgeport, Waterbury, unfertile ; but a considerable part of the valley of Meriden, Norwich, Norwalk, New Britain, Danthe Connecticut River is very productive, tobacco bury, Derby, Stamford, and New London. being a leading product of this section. Hay, The old stock of inhabitants were of English potatoes, maize, oats, and rye are the principal Puritan origin, but of later years there has been crops, Grazing and milk farms, orchards and a large immigration of Irish, German, English, market-gardens, are profitably sustained in all
and others. The colony of Connecticut may be parts of the state.
said to date from 1634, when the movement The Connecticut River, whichi, rising in New began in which Hartford, Wethersfield, and Hampshire, forms the boundary between that state
Windsor were settled by persons removing from and Vermont, and flows south through Massa- Massachusetts, and displacing a slender colony chusetts, crosses Connecticut also, and after a of the Dutch. This movement was in reality course of about 450 miles enters Long Island Sound,
the secession of the more democratic element from 30 miles east of New Haven. It is navigable for Massachusetts. Saybrook, named in honour of vessels of light draught as high as Hartford. In Lord Say-and-Sele and Lord Brooke, was the the east part is the River Thames, and in the west nucleus of a separate colony which in 1614 was the Housatonic, both of which afford some naviga- united to Connecticut, as was in 1662 the New tion. But the greatest value of the very numerous
Haven colony, founded in 1638. The Connecticut streams is as a source of water-power. In 1880 colony adopted a constitution in 1639, the first over one-half the power employed in the mam
written democratic constitution on record.' The factories of the state was water-power; and the royal charter of 1662 was exceedingly liberal, it utilised water-power was returned by the United being essentially a confirmation of the older conStates census as 12:03 horse-power per sq. m.
stitution ; and it continued in force even after the The surface-rocks are mostly Azoic, with the independence of the American states, but in 1818 principal exception of a strip of Triassic sandstone was replaced by the present state constitution. A or psammite running along the Connecticut River. large part of Long Island was for a considerable This brown sandstone is largely quarried at Port- period under the government of the colony, Promland and East Haven, as are excellent red and inent events in Connecticut history have been the plain granites and gneissoid building-stones at bloody war with the Pequot Indians, 1637; the many points; valuable serpentine and verde governorship of Sir Edmund Andros, during a part antique exist near New Haven. Some quarries of which (1687-88) the colonial charter was in yield excellent tlagstones of gneissoid character; abeyance, and according to the very doubtful but the so-called “trap rock, here really a diabase of commonly receiveil account was only saved from Triassic date, is also wronght; and in the north- destruction by being hidden for a time in a hollow west good limestones of Lower Silurian age are
tree, the Charter Oak at Hartford. Slavery was quarried. Brown hematites are extensively wrought
abolished in 1818. Pop. (1870) 537,454 ; (1880) in the north-west section, and yield excellent iron. 622,700 (of whom 129,992 were foreign born); (1890) Deposits of lead, copper, and cobalt have been 746,258. See Ales. Johnston's Connecticut (1887). locally mined. Useful mineral-waters occur at
Connema'ra is the name of the wild and various points. The climate is very changeable, and picturesque district which forms the westernmost is rather severe in winter, but generally healthful. Nearly the whole surface was once richly forested; its lakes, streams, and inlets abounding in fish,
division of County Galway. Its interesting scenery, but no very extensive areas are now covered by large timber; still the aggregate production of
attract many fishers and tourists. Connemara is wood for building purposes and for fuel is very
also called Ballynahinch. considerable. The sea-coast affords a number of Connoisseur, a term borrowed from the French, good harbours. Most of the maritime enterprise is to designate persons who, without being themHow directed to the coast-wise trade, the whale selves artists, are competent to pass a critical
judgment upon the merits of works of art, especially had succeeded to the kingdom of Burguudy, which in painting and sculpture. The Italian equivalent he annexed the empire. In 1036 a rebellion in for connoisseurs is Cognoscenti.
Italy again compelled him to cross the Alps ; but Conodonts, minute fossils met with in his efforts to restore his authority were this time Paleozoic strata. They are variable in form, and unsuccessful, and he was forced to grant various look very like the teeth of different kinds of fishes, privileges to his Italian subjects. Shortly after his some being simple slender pointed sharp-edged return he died at Utrecht, 4th June 1039. Conrad cones, while others are more complex, resembling
was one of the most remarkable of the earlier in form the teeth of certain sharks. Their affinities monarchs of Germany. He reduced the dangerous are very uncertain—some maintaining that they are power of the great dukes of the empire, and dereally the minute teeth of fishes allied to the living fended the rights of the humbler people against hag-fishes and lampreys—others suggesting that oppression by the nobility. they have more analogy with the hooklets or
Conrad III., king of the Germans, the founder denticles of annelids and naked molluscs.
of the Hohenstaufen (q.v.) dynasty, was the son of Conoid, a solid formed by the revolution of a Frederick of Swabia, and was born in 1093. While conic section round its axis ; such are the sphere, under twenty years of age, Conrad, with his elder paraboloid, ellipsoid, and hyperboloid.
brother Frederick, had bravely supported Henry V. Conolly, John, physician, born at Market against his numerous enemies, and in return that
monarch granted Conrad the investiture of the Rasen, Lincolnshire, in 1794, graduated at Edinburgh in 1821, and in 1827 settled in London, duchy of Franconia. He subsequently contested where he was for two years professor of the Practice Saxony, but was compelled to resign his pre:
the crown of Italy with the Emperor Lothaire of appointed resident physician to the Asylum for the tensions. On the death of Lothaire, the princes of Insane at Hanwell; tỉis post he held till 1844, and Germany, fearing the increasing preponderance of afterwards he was retained as visiting physician. the Guelphi party, and attracted by his brilliant Here, under Conolly, all forms of mechanical courage, moderation, and goodness, offered Conrad restraint were from the first entirely discontinued; Aix-la-Chapelle, 21st February 1138.
the crown, and he was accordingly crowned at
He was and although his views were admittedly not orig: immediately involved in a quarrel with Henry the inal
, it is mainly to his earnestness and eloquence Proud, Duke of Bavaria and Saxony, and head of that the revolution in asylum management in England is due. His best works are those on the
the Guelph party in Germany; and the struggle
was continued under Henry's son and successor, Construction and Government of Lunatic Asylums (1847), and kindred subjects. He died 5th March Henry the Lion (9.v., and see GUELPHS AND
GHIBELLINES). 1866. See the Memoir by Sir James Clark (1869).
While Germany was thus con
vulsed, the state of Italy was not a whit more Conquest. In the law of succession in Scotland
The several belligerents besought heritable property acquired during the lifetime of Conrad's assistance, but he well knew the natural the deceased, by purchase, donation, or excambion, inconstancy of the Italians, and determined to was called Conquest, in opposition to that to which stand aloof. Soon after this St Bernard of Clairhe has succeeded, which is called Heritage. The
vaux commenced to preach a new crusade, and distinction was abolished by the Conveyancing Act, Conrad, seized with the general infatuation, set out 1874. Conquest, in a marriage-contract, is property for Palestine at the head of a large army (see acquired by the husband during the marriage as CRUSADES). A new attempt by the Duke of distinguished from what he possessed before the Bavaria to regain his dukedoni was defeated by the marriage. Such property was frequently but is nephew of Conrad, whose health had broken now rarely settled either on the heir or on the during the crusade. Conrad died at Bamberg in issue of the marriage.
1152. See GERMANY. Conquistado'res (Span., conquerors') is a collective term for the Spanish conquerors of
Conradin of SWABIA, the last descendant of America, such as Cortes, Balboa, Pizarro. See the the imperial House of Hohenstaufen (9.v.), was articles under their names; as also MEXICO, PERU, in 1252, two years before his father's death.
the son of Conrad IV. (1237–54), and was born
uncle Manfred (q.v.) bad assumed the crown of Conrad, or KONRAD I., king of the Germans, Sicily on a rumour of Conradin's death, though he was the son of the Count of Franconia, and the declared himself ready to give it up to the rightful nephew of the Emperor Arnulf. He was elected
heir. But Pope Clement VI.'s hatred of the king (practically emperor of Germany) on the Hohenstaufens led him to offer the crown of the extinction of the direct line of the Carlovingians Two Sicilies to Charles of Anjou, a consummate in 911 A.D. He gradually re-established the im
warrior and able politician. Charles immediately perial authority over most of the German princes, invaded Italy, and met his antagonist at Benevento, carried on an unsuccessful war with France, and at
where the defeat and death of Manfred, in 1266, last fell mortally wounded at Quedlinburg (918), in a battle with the Hungarians, who had repeatedly But the Neapolitans, detesting their new master,
gave him undisturbed possession of the kingdom. invaded his dominions. See GERMANY.
sent deputies to Bavaria to invite Conradin, then in Conrad II., king of the Germans, and Roman his 16th year, to come and assert his hereditary emperor, was elected after the extinction of the rights. Conradin accordingly made his appearance Saxon imperial family in 1024. He was the in Italy at the head of 10,000 men, and being son of Henry, Duke of Franconia, and is by many joined by the Neapolitans in large numbers, gained considered as the founder of the Franconian several victories over the French, but was finally dynasty. Immediately after his election he com- defeated near Tagliacozzo, 220 August 1268, and menced a tour through Germany to administer taken prisoner along with Frederick of Baden and justice. In 1026 he crossed the Alps, chastised the other comrades. The two unfortunate princes rebellious Italians, was crowned at Milan as king were, with the consent of the pope, executed in the of Italy, and he and his wife Gisela were anointed market-place of Naples on the 20th October. emperor and empress of the Romans by the pope. few minutes before his execution, Conradin, on the He was soon recalled to Germany to put down scaffold, took off his glove, and threw it into the four formidable revolts, in which he succeeded so midst of the crowd as a gage of vengeance, request. well that by 1033 peace was restored. In 1032 he | ing that it might be carried to his heir, Peter of