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over by a line of 33 abbots. The abbot was a , have sometimes to drag it to some distance to a spiritual baron of parliament, bad judicial authority place suitable for their purpose. The head of the in all causes within the liberty of B., had the power insect is the only tool employed in the operation, of inflicting capital punishment, and the privilege of and is held sloping outwards, and employed in á coining. At the dissolution, the annual income was manner which exhibits great muscular power. A equivalent to £50,000 of our money. Of this mag. furrow is first made around the body, then another nificent establishment, little now remains but the within the first, and so on till the earth is so excawestern gate, erected in 1327, a noble relic of the vated from beneath, that the body begins to sink, decorated Gothic style; and the Church-gate,' a when the insects, by great efforts, drag it down into quadrangular tower of massive simplicity, 86 feet the hoie, and when it is fairly in, the excavated high. The churchyard, to which this tower formed earth is thrown back over it. The female then lays the portal, includes, besides the abbey ruins and her eggs in it; and when this is accomplished, and some other buildings, the fine old churches of St. the cravings of appetite are satisfied, it is left for Mary and St. James, the first containing the tomb the larvæ, which are of a lengthened form, with six of Queen Mary of France. It has a fine avenue feet, whitish, and a brown head. The known speof tall lime-trees. The celebrated grammar-school cies of B. B. are mostly natives of Europe and of of B. was founded by King Edward VI. in 1550, North America. and is free to sons of the inhabitants of the town.

BUSACHI'NO, or BUSAQUINO, a town of It has two annual exhibitions to the universities, Sicily, in the province of Palermo, about 29 miles and has produced many eminent scholars. Among south-south-west of the city of that name. the many religious and charitable institutions con- manufactures of linen, and a population of 8100. nected with the abbey, of which portions still exist, is St. Saviour's Hospital, founded by that notable BUSA'CO, a ridge or serra on the north side of abbot, Samson, whose life and actions, as recorded the river Mondego, in the province of Beira, Porby Jocelyn of Brakelond, Mr. Carlyle has so vividly tugal, about 20 miles north-north-east of Coimbra. recalled in his Past and Present. The poet Lyd- Here Wellington, with about 40,000 British and gate was a monk in this abbey; and Sir Nicholas Portuguese troops, repulsed the attack of Massena Bacon was born here. At B., King John first met with 65,000 French, 27th September 1810. Unable his indomitable barons before he signed Magna to force the position, Massena turned it by a pass Charta. Parliaments were held here in 1272, 1296, over an adjoining ridge, and Wellington retired beand 1446, the last of which ordered the arrest of hind the lines of Torres Vedras, which indeed it was Humphrey, the good Duke of Gloucester, who was his intention to do, even if there had been no battle. found dead in his bed the morning after his arrest ; BUSBY, RICHARD, the most famous of English and sovereigns, as late as Elizabeth's time, were schoolmasters, was born at Lutton, Northamptonoften nobly entertained at St. Edmund's town. shire, September 22, 1606. Educated at WestminThree miles south-west of B., the Marquis of Bristol ster School, and Oxford, he was, in 1640, appointed has a splendid seat, Ickworth Park, a circular pile head-master of Westminster School, the duties of 90 feet in diameter, and 140 feet high, with grounds which office he continued to discharge until his 11 miles in circuit.

death in 1695. He is the type of pedagogues alike BU'RYING BEETLE (Necrophorus), a genus for learning, assiduity, and the application of the of Coleopterous (q. v.) insects of the tribe or family birch. He was a most successful teacher, and at Silphales, with short club-shaped antennæ, remark- one time could point to no less than sixteen occuable for their habit of burying the bodies of mice, pants of the bench of bishops who had been edu

cated in his school; and altogether, he has the reputation of having bred up the greatest number of learned scholars that ever adorned any age or nation.' He published several works, but they were chiefly for school use.

BU'SCA, a town of Piedmont, situated on the left bank of the river Maira, an affluent of the l'o, about 9 miles north-west of Coni. Excellent wine is produced in the vicinity. Pop. 9375.

BÜSCIIING, Ant. Friedr., a celebrated geographer, was born 27th September 1724, at Stadthagen, in the principality of Schaumburg-Lippe, Germany. He studied theology at Halle, where he enjoyed the friendship of Baumgarten. In 1754, he

was appointed extraordinary professor of philosophy Burying Beetle.

in Göttingen, but soon incurred the displeasure of

the Hanoverian government by his religious heteromoles, and other small animals, in order to deposit doxy. Göttingen thus becoming an unpleasant their eggs in them, and to provide a supply of food residence to him, he accepted an invitation in 1761, for their larvæ. Some of the species are natives to St. Petersburg as preacher to a Protestant conof Britain, among which is N. Vespillo, the species gregation there. In 1765 he returned to Germany, of which the habits were first observed, which is, and in 1766 was called to Berlin as Upper Consishowever, more common in some parts of continental torial Councillor and Director of a gymnasium in Europe. It is a black beetle, about an inch long, Berlin, where he died, 28th May 1793. with two bright orange bands across its back, and the appearance of B.'s Erdbeschreibung, the first having an excessively fetid smell, which long ad volume of which was published at Hamburg in 1754, heres to whatever it touches. Its sense of smell neither Germany nor any other nation possessed a would seem to be extremely acute, and a dead geographical work which made any pretension to animal soon attracts it, a pair generally arriving scientific treatment or completeness of execution. together, male and female, to feed upon the body, The changes in the political arrangements of the and the male to proceed to its interment, if suf- world have, however, deprived the work of its ficiently small, previous to which, however, they ) original value, but it has been corrected and edited

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by subsequent writers. Of his other numerous bushel measured 2150 cubic inches; hence 33 Win. publications, the most important is the Magazin chester bushels 32 imperial bushels nearly, für Historie und Geographie (2ő vols. Hamburg, BUSHIRE. See ABUSHEHR. 1767-1793).

BU'SHMAN'S BUSEMBAUM, HERMANN, a theologian of the RIVER, in the east part of the Cape Colony, South


BO'SJESMAN'S order of the Jesuits, was born in 1600 at Nottelen, Africa, is about 200 miles long, and forms on its in Westphalia. About 1640), he taught ethical phi- lower course the west boundary of Albany, whose losophy at Cologne, and later, was appointed rector capital is Graham's Town. Its general direction is of the College of Jesuits at Münster. 31st January 1668. His work entitled Medulla S., and about long. 26° E.

He died from north to south, its mouth being about lat. 333° Theologice Moralis (1645), was celebrated as a standard authority in the seminaries of the Jesuits, though

BU'SKIV, a kind of half-boot, several of its propositions were condemned by the lacing tight to the leg. The ancient pope. It has gone through more than fifty editions. tragedians wore buskins (cothurni), It was enlarged by the Jesuit Lacroix (1707), and often with thick soles, to add to their re-edited, with improvements and additions, by the

Hence the B. is often put Jesuit Montausen in 1729, and again by Alfonso de for Tragedy, as the sock (soccus, a Ligorio in 1757. As it was found that the work flat-soled shoe) for Comedy. In ancontained doctrine in favour of regicide, it was cient sculpture, Diana, and hunters in burned, by order of the parliament of Toulouse, on general, as well as men of rank and the occasion of an attempt made on the life of Louis authority, are represented in buskins XV. by Damiens in 1757. Subsequently, the Jesuits often highly ornamented. Zacharia and Franzoja of Padua wrote in defence of BUSS is the name of a small vessel, B.'s work.

usually from 50 to 60 tons' burden, BUSH ANTELOPE, BUSH BUCK, and BUSH much used in the herring-fishery, es

Buskin. GOAT, names common to a number of species of pecially by the Dutch. The B. bas Antelope (q. v.), natives chiefly of the southern two small sheds or cabins--one at the and western parts of Africa, forming a section of prow, to serve as a kitchen, and the other at the the genus Antilope, which some naturalists have The remaining space is a receptacle for fish. attempted to erect into a distinct genus (Philatomba BUSSU PALM (Janicaria saccifera), a South or Cephalopus). They are animals of more compact American palm, growing in the tidal swamps of the form, shorter limbs, and greater strength, but much Amazon, the only known species of its genus. The less agility, than the true or typical antelopes. stem is only 10-15 feet high, curved or crooked, They are remarkable for the arched form of the and deeply ringed. The leaves are simple or undiback. They have short, straight, or slightly curved vided, and are the largest of the kind produced by horns, situated far back, and generally peculiar to the male sex, with usually a long tuft of hair between them. They have no tear-pits, but instead of them, a naked glandular line, formed of two series of pores, on each cheek.

They frequent jungles, thick forests, and beds of reeds, and when pursued, seek to escape by diving into a thicket. The common or white-backed B. A. of Sierra Leone (Antilope sylvicultrix) is about three feet high at the shoulder: it is a dull, heavy, awkward-looking animal; keeps concealed in the thicket during the day, living singly or in pairs, and feeds in the open spaces in the early mornings only. To shoot it, sportsmen place themselves on the margin of the woods, and watch their opportunity as it comes out to graze. Its flesh is more esteemed than that of the more agile antelopes. Nearly twenty other species are usually ranked in this section of antelopes, among which is the Kleene Boc (Antilope pygmaea) of South Africa, a species abundant in many parts of Cape Colony, of very small size, not more than one foot in height at the shoulder, and with horns only about 14 inch in length. It is a timid, gentle animal, easily domesticated. It differs from the typical Cush Antelopes in the great activity which it displays.

BUSHEA'B, a low flat island in the Persian Gulf, about 11 miles from the Persian coast, in lat.

, 26° 50' N., long. 53° 12' E. It is about 18 miles any known palm, being often 30 feet long, and 4 or long, narrow, and well peopled, with a town and har- 5 feet wide. They are simply branched, drooping, bour, at its western extremity. Its proper name is and the fruit is of an olive colour, large, hard, Khoshaub, signifying ‘good water.'

and three-seeded. The leaves make excellent and BU'SHEL [Fr. boisseau, allied to boi(s)te, box, butt; durable thatch, being split down the midrib), and Lat. butta, a measure in general), à dry measure laid obliquely on the rafters, so that the furrows used in Britain for grain, fruit, &c. The quarter formed by the veins lie in a nearly vertical direction, contains 8 bushels, and the bushel 8 gallons, the and serve as so many little gutters to carry off the gallon measuring 277-274 cubic inches, and holding water. The spathe, taken off entire, is used by the 10 lbs. avoirdupois of distilled water. Hence the Indians as a bag, or the larger ones are stretched out imperial bushel contains so lbs. of water, and meas

to make caps. ures 2218.2 cubic inches. The old Winchester BUST (Ital. busto; Fr. buste), in plastic art, the

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Bussu Palm.


name given to a sculptural representation of the head collectors of busts were not unknown in antiquity, and upper part of the human body. The earliest as, for example, M. Terentius Varro and Pomponius busts formed by the ancients were probably those Atticus. In our own time, King Louis of Bavaria heads of Mercury which, when elevated on tall made, in his celebrated Valhalla, the most remarksquare blocks of stone, received the name of Hermæ able collection of busts which perhaps anywhere (q. v.). These hermæ were afterwards frequently exists. The first complete collection of engravings surmounted by representations of other divinities, from antique busts was made by Fulvius Ursunius such as Minerva ; and as they gradually assumed in his Illustrium Imagines (Rome, 1569, and Antmore and more of the human form, they passed werp, 1606). Recently we have been indebted to

Visconti's Iconographie Grecque (Paris, 1811) and Iconographie Romaine (Paris, 1817) for a similar collection.

BU'STARD (Otis), a genus of birds, sometimes made the type of a family, Otida, usually ranked in the order Grallæ (q. v.). The general structure seems to agree best with that of the Grallce; but there are points of strong resemblance to gallinace. ous birds, both in the appearance and habits of the bustards; while their power of running, and the use which they make of their wings to aid in running, are indicative of a relation to the Struthionidee, or ostrich tribe. They differ, however, from these birds in possessing wings quite capable of flight, although even when pressed by danger they often seek to escape by running, and the great B. of Europe has been pursued and taken by greyhounds.

--Bustards are birds of bulky form, with long necks and long naked legs; the toes, three in number, all directed forward, short, united at the base and

edged with membrane; the wings rather rounded; Bust of Aristotle.

the bill of moderate length, straight, or nearly so.

They are mostly inhabitants of open plains, to which into busts, which were made of marble, bronze, all their habits are adapted.--The GREAT B. (Otis &c. But it was not till very late in the history tarda) was at one time plentiful in some parts of of art that busts, in the sense of portraits of indi England, and was also an inhabitant of the southviduals, came to be used, either in Greece or Rome; ) east of Scotland; but extending cultivation, and the and it is remarkable that neither Greeks nor Romans designated them by any special name,

for the Latin word brstum had quite a different meaning. It was not till Alexander's time that busts were used for purposes of portraiture in Greece ; and most of the Roman busts which we possess belong to the period of the emperors. During the learned period of Greece, which commenced with Aristotle, portraits of men of letters formed an important department of art; and it became an object with the founders of museums and libraries to procure complete sets of them. The artists of this period exhibited remarkable ability in expressing the characters of the individuals whom they represented. In this way, we have well authenticated busts of Socrates, Plato, Zeno the Stoic, and other philosophers; of poets and orators, such as Isocrates and Demosthenes; of Athenian statesmen and distinguished women. In Rome, representations of the kings, and persons of distinction belong. ing to the earlier period, were probably made from the imagines majorum which every patrician preserved in his atrium, and which were commonly made of wax. These, no doubt, were often merely

多 fanciful representations, partly taken, it may be, from

Great Bustard. the more prominent features which belonged to the existing members of the family. The earliest well authenticated Roman B. which we possess, is pro- persecution to which it has been subjected, have bably that of Scipio Africanus the Elder. During now rendered it a very rare British bird. It is comthe empire, busts for the most part were accurate mon in the south and east of Europe, and abounds portraits, and still furnish us with the means of in the wide steppes of Tartary. It is the largest becoming acquainted with the features, not only of of European birds, the male sometimes weighing the emperors themselves, but of most other persons nearly 30 lbs. The female is much smaller than the of distinction. Busts of poets and men of letters male. The plumage is of a pale chestnut colour on are far less frequently met with amongst the Romans the upper parts, beautifully varied with blackthan amongst the Greeks. The chief marks of the much white and black on the wings, the tail tipped authenticity in these busts are the names which with white. The tail is short, spreading, and very frequently are inscribed on them, and, where rounded. A tuft or plume about seven inches loug, these are not found, the comparison which we are springing from the chin, passes backwards and enabled to make between them and coins. Private | downwards on each side, in the summer dress of the

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male, partly concealing a long stripe of bare skin and in the south of England in woods and hedges. on each side of the neck. The anatomy of the The English name is derived from the use made of male exhibits a remarkable peculiarity in a large the plant by butchers to sweep their blocks. It bag or pouch, capable of holding several pints, the grows well under trees or shrubs, and can often be entrance to which is between the under-side of the advantageously introduced for ornamental purposes. tongue and the lower mandible. The use of this The root was formerly much used in medicine. It bag is unknown; but it has been conjectured to be is aperient and diuretic.-R. hypophyllum, a native for conveying water to the females and young, in of Italy, had once a considerable reputation as a wide arid plains. The Great B. feeds indiscrimi- stimulant of the uterus. nately on animal and vegetable food, swallows frogs, BUTE, an island in the Firth of Clyde, Scotland, mice, worms, &c., and is very fond of turnip-tops. separated from the coast of Argyle by a narrow Its flesh is highly esteemed for its flavour. It winding strait, called the Kyles of Bute, mostly is polygamous. No difficulty is found in taming it, under å mile wide, about six miles distant from but all attempts to reduce it to a state of true

, domestication have hitherto failed, from its not Arran. It is about 16 miles long, of irregular breeding in the poultry-vard.—The LITTLE B. (0. breadth, and with an area of 60 square miles. The tetrax), frequent in the south of Europe and north surface to the north is high, rugged and barren; of Africa, is only an accidental visitant in Britain. in the centre and south, it is low and undulating, It is not half the size of the Great Bustard.—The and comparatively fertile. The highest point rises BLACK-HEADED B. (0. nigriceps) is found in large 875 feet. The coast is rocky, and has some flocks in the open plains of the Mahratta country. bays. The island has several small lakes. The Its flesh is esteemed one of the greatest delicacies climate is milder than in any other part of Scotwhich India produces. The Kori B. (0. Kori) of land, and though moist, less so than on the west South Africa, a magnificent bird, standing upwards coast generally; hence, it is much resorted to by of five feet in height, has a similar reputation invalids. In the south, the soil is sandy ; towards as one of the best kinds of game.-- Australia pos- the north, clay predominates

. Most of the arable sesses a B. (0. Australasianus) somewhat exceeding land is under tillage, and agriculture is in a good the Great B. of Europe in stature. It is called state. The chief crops are oats and wheat. Pop. Wild Turkey by the colonists of New South Wales. 10,661. The principal town is Rothesay. Most Its plumage is finely freckled or spotted; the pre- of the island belongs to the Marquis of Bute, vailing colour is brown. It has become compara- whose beautiful seat, Mount Stuart, is about four tively rare in the more settled districts, its flesh miles south from Rothesay. Among the antibeing particularly delicate and well-flavoured, but quities of B. are Rothesay Castle, Kames Castle, may be seen stalking majestically in the grassy Kilmorie Castle, St. Blaine's Chapel, Dungyle, plains, wherever human footsteps are still rare.

a remarkable vitrified fort on a high crag on the BU'TCHER BIRD. See SHRIKE.

south-west coast, and the Devil's Caldron, a circular BUTCHERS' BROOM (Ruscus), a genus of erection, the original purpose of which is not well plants of the natural order Liliacece

, with male and known. B. and the neighboring isles were for many female flowers on separate plants, á perianth of six centuries subject to the Norwegians. leaves, filaments, united, one style, and the fruit a BUTESHIRE, a county in the south-west of Scotberry. The common B. B. (R. aculeatus) is a shrubby, land, comprising the isles of Bute (q. v.) and Arran or almost shrubby evergreen plant, with a biennial (q. v.), and the Cumbrays, Holy Isle, Pladda, Inch

marnoch, and other smaller islands. The estimated area of the whole is about 257 square miles. Pop. in 1851, 16,608 ; day-schools, 33, with 2096 scholars; places of Worship, 26. B. returnis one member to parliament. The county town is Rothesay, in Bute.

BUTE, Joux STUART, third EARL OF, was born in 1713, and died in 1792. About 1737, he attracted the favourable notice of Frederick Prince of Wales, who made him one of his Lords of the Bedchamber. After the death of the prince, he became Groom of the Stole, to his son, afterwards George III, over

whose mind he obtained a strong influence. In a

March 1761, he was appointed one of the principal Secretaries of State ; and from the 29th May, 1762 to the 8th April 1703, he was Prime Minister. His government is memorable only as one of the most

unpopular that ever held office in Britain, its a

fundamental principle being the supremacy of the royal prerogative, of which the executive government were merely the hunible servants. Lord Bute was given to scientific pursuits, especially

botany, and shewed himself a liberal patron of Butchers' Broom :

literature and art. He married the only daughter a, branch, with flowers; b, a berry; C, a seed d, a female flower.

of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu.

BU'TEA, a genus of plants of the natural order stem, 1-3 feet high, sending out many short Leguminoso, sub-order, Papilionaceæ, remarkable branches and ovate alternate sharp-pointed false for the great length of the standard of the flower, leaves of the same substance as the branches, the and having a compressed one-seeded pod, memflowers minute and arising from the disk of the branaceous at the apex. The best known species are false leaves, solitary ; the berries red, almost as B. frondosa and B. superba, natives of India ; and large as wild cherries, and of a sweetish taste. It the former very widely diffused throughout that is common in many parts of the south of Europe, country, generally appearing as a sort of shrub in





the neighbourhood of villages, but in the jungles and munificently distributed, as not his own; and growing into a small tree. These trees present a no anxious legatee looked with hope to his death. gorgeous sight when covered with racemes of large That event took place at Bath, June 16, 1752, and deep scarlet flowers. They have trifoliate leaves, the good bishop's remains were buried in Bristol with roundish leaflets, velvety beneath. They Cathedral. His works, notwithstanding a dry and vield a resinous exudation, which occurs in the uninteresting style, have gone through numerous form of lurid red tears, often covering the twigs, editions.

igs, editions. The best is that edited with a life, &c., and is one of the kinds of Lac (q. v.) brought to the by Fitzgerald. market in India. The juice of the tree is not red, and the lac is supposed to be elaborated by insects, BUTLER, SAMUEL, poet, was born at Strenshain, but of what species is unknown.-B. frondosa is Worcestershire, in 1612. His father was a farmer in called the Dhak Tree in India. The bark and roots

The bark and roots that place, and said to be a person of some educaare very fibrous, and the fibre is used for calking tion. Young B., after acquiring the rudiments of boats. The flowers, called Teesoo or Kcesoo, yield his education at home, was placed at the college

a beautiful dye, which is likely to come into school at Worcester. His progress there was rapid, extensive use' (Royle).

and on leaving it, he proceeded to one of the BUTLER, JOSEPH, one of the most eminent of universities. After finishing his education, he was English divines

, was born in 1692 at Wantage, in appointed clerk to T. Jeffreys, Esq., justice of the Berkshire, where his father kept a shop. With a

peace, and in his leisure hours devoted himself to

He afterwards view to the ministry of the Presbyterian Church, he the study of music and poetry. attended a dissenting academy at Tewkesbury, in entered the household of the Countess of Kent, Gloucestershire.

which he left and went to live with Sir Samuel At the age of 22, he gave proof of high metaphysical ability in a letter to Dr. Samuel Luke, who resided in the same county. After the Clarke, usually appended to that celebrated writer's king's restoration, he was made secretary to the

of he till . a-priori demonstration, to which it offers some objections. About this time, he made up his mind About this time, B. married a Mrs. Herbert, a lady to join the Church of England, and in March 1714 of good family and some property, which, howentered Oriel College, Oxford. Soon after, he took ever, was afterwards lost by being invested in bad In 1718, he was appointed preacher at the in 1663, and its reception at court was immediate

securities. He published the first part of Hudibras Rolls Chapel, where he preached those remarkable and triumphant. It received all the favour Charles sermons which he published in 1726. three, On Human Nature, constitute one of the could spare from his spanies and his mistresses, and most important contributions ever made to moral he deigned even to garnish his royal conversation science. The scope of the reasoning is briefly, that with its wit. The courtiers took up the fashion, virtue is consonant with, and vice a violation of finally the mob went into raptures, in imitation of

the coffee houses and taverns followed suite, and man's nature. In 1725 B. was presented to the rich

its betters. henefice of Stanhope, in the county of Durham, to

Hudibras was pirated within four which he removed in the following year.

weeks of its publication. The king had wit enough

Here he resided in great retirement till 1733.

to see the merit of the work, but he lacked gener

His friend Secker, the archbishop, desired to see him promoted osity to relieve the necessities of the writer. There to some more important position, and mentioned his seems to be no good reason to believe that B.'s name once to Queen Caroline. The Queen thought palm ever tingled to the touch of royal pension or he had been dead, and asked Archbishop Blackburne gratuity. Poverty is almost the only thing in B.'s if it were not so. No, madam,' said the archbishop; the second part of his book, and a third part

In 1664, he published 'but he is buried. In 1733, B. became chaplain to his friend Lord Chancellor Talbot, and at the appeared in 1678. He died in Rose Street, Covent same time a prebendary of Rochester.' In 1736, he Garden, in 1680; and while some say that he starved published the great work of which the germs were

from pride, all agree that at his death he was very contained in his three sermons, and which has

poor. entitled him, in the eyes of his eloquent disciple, if the work of Cervantes stands at the head of its

Hudibras is a kind of metrical Don Quixote; and Chalmers, to be called the Bacon of theology.' The leading aim of the Analogy is to shew, that class in the literature of Spain, Hudibras occupies all the objections to revealed religion are equally Puritans are the subjeets of B.'s derision, and King

the same place in the literature of England. applicable to the whole constitution of nature, and

Charles must have felt that the poet avenged for that the general analogy between the principles of divine government, as revealed in the Scriptures

, him the battle of Worcester. The weight, comand those manifested in the course

of nature,

pression, and plenteousness of the wit is wonderful.

Tudibras is like a mass of crystals, every point warrants the conclusion that they have Author. Soon after the publication of this work, flashes. It is beyond any other book, of wit all B. was appointed clerk of the closet to the Queen, compact.' B. thinks in witty couplets, he argues in who greatly prized his conversation. In 1738, he them, he spears his foes with a jest, he routs and was made Bishop of Bristol ; in 1740, Dean of St. chases them into oblivion with unextinguishable Paul's; and in 1750, he was translated to the see

laughter. His best things have become proverbs. of Durham. He lived only to make one visitation His mass of wit has been grated down into common

His “charge on the occasion, in speech, and particles of it may be found any day which he pointed out, with characteristic depth of glittering in the talk of English ploughmen and

artisans. insight, the importance of a due maintenance of the externals of religion, as a means of keeping BUTLER, WILLIAM ARCHER, a religious and alive the thought of it in the minds of the people, philosophical writer of singularly high promise, was subjected him to much censure as betraying a ten- born in 1814, at Annerville, near Clonmel

, Ireland. dency to Roman Catholicism—a charge unworthy He was originally a Roman Catholic, but subsenow of serious notice. B.'s private character was quently became a Protestant, and studied at Trinity such as became a Christian prelate ; grave and judi- College, Dublin, where he was appointed Professor cious, he was at the same time meek and generous. of Moral Philosophy in 1837. He died in 1848. His intercourse with his clergy and people was frank The principal work on which his reputation is based. and humane; his episcopal treasures were wisely ! is the Lectures on the History of Ancient Philosophy,

life that one is certain of.



of his diocese.

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