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CEDAR

CEILING

duced into Britain is not exactly known. The dis- Cedar Creek is a river of Virginia, U.S., tinction of introducing it is ascribed with most which gives name to a battle fought 19th October evidence of accuracy to Evelyn, who in his Sylva 1862, when the Federals under Sheridan defeated (published 1664) mentions having received cones the Confederates under Early. and seeds from the mountains of Libanus,' while

Cedar Rapids, a town of Linn county, Iowa, describing the beauties of the tree and speaking of its probable adaptability to the English climate. It is an important railway centre, and has several

on the Red Cedar River, 79 miles SW. of Dubuque. Aiton in Hortus Kewensis makes 1683 the date large flour-mills, carriage and machine works, and of planting the celebrated Chelsea cedars, which breweries. Pop. (1860) 1830 ; (1890) 18,020. are assumed by some to have been the first trees planted in England. There are many fine speci.

Cedilla (Sp., Fr. cédille, It. zediglia; from inens of the Lebanon cedar in different parts of zeta, the Greek name for z, because it has taken Britain, notably at Sion House, Goodwood, and the place of z in such words as leczon, mod. leçon, Enfield in England, and at Hopetoun, Dalkeith, a mark placed under the letter c (f), especially in and Beaufort in Scotland.

French, where it is desired to give c the sound of The Deodar, or Himalayan Cedar (Cedrus Deo

s before the vowels a, 0, u. dara), a tree held in great veneration by the Cedrate. See CITRON. Hindus, and of which the name is properly Deva- Cedrelaceæ, a sub-order of Meliacea (9.v.), dara (divine tree'), is common in the Himalaya all tropical or subtropical trees or shrubs, with pinmountains at elevations of 7000 to 12,000 feet, nate leaves, mostly valuable for their timber-e.g. forming magnificent forests, and attaining a great mahogany, satin-wood, toon, Barbadoes cedar, the size, a height sometimes of 150 feet, with a trunk yellow-wood of New South Wales, &c. The barks 30 feet or more in circumference, an anıple head, of some species are febrifugal. See MAHOGANY, and spreading branches. It and the cedar of CEDAR (BARBADOES), &c. Algiers (C. Atlantica or Africana), found in the mountainous regions of the north of Africa, are

Cefalù, a town of Sicily, on the north coast,

40 miles ESE. of Palermo. It is situated at the but sub-species or varieties of the Cedrus Libani. The wood of the deodar is resinous, fragrant, com

foot of a lofty promontory (1235 feet), with old pact, and very durable. It is susceptible of a

Greek and Saracenic remains. It has a cathedral, high polish, and in its polished state has been marble-quarrying and fishing.

a port, and 12,714 inhabitants, chiefly engaged in compared to brown agate. Owing to the abundance of resin, laths of it burn like candles. Its turpen; of Taranto. It has a trade in grain, oil, and fruit.

Ceglie, a town in Southern Italy, 21 miles NE. tine is very fluid, and although coarse, is much used in India for medical purposes ; and tar and Pop. 13,865. pitch are obtained from the trunk. The deodar Ceiling (Fr. ciel ; Lat. cælum, 'heaven'). This has now become very common as an ornamental term seems to have been suggested by the use of tree in Britain, although few specimens have yet arched coverings for churches, and even for rooms, attained a very considerable size. — The name which prevailed in the middle ages, and were cedar is often given to other coniferous trees frequently painted blue and decorated with stars. besides the true cedars. Thus, the Siberian Stone Arched ceilings among the Romans were known Pine, or Cembra Pine, is called the Siberian Cedar | by the name of camere, and were formed by semi(see PINE), and a species of fir ( Abies religiosa) is circular beams of wood, at small distances from the Red Cedar of California (see Fir). A species each other, over which was placed a coating of of Cypress (q.v.) is known as White Cedar, and lath and plaster. But the ceilings most coinmonly another as the Cedar of Goa. Several of the trees in use amongst the Romans were flat, the beams, which bear the name cedar are species of Juniper as in modern times, having been at first visible, (9.v.), among which are the Virginian Cedar, or and afterwards covered with planks and plaster. Red Cedar of North America, and the Bermuda Sometimes hollow spaces were left between the Cedar-- which yield the cedar-wood used for pencils beams, which were frequently covered with gold ---the Spanish Cedar of the south of Europe, &c. and ivory, or paintings or “pateræ '-large flowers The name cedar is even given to trees which have ---such, for instance, as are used in the panels of no resemblance to the true cedars except in the the vault of the Pantheon. The oldest flat resinous quality of the wood ; thus the Cedar-wood ceiling in existence is believed to be that of Peterof Guiana is produced by Icica altissima, a tree of borough Cathedral. Like that at St Albans Abbey, the natural order Amyridacea (4.v.); the cedar of it is made of wood. Ceilings of churches in the the West Indies (see next article) belongs to the middle ages were generally painted and gilded natural order Cedrelacea; and the name Bastard in the most brilliant manner; and many existing Cedar is given in India to a tree of the natural order ceilings still exhibit the traces of early decoration Byttneriaceze (q.v.).

of this kind. In French churches the ceilings are Cedar, BARBADOES, is strictly speaking Juni

generally vaulted, but in England they are more

The older ceilings generally perus baradensis ; but a more important tree is usually, of wood. that called Bastard Barbadoes Cedar (Cedrela follow the line of the timbers of the roof, which, odorata), a tree of the order Cedrelaceae (q.v.).

in the Early English and Decorated, are often Its wood has an agreeable fragrance, and being arranged so as to give the shape of a barrel vault. soft and light, it is used for canoes and for shingles.

In ceilings of this description there seldom are Havannah cigar-boxes are very generally made of

many ribs, often only a single one along the top. it, and in France it is used in making black-lead

In the Perpendicular style, the ceiling often con

sists of a series of tlat surfaces or cants, formed on pencils.

the timbers of the roof. Though sometimes alto. Cedar-bergen, a mountain-range in Cape gether destitute of ornament, they are more freColony, stretches north and south on the east side quently enriched with ribs, dividing them into of Olifant River Valley, in Clanwilliam division,

square panels, with bosses (see Boss) or flowers at and has plantations of Cape cedar (Widuringtonia the intersections. Wooden ceilings are sometimes juniperoides), which are now, however, being fast formed in imitation of stone-groining, with ribs destroyed. This is the only locality where this and bosses, examples of which will be found at species is found. Sneeuwkop (6335 feet) is the York, Winchester, and Lincoln. In the Elizahighest point of the range.

bethan age ceilings were generally of plaster, but Cedar Bird. See WAXWING.

they were ornamented with ribs having bosses or CELAKOVSKY

CELEBES

43

a

small pendants at the intersections. It is not lated ranunculaceous plant, which grows in abundunusual for the ceiling immediately over the altar, ant patches in fields and coppices, and brightens or the roodloft, to be richly ornamented, whilst the them in early spring with its plentiful golden rest is plain. See RooF.

flowers. Its tuberous roots and swollen separable Celakovsky, (1) FRANZ LADISLAUS, Bohemian buds give it additional botanical interest, while it poet, born in Strakonitz, 7th March 1799, died at is also noteworthy that these results of peculiarly Prague, professor of Slavonic Philology, 5th August vegetative habit are associated with a frequent 1852. His principal works are Echoes of Russian imperfect maturity of the pollen. See REPROand Bohemian Folk-songs (1833-40), and a cycle of DUCTION. love-songs and didactic and political poems (1840). Celano, LAGO DI. See FUCINO (LAKE OF). He also translated the works of Herder, Goethe, Celastraceæ. See SPINDLE-TREE. and Scott.—(2) LADISLAUS, botanist, born in Prague, 29th November 1834, was appointed pro; juato, on the Rio Laja, about 150 miles by rail

Celaya, a town in the Mexican state of Guana. fessor of Botany there in 1880. monographs on particular genera, he has published ww. of the city of Mexico, has several fine plazas, a general book on the Bohemian flora (3. parts, and woollen cloths and saddlery. Pop: (1877),

handsome churches, and manufactures of cotton 1867-75) and an elucidation of the Darwinian theory. with district, 28,336. The burning of its bull-ring,

Cel’andine is the popular name (and corrup- on Easter Sunday 1888, caused considerable loss of tion) of Chelidonium majus, a perennial papavera- life.

Celebes (in England usually pronounced Ce'lebes), the third largest and the central island of the Eastern Archipelago, from 1° 45' N. to 5° 37' S. lat., and from 118° 49' to 125° 5' E. long. ; about 800 miles long by 200 broad; total area estimated at 76,260 sq. m. It is practically a Dutch possession, though there are numerous small native states. In configuration, it consists of a central nucleus whence radiate four_long mountainous limbs, respectively E., NE., SE., and S., inclosing the three gulfs of Gorontalo, running in nearly 200 miles, Tolo 150 miles, and Boni about 200 miles. The gulfs, as also the north and west coasts, are studded with islands, rocks and shoals, and larger outlying islands. Of the central nucleus and the two inner limbs little is known. The east end of the eastern peninsula (north end of island), Minahassa district, is subject to earthquakes, and

contains 11 volcanoes, some of them active, such Celandine (Chelidonium majus) :

as Mount Sapoetan (5938 feet), and, farther east, a, a flower.

Mount Klabat (6559 feet), which has now, however,

long been quiescent, besides numerous hot springs ceous herb, which, although not uncommon in and sulphur lakes. The mountains of the south Britain, is doubtfully indigenous. Its pretty foliage peninsula, essentially a limestone formation, seldom

and umbels of rise above 2000 feet. In the extreme south, how-
small yellow ever, are Maros (4225 feet) and Bonthain ( 9994 feet).
flowers, which The uplands of the south peninsula are well wooded,
bloom from but its vegetation is much less luxuriant than that
May to August, of the east peninsula. Between the hills and coast
might alone of the south peninsula are extensive grassy plains,
attract atten. affording pasture for large herds of cattle, and for
tion, but its the horses for which the district is famous.
ancient repute Celebes is rich in lakes, among them, Passo, in
among herbal. the central nucleus, 35 miles by 25 miles, and Ton-
ists is due to its dano, nearly 2000 feet above the sea. There are
yellow milky numerous streams, but Celebes, no part of which is
juice, which is more than 50 miles from the sea, offers no space
very acrid and for the formation of large rivers. The Sadang,
poisonous. Ex rising near lake Passo, flows due south for nearly
ternally it was 120 miles.
applied to warts Thanks to the elevation of the land and its sea-

and ulcers, and exposure, Celebes enjoys a comparatively cool and Lesser Celandine

internally ad healthy climate. The vegetation includes rice, (Ranunculus Ficaria).

ministered, it maize, coffee, sugar, tobacco, indigo, areca, betel,

was supposed pepper, clove and nutmeg growing wild; the tree to be a specific for jaundice, apparently on no yielding macassar oil, oak, teak, cedar, ebony, hetter warrant, however, than that drawn from sandalwood, bamboos ; also the upas. Minahassa, its colour by the doctrine of signatures.' Its old the most highly cultivated district, 60 by 20 miles, English name Swallow-wort, which appears to be has coffee plantations, producing coffee of a realmost a translation of the botanical one, seems markably fine flavour, entirely in the hands of the founded on a supposed association between the government, and where alone the 'culture system' beginning and ending of its flowering time and has been applied in its integrity since 1822. Many the arrival and departure of the swallows. It is, animals, birds, and insects are wholly peculiar to bowever, the LESSER CELANDINE which is more Celebes—a tailless baboon, two kinds of cuscus, the familiar to general readers, at least since Words- babiroussa, and Sapi-utan, three kinds of starlings, worth devoted no fewer than three poems to its two magpies, &c. "Gold is obtained from surface honour. This is Ranunculus Ficaria, also known washings, principally in Minahassa and Gorontalo as the common fig-wort or pile-wort, a quite unre- districts ; iron in the districts bordering the Gul 44

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CELERY

CELIBACY

of Tolo. Salt is also abundant. Tin and copper speaking parts. She retired from the stage in 1874, are likewise worked.

and died at Paris, 12th February 1882. The population of the island of Celebes is given Celestine, a mineral bearing the relation to at 1,000,000, who may all be regarded as belong. Strontium (q.v.) that heavy spar bears to barium. ing to various Malay stocks, excepț 7000 Chinese It is essentially sulphate of strontia, SrOSOs, with and 2500 Europeans. The Bugis (see BONI) occasional admixture of sulphate of baryta, carand Mangkassars of the south peninsula, tall, bonate of lime, oxide of iron, &c., in small proshapely, and comparatively fair, are the dominant portions. It much resembles heavy spar, but is not native race, much disposed to trading and seafaring. quite equal to it in specific gravity; is usually blue, The ‘Alfuros,' a collective name for the other often of a very beautiful indigo-blue; sometimes native tribes, are at a very low grade of culture. colourless, more rarely reddish or yellowish. Its Celebes was first visited in 1525 by a Portuguese crystallisation is rhombic, like that of heavy spar. expedition from the Moluccas. In 1607 the Dutch Most beautiful specimens of crystallised celestine began to trade with Celebes, and now claim the are found in Sicily. Celestine derives its name whole island, which they have divided into the from its colour. It is the source from which nitrate residencies of Macassar and Menado, a third divi. of strontia, employed in the manufacture of firesion round the north and west of the Gulf of Toloworks, is derived. being included in the residence of the Ternate. The total value of the exports in 1884 was £600,000, of whom filled St Peter's chair in 422-432 (see

Celestine was the name of five popes, the first of which coffee formed nearly a half; and the im. ports in the same year, £465, 714. The women of Peter'di Morrone, who after a long life of ascetic

POPE). The most notable was the Neapolitan Celebes weave the sarang, or national garment,

severities was much against his will elected pope as which, together with variegated mats, is largely exported. A ‘high-road' skirts the coast of the south Celestine V. in 1294, when he was nearly eighty peninsula from Mandale, 30 miles N. of Macassar, | months, the great refusal,' for making which he

He resigned his office after five to Balang-Nifra, on the Gulf of Boni ; elsewhere is placed by Dante at the entrance of hell. He was are only ordinary roads and footpaths. The chief imprisoned by his successor, Boniface VIII., and town is Macassar, with a sea-frontage of nearly 25 died in 1296. He was founder of the Celestines, miles. Menado, the capital of Minahassa district, and was canonised in 1313. and seat of a Dutch resident, is described as the prettiest settlement in the whole of the Dutch East Celestines, an order of hermits of St Damianus, Indies, and has a pop. of 2500. See Lahure, L'ile founded by Peter di Morrone about 1254, and conde Célébes (Paris, 1879).

firmed as a monkish order by Urban IV. in 1264 Celery (Apium), a widely distributed genus of selves Celestines when their founder ascended the

and by Gregory X. in 1274. They called themUmbelliferze. The common celery (A. graveolens) | papal chair. They follow the rule of Șt Benedict, is found wild in Britain and most parts of Europe, wear a white garment with black hood and scapuin ditches, brooks, &c., especially near the sea and lary, and live a purely contemplative life. In the in saline soils, and is acrid and uneatable. In cul- 13th and 14th centuries the order spread rapidly tivation, however, abundant nutrition has greatly through France, Italy, and Germany, but subsemollified its properties, and two principal forms quently decayed, and is now almost extinct. The have arisen-one in which an abundant develop- French Celestines were secularised by order of Pope ment of parenchyma has taken place in the leaf. Pius VI. in 1776-78; so also were the Neapolitan stalks; the other in which it affects the root—while Celestines. these again possess their sub-varieties. The former sort is the common celery of British gardens, where

Celibacy (from cælebs, 'unmarried'), a state the familiar long blanched succulent stalks are opposed to the first and strongest natural law (Gen. produced by transplanting the seedlings into richly i. 28), has from a variety of causes come to be remanured trenches, which are filled up as the plants of the most sublime self-sacrifice. The perpetual

garded in certain religious systems as a condition grow, and finally raised into ridges over which little celibacy of the priests of Isis, and the chastity more than the tops of the leaves appear; and a supply is thus insured throughout the whole nowhere was this sentiment so strongly and widely

of the vestal virgins, are familiar instances. But winter. The other form is the turnip-rooted manifested as among the millions devoted to celery, or celeriac, and is now largely cultivated the religion of Buddha. The theories of oriental on the Continent. Both forms are eaten uncooked philosophers and the natural tendency of mystics alone, or in salads, or in soups, or as a boiled or

did not fail to influence the early Christian churches, stewed vegetable, and are pleasant and wholesome, although when used too freely or frequently they and led before long to the doctrine that virginity is are diuretic and aphrodisiac. Some authorities

a state in itself more excellent and more holy than identify celery, instead of the closely related Parsley the married life, and to the discipline which, in the (9.v.), as the Apium with which victors in the Roman Church at least, imposed celibacy upon all Isthmian and other games were crowned, and of priests and sacred ministers. The Old Testament which the Greeks were also wont to twine their celibacy above matrimony. But although texts

is remarkably free from any tendency to exalt sepulchral garlands.

may be quoted on either side, the germs of the Céleste, MADAME, dancer, was born in Paris doctrine in question may be discovered in the New 6th August 1814 (by her own account), more prob. Testament. ' St Paul affirms it to be 'good for a ably three or four years earlier. A pupil at the man not to touch a woman,' and wishes that all Conservatoire, she early showed remarkable talent. men were celibate like himself (1 Cor. vii. I, 7). She made her debut in 1827 at New York, and dur. Christ himself speaks mysterious words in coming her residence in America married one Elliott, mendation of those who have made themselves who died early. At Liverpool in 1830 she played eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven's sake;' and Fenella in Alasaniello ; in 1831-33 she became the Lamb is followed on Mount Zion by 144,000 extremely popular in London. Her second visit to virgins, 'first-fruits unto God and unto the Lamb' America (1834–37) is said to have brought her (Rev. xiv. 1-5). £40,000. After her return she took part succes. The apostolic writings, however, while they sug. sively in the management of the Theatre Royal, gest the excellence of virginity in general, supply Liverpool, and the Adelphi and Lyceum in London. no ground for the law of clerical celibacy. In the Her imperfect English long contined her to non- first epistle to Timothy, the deacon as well as

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the bishop is told he must be the husband of children, and provided for them out of the property one wife, and rule his household and his children of the church. Avaricious princes and prelates well; and forbidding to marry'is reckoned made traffic of the concubinage of the lower clergy among the doctrines of devils. But a remote | by levying a species of blackmail, under the name sanction for the later discipline has been sought of fines, on the tacit understanding that the focaria, for in the regulations of the Jewish priest. or occupant of the priest's hearth, should not be hood. The Mosaic law forbade priests to marry disturbed. At the time of the Council of Trent, divorced women or harlots, and enjoined continence the Emperor Charles, in the expectation that some upon all when preparing to offer sacrifice. Jerome relaxation would be made in the laws on the subargues that the Christian priest should offer sacrifice ject, permitted in 1548, by the arrangement known daily, and should therefore be perpetually con- as the Interim, married priests to retain their wives tinent; and Pope Siricius (385 A.D.) insists that until the council should come to a decision. The marriage was permitted to the priest of the old law Emperor Ferdinand a little later (1562) urged upon only because the sacerdotal order was then limited the same council the abrogation of celibacy. But to the tribe of Levi, but now that the tribal restric. the Catholic reaction was too strong, and the tion is removed, the license is abrogated also. council in November 1563 pronounced, "If any one

The ecclesiastical legislation on celibacy was de. shall say that clerks constituted in holy orders, or veloped gradually and unequally in the several regulars who have solemnly professed chastity, are parts of the church. In the 2d century it became a able to contract matrimony, or that, being conpious custom to make vows of chastity, and it was tracted, such matrimony is valid ... let him be thought becoming in the higher clergy to renounce anathema.' matrimony; and although there are examples of It should be observed, however, that in the United bishops and priests in the first three centuries living Greek Church Rome tolerates a married clergywith their wives and begetting children, it has been i.e. a man already married may be ordained priest, confidently asserted that no instance can be quoted and continue to live with bis wife, though conof a marriage contracted at this period after ordina- tinence is imposed upon him at certain times. It is tion. The obligations of the marriage contract the custom for the young candidate for orders to were, however, considered sacred ; and the Apostolic leave the seminary for a while to get a wife, and Canons impose the penalty of deposition on bishop, then return for ordination. If he should become priest, or deacon, who should separate from his wife a widower, he cannot of course marry again, and * under the pretence of piety.' At the end of the no married priest can be made a bishop. The 3.1 and beginning of the 4th century, marriage after bishops are therefore, as a rule, taken from the ordination was prohibited by formal legislation. A monasteries. further and important step was taken in the year Since the Council of Trent, the observance of 305 by the Spanish council of Elvira, which decreed celibacy has been comparatively well maintained. that sacred ministers who were already married, This is especially true of those countries where the should live in continence. At the Council of Nicæa Catholic community is mixed with or surrounded an attempt was made to impose this new rule upon by Protestant neighbours, and watched by a vigi. the whole church, but it was frustrated by the lant press. Away from the high-roads of civilisaopposition of a venerable monk, Paphnutius, him- tion, in Mexico, Brazil, and other parts, concubinage self a celibate; and the law to this day has never has again become the rule, less openly perhaps, but been accepted in the Eastern Church. In the West, quite as obstinately as in the middle ages. however, a series of synodal enactments and papal The moral loss or gain to the church from her disdecrees established or renewed the more rigorous cipline in this matter is a question of controversy • rule. But in no matter of ecclesiastical discipline which from time to time has been raised within her must the distinction between theory and practice own communion. But the attention paid by biolobe more carefully observed. The clergy everywhere gists to the hereditary transmission of human resisted the law, and resisted with considerable faculties and dispositions has recently exhibited success. St Patrick, who tells us that his father the effects of celibacy in a new light. Mr Galton and grandfather were in holy orders, when laying has remarked that the Roman Church has acted down rules in one of his Irish synods for the con. as if she “aimed at selecting the rudest por. duct of his clergy, directs that their wives should tion of the community to be alone the parent of keep their heads covered. In the province of future generations. The policy which attracts men Milan, indeed, the marriage of priests continued to and women of gentle natures fitted for deeds of he perfectly legal

. Discipline and usage varied in charity, meditation, or study to the unfruitful life different countries, but it may be safely said that of the cloister and the priesthood, appears from for many centuries the celibacy of the uncloistered this point of view to be singularly unwise and clerzy was little more than a pious fiction, until suicidal,' tending, as it must, though by impercepHildebrand, afterwards Gregory VII., by his great tible degrees, to the deterioration of the race. To influence and vigorous measures, secured a more the enforcing of this discipline in Spain, for exstrict observance of the rule.

ample (coupled with the cutting off of independent From the 12th century (first and second Lateran thinkers by the Inquisition), Mr Galton attributes Councils ) a great change took place in ecclesiastical much of the decadence of the country during the law. The marriage of priests was now declared to last three centuries. In France, where the most be not only sinful but invalid. It became hence. promising lads of the village are successively picked forward ditficult for any priest to justify his mar. out by the parish priest for the bishop's seminary, naye on the plea that the prohibition of such the process of elimination must in the long run tell marriage was abrogated by custom, or not bind. upon the general character of the population. In iny under supposed exceptional circumstances. small Catholic communities, again, where the The clerical consorts became no longer wives but priestly vocation is held in high esteem by the concubines; and, further, the priest who went educated classes, and where mixed marriages are throngh the marriage ceremony was held to commit discountenanced, a similar result cannot fail to a far greater crime than if he had contented himself

The controversial literature on the matter with simple fornication. Yet in spite of all this is abundant. The most complete treatment of the the law was to a large extent set at defiance. In subject, from the historical point of view, will be many parts of Europe it was a common thing for found in Sacerdotal Celibacy in the Christian benefices to pass from father to son. Influential Church, by Henry C. Lea (Philadelphia, 1867). bishops obtained letters of legitimation for their | See also MONACHISM.

occur.

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Cell, a unit-mass of living matter, whether such as that of the nucleolus by Valentin (1836), rounded off by itself, as in the simplest plants or occurred in rapid succession during those years. animals and in the youngest stage of all organisms, Dujardin in 1835 described the sarcode or living or associated with other cells to form a higher matter of the Protozoan Foraminifera and of some unity. The great majority of the Protozoa and other cells, and thus emphasised, as Rösel von Protophyta are single cells, and all other organisms Rosenhof had done many years before (1755) in begin where the former leave off. From the double regard to the ‘Proteus animalcule' or Aniceba, the unity resulting from the fusion of two sex-cells the most important element to be considered in fornihigher plants and animals develop by repeated ing a true conception of the cell. The importance division, and they may be therefore always resolved of his description, of which he was apparently him. into more or less close combinations of variously self unconscious, had for some time the same fate

as that of his predecessor of almost a century before. Observations had in fact to accumulate before any generalisation became possible. The first definite steps towards a co-ordination of results was probably that of Johannes Müller, who in 1835 pointed out the resemblance between the cells of the vertebrate notochord and the elements

observed in plants. The cellular nature of the Fig. 1.- Dividing Egg-cell (after Gegenbaur).

epidermis and the presence of nuclei therein was

next ascertained, and similar discoveries were made modified unit-masses. In most cases these in. in regard to several other tissues. Up to 1838 dividualities of the simplest order are minute, and there was in fact a period of research in which cells their separateness is not to be discerned with the were observed rather than understood. unaided eye, but there are many instances among Establishment of the Cell-theory.—As early as the simplest plants and animals, as well as in the 1826 Turpin had maintained that plants were component elements of higher forms, where the formed by an agglomeration of cells. Professor unit-masses are relatively giant-cells and quite M.Kendrick well points out, what one would of visible without the use of the microscope. The course expect, that for some years before 1838 giant Ameba Pelomyxa, the common sun-ani. botanists were beginning generally to recognise malcule Actinospherium, the Alga Botrydium, the cellular composition and origin of plants. The and some of the cells (e.g. bast) of plants may be conclusion known as the 'cell-theory' was doubtnoted as illustrations of cells with considerable less vaguely present in many minds. Its definite dimensions. In the great majority of cases the statement was still awanting. In 1838, however, body of the cell includes a well-defined centre or Schleiden proved that a nucleated cell is the only nuclens; and the definition may therefore be original component of a plant embryo, and that the extended in the statement that a cell is a nucleated development of all tissues might be referred to such unit-mass of living matter or protoplasm.

cells. "In the following year Schwann published 1. History.-In the article Biology it has been at Berlin his famous Microscopic Investigations on pointed out that a more and more penetrating the Accordance in the Structure and Growth of scrutiny alike of structure and of function led Plants and Animals (Trans. Sydenham Society, naturalists from organs to tissues, and from tissue 1847). In this classic work it was shown that all to cell. Some of the steps in this gradually organisms, plants and animals alike, are made up deepening analysis deserve fuller record.

of cells, and spring from cells. In composition and Discovery of Cells. - In the latter half of the 17th in origin there is unity. The generalisation century the simple microscope afforded to Malpighi familiarly known as the cell-theory was thus and Leeuwenhoek, to Hooke and Grew, what clearly established, and though now a commonwas literally a vision of a new world. In place and postulate of histology, it may fairly be applying their rough and simple instruments to the described in Agassiz's words as the greatest disstudy of the structure of plants and animals they covery in the natural sciences in modern times.' becaine pioneers in the investigation of the infinitely Following up the generalisations of Schwann and little. Leeuwenhoek (Phil. Trans. 1674) seems to Schleiden, come a host of researches by which the have been the first to observe, what are now so essential advance contained in the cell theory' was familiar, single-celled organisms. In the 18th cen. more and more fully confirmed. Cells were not tury Swammerdam and others continued with much only observed, their import was recognised. enthusiasm to describe the minute intricacies New Conception of the Cell.—When the cell-theory which their new eyes' revealed ; Fontana (1784) was established, the general conception of the cell observed the kernel of the cell—the nucleus—and was far from being either accurate or complete. It some of the elements of the tissues ; but the founda. was usually described as a vesicle closed by a solid tion of scientific histology was not laid until the membrane, containing a liquid in which float a appearance in 1801 of the Anatomie Générale of nucleus and granular bodies. It was also the Bichat. In this epoch-making work organs were general opinion that such cells originated within a resolved into their component tissues, and their structureless ground substance.

In two ways functions were interpreted as the sum-total of the these notions were speedily corrected. On the one properties of their constituent elements. Such a hand as regards the origin of cells, Prevost and conclusion was the utmost that could be reached Dumas (1824), Martin Barry (1838-9), Reichert with the appliances then at command.

(1840), Henle (1841), Kölliker (1846), Remak(1852), Early in this century, however, an improvement showed that in the case of the egg-cell

, and in the in the appliances of observation

furnished a fulcrum growth of tissues, each new cell arose by division for a new advance. Fraunhofer discovered the from a predecessor. This important conclusion principle of achromatic Lenses (q.v. ; also ACHRO- was most firmly established by Goodsir in 1845, MATISM); these were combined into the compound and Virchow in 1858, who proved that in all cases, Microscope (9.v.), and a new era began. 'Fibres? normal and pathological alike, cells arose from preand globules, laminæ,'' nuclei,' and even 'cells' existing cells, a fact expressed in the axiom omnis were described. In 1831 Robert Brown emphasised cellula e cellula. In the second place it gradually the normal presence of the nucleus discovered by became apparent that too much importance had Fontana, and made the first important advances in been attached to the cell-wall and too little to the the study of the vegetable cell. Isolated discoveries, contained substance. Referring details to the

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