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as many. The stamens are inserted on the corolla, midst of it a star of six bright rays, resulting froin fertile unes generally as many as the segments of its crystalline structure. the calyx, and generally with alternate sterile ones. SA'PPHO, along with Alcæus, the chief repre. There is no disc. The ovary is superior, with several sentative of the Æolian school of lyric poetry, was cells, each cell with one ovule. The fruit is fleshy; born either at Mitylene or at Eresos in Lesbos. the seeds nut-like, sometimes cohering; the testa She was only six years old when she lost her father bony and shining, with a very long, opaqne, and Scamandronymus. She was contemporary with softer scar on the inner face. — There are consider-| Alcæus, Stesichorus, and Pittacus, with the first of ably more than two hundred known species, chiefly whom she lived in friendly intercourse, as is seen in natives of the tropics, and the remainder of sub- the surviving lyrics of both. All that we know of tropical countries. One of the most recently disa her is contained in an obscure reference in the Pariau covered species is also already one of the most Marble, and in one of the epistles of Ovid, to her important, Isonandra gutta, which produces GUTTA having fled from Mitylene to some place of refuge in PERCHA (q. v.).--The fruits of some are pleasant, as i Sicily, between 604 and 592. Her famous plunge the SAPODILLA (9. V.), and other species of the genus into the sea from the Leucadian rock, on finding her Achras, the STAR APPLE, and other species of love for Phaon unrequited, seems to be an invention Chrysophyllum (q. v.), different species of Mimu- of later times. At Mitylene, she is supposed to sops; Imbricaria Malabarica and 1. maxima, have been the centre of a literary coterie, all of various species of Lucuma, &c. The genus BASSIA them females, and most of them pupils of her own (q. v.) contains species valuable for the oils which in the art of poetry. Her moral character has they yield. The seeds of Mimusops elengi also been the subject of controversy in modern times; yield oil abundantly.

the most recent disputants being the late Colonel SAPPAN WOOD, SAPAN WOOD, or BUK. Mure and the well-known F. G. Welcker of KUM WOOD, the wood of Cæsalpinia Sappan (see Bonn, who, in the Rheinisches Museum (1857– CÆSALPINIA), an East Indian tree, about forty feet 1858), appeared, the former for the prosecution, high, with twice pinnate leaves, and racemes of and the latter for the defence. To whatever yellow flowers. The wood is much used as a dye- opinion on this subject we may incline, there is no wood, yielding a good red colour, which, however, is doubt of her high lyrical genius, which was the not easily fixed. It is a very considerable article of admiration of antiquity from Solon downwards, export from Singapore and other ports of that and which, as still surviving in her matchless ode region both to Calcutta and to Europe.

to Aphrodite, enhances our regret that of the nine SAPPER, the name given to a private soldier

books of her poems, we only possess fragments. in the corps of Royal Engineers.— The name of the

The best text is that contained in Bergk's Poetce

| Lyrici Græci (1854); the best separate edition is corps was formerly Royal Sappers and Miners.

Neue's (1827). The pay of a sapper is £22, 18. a year, with extra pay when at work: the number of such men for SAPUCAIA NUT, the seed of Lecythis ollaria. 1865 was 3296. Only men of good character, already a lofty tree, which is plentiful in the forests of the adepts in a mechanical trade, are eligible for this north of Brazil, and belongs to the natural order service, which is very popular, as an intelligent Lecythidacea. The fruit is urn-shaped, as large as sapper frequently passes into some situation in civil a child's head, and opens by a lid which falls off. life for which his practical military training specially

al military training specially Each fruit contains a number of seeds or nuts, as in fits him. Many sappers are excellent surveyors,

the case of the allied Brazil nut. The flavour is photographers, and draughtsmen."

tiner than that of the Brazil nut, although, hitherto, SA'PPHIRE, a gem excelled in value by no

the S. N. is much less common in our shops. Its

form is oval, somewhat pointed at both ends, which precious stone except diamond, and regarded as a

are slightly bent in opposite directions. Monkeys variety of Corundum (q. v.), highly transparent and

are very fond of the S. N., and are sometimes caught brilliant. It is sometimes colourless, and the

in consequence of thrusting the hand into a capsule, colourless kind, called White S., is sometimes sold and not being able to withdraw it when filled with as diamond. It more frequently exhibits exquisite

a nut, whilst they obstinately keep hold of the colour, generally a bright red or a beautiful blue;

expected prize. more rarely, gray, white, or green. The red variety is the Orientii Ruby (q. v.) of lapidaries ; the blue

SA'RABANDE, originally a slow dance, said to is that commonly called S., and which has received

be of Saracenic origin; and hence a short piece of this name from ancient times. It is found crystal

music, of deliberate character, and with a peculiar lised, usually in six-sided prisms, terminated by six

rhythm, in time, the accent being placed on the sidled pyramids; and is sometimes found imbedded

second crotchet of each measure. The sarabande is in gneiss; but it more frequently occurs in alluvial

of frequent occurrence among the suites or series of svils. It occurs at Bilin in Bohemia, and Expailly

short pieces written by Handel, Sebastian Bach, in Auvergne, but more abundantly in some parts of

| and others of the old masters, for the harpsichord the East. Ceylon is famous both for its rubies and its sapphires, the latter being the more abundant. SARACENIC ARCHITECTURE See l'hey occur with garnets and other minerals, in a | ARABIAN ARCHITECTURE. stratum of water-worn pebbles firmly imbedded in SA'RACENS, a name variously employed by clay, in which there are occasional lumps of granite | medieval writers to designate the Mohammeilans of and gneiss. But nothing has yet been done to seek Syria and Palestine, the Arabs generally, or the for thel in their original situation in the mountain Arab-Berber races of Northern Africa, who conrocks. A piece of S., which was dug out of the quered Spain and Sicily, and invaded France. At a alluvium within a few miles of Ratnapoora in 1853, later date, it was employed as a synonym for all was valued at upwards of £4000. The S. was infidel nations against which crusades were preached, yne of the stones in the breastplate of the Jewish and was thus applied to the Seljuks of Iconium, the high-priest. Among the Greeks, it was sacred to Turks, and even to the pagani Prussians. The true Jupiter.---The name Girasol S. is given to a beau- derivation of the word was long a puzzle to philolo. tiful variety with a pinkish or bluish opalescence, gers; Du Cange deduced it from Sarah, the wife of and a peculiar play of light. The Chatoyant S. has Abraham, an opinion coincided in by the medieval more pearly reflections. The Asteria S. has in the Christian authors; Hottinger (Biblio. Orient.), from



the Arab. saraca, to steal ; Forster (Journey), from soil. Their descendants have become an importsahru, a desert; while others strove to see its origin ant section of the population. Cattle-breeding ja in the Hebrew sarak, poor; but the opinion which carried on extensively ; fishing is of considerable has been most generally supported, and prevails at | importance. the present time, is, that the word was originally Sharkeyn * (Arab. eastern people'), corrupted by

SARATOV, a city of Russia, capital of the the Greeks into

government of the same name, on the right bank Sarakenor, from which the Romans derived their word Saraceni. The epithet

of the Volga, 460 miles south-east of Moscow. Sarakenoi was applied by the Greek writers

Though its houses are generally built of timber, (from the 1st c. of the Christian era) to some

the town has a rich and picturesque appearance. tribes of Bedouin Arabs in Eastern Arabia,

Its 16 churches are ornamented with numerous though they do not agree among themselves as to

towers and cupolas ; and its broad streets, from the the particular tribe so denominated. Pliny and

character of the houses and of the elegant equipages Ammianus place the S. in Arabia Petræa and

that roll through them, have quite a European

appearance. It manufactures pottery, bricks, tobacco, Mesopotamia, on the common frontier of the Roman and Persian empires : and the description of them silk, hosiery, &C. Pop. (1866) 85,670. by the latter, à most painstaking and accurate SARAWA'K, a kingdom on the north-west coast historian, coincides, in every important particular, of Borneo, is bounded S. and W. by Sambas, E. with what is known at the present day of the by Brunai, and N. by the Bight of Datu. The Bedouin tribes of those regions.

coast stretches from the west of Cape Dutu, in lat. SARACEN'S HEAD, a not unfrequent bearing |

2° N., and long. 109° 55' E., to the east of the river

Samerahan, in long. 111° 3' E., a distance of nearly in Heraldry. It is represented as the head of an

70 miles. Area, 3000 sq. m. Pop. 50,00. The old man, with a savage countenance.

Sarawak is the most important river; it has two SARAGOʻSSA. See ZARAGOZA.

navigable mouths, the one entering the Bight of SARASWATI is, in Hindu Mythology, the name

Datu in lat. 1° 42' 30'' N., and long. 1 10° 20' 30" E. ;

the other, a few miles further to the east. Other of the wife, or the female energy, of the god Brah

considerable rivers are the Rejang (navigable for man, the first of the Hindu Trimûrti or triad. She

120 miles for vessels of more than 1000 tons), the is also the goddess of speech and eloquence, the

Lundu, Samerahan, and Sadang. A chain of mounpatroness of music and the arts, and the inventress

tains, 3000 feet in height, rises in S., and, with of the Sanscrit language and the Devanagari letters.

increasing elevation, tends towards the north; She was induced to bestow these benefits on the luman race by the sage Bharata, who, through his

while others are detached, as the Samerahans, and

the steep, densely-wooded Lūndu. Sandstone and. penance, caused her to descend from heaven, and to

granite are the prevailing rocks; porphyries, basalt, divulge her inventions. Hence she is also called

and quartzose schists also occurring. In some Bharati. She was very white, hence another of her

parts, the soil is clayey; in others, it is a rich names, Mahâs' wetà, or Mahâs'uklå (from mahat,

mould. With the exception of some cultivated great, and s'weta or s'ukla, white).-S. is also the

spots, the surface is covered with forests, which classical name of the river now called Sarsooty, which rises in the mountains bounding the north

abound with wild swine, harts, and a variety of

monkeys. There is excellent coal near the river east part of Delhi, whence it runs in a south-westerly direction, and is lost in the sands of the great desert

Sadang. Antimony ore, which can be both easily

worked and shipped, is obtainable in any quantity; in the country of the Bhatti. According to the

copper and gold have been found, and iron ore is Hindus, the river only disappears in this place, and

plentiful at Lūndu. Fine timber trees, as ironwood, continuing its course underground, joins the Ganges

ebony, sandal-wood, teak, and other sorts peculiarly and Jumna at Allahabad.

adapted for shipbuilding, grow on the lands near SARATO'GA SPRINGS, one of the chief water the mouths of the rivers. Overtopping them all is ing-places in the U.S., is in New York, 38 miles the tall Camphor Tree (Dryobalanops aromatica), north of Albany. It contains 23 mineral springs, from which, by incision, the valuable camphor-oil is some chalybeate ; some containing iodine, with salts obtained; or by felling and splitting the wood, the of soda and magnesia; and all highly charged with crystallised camphor, which is prized above that carbonic acid. They are prescribed in diseases of produced in any other part of Asia. the liver, chronic dyspepsia, &c. In the village are | The climate is not considered unhealthy. Much 25 hotels, some of immense magnitude; and during rain falls from September to March, and the each season, there are from 25,000 to 35,000 visitors. thermometer usually indicates about 83° F. Edible Pop. in 1860, 7496 ; in 1870, 8539.

nests, wax, and aromatic woods are collected by SARATO'V. a government in the south-east of the Dyaks for the Singapore market, and the plains Russia, is bounded on the E. by the river Volga,

are well adapted for the growth of rice and sagn. and on the N. by the governments of Penza and

In 1862, two cargoes of choice timber for shipSimbirsk, Area, 31,213 sq. m.; pop. 1,688,561. Its

building were sent to the royal dockyards of Great dimensions were much larger prior to the year 1850,

Britain, and more attention is now being paici to when a considerable portion of it—the portion to

that natural source of wealth. In 1863, the exports, the east of the Volga- was taken to form a part of the chief articles of which were gutta percha, sago the government of Samara (q. v.), erected in that

n that flour, antimony ore, and edible birds' nests, amounted year. One-third of the area is pasture-land, Ith is

"1th is to £96,609; and the imports, chiefly gray and ander crop, ith in wood, and uths waste land. colou

di coloured shirtings, tobacco, brass-ware, opium, rice, The chief rivers are the Volga and the Medwieditza.

and cocoa-nut oil, amounted to £103,689. The A number of German colonists settled here in 1765 exportation, of antimony and sale of opium are -1775, and distinguished themselves by their per

U monopolised by the government, and with a small

head-tax, form the chief revenue. gevering industry and by diligent cultivation of the

| The original inhabitants are Dyaks, divided into * Sharkeyn, or Sharakyoun, eastern people, is thus some 20 tribes, and speaking differ: Yt dialects; opposed to Magharibé, or Maghribe, western people, they are, for savages, mild, industrious, and honest. the self-styled appellation of the inhabitants of Naghrib Malays live on the coast, and the mines are worked by ('the west') or Morocco.

Chinese. From 1841 to 1868 S. was governed by


Sir James Brooke (q. v.), as an independent rajah development of the sarcinæ bears to this process, or appointed by the sultan of Borneo, in return for to some stage of it, the same relation which the distinguished services in putting down rebellion development of torulæ bears to simple alcoholio and restoring order; and even on the testimony of fermentation. The well-known power of sulphurous the Dutch, who view with extreme jealousy the acid in checking the fermentative process, induced increased influence of the British on that coast, his Professor Jenner to try the effect of sulphite of rule did much to promote the civilisation and pros-soda-- a salt which readily yields its sulphurous perity of his people.

acid-in this disease, and experience has fully conThe seat of government is the town of Sarawak, firmed the accuracy of Jenner's induction ; for this formerly called Kūtjing, near the mouth of the salt, administered soon after a meal, or when the river, which is navigable for large ships. Mission-fermenting process is commencing, in doses varying stations and schools have been erected, and the from 10 grains to a drachm, dissolved in water, population has increased to 25,000. Trade, which is the most effectual remedy at present known

appointed rajah, is principally carried on with soda, in somewhat larger doses, has a similar Singapore.

action. SA'RCINA (Lat. a package), or SARCI'NULA, a SA'RCINE (Gr. sarx, gen. sarcos, filesh) is the genus of minute plants of very low organisation, name now given to a nitrogenous substance sometimes reckoned among Algoe, and sometimes (C3H4N40) which has been obtained from the among Fungi. A number of forms or species are muscular tissue of the horse, ox, and hare; and from known. The first discovered, called s. ventriculi, various glandular organs, as the liver and the spleen

was originally observed of the ox, the thymus gland of the calf, and the
by Goodsir in matters human liver, in cases of acute atrophy of that organ,
vomited from the human in which case it is associated with zanthine
stomach. It is of a (C5H4N402), a substance differing from it only by
roundish quadrangular two atoms of oxygen. It is identical with the sub-
form, about Tooth to stance formerly known as Hypoxanthine.
Thoth of a line in dia.

SARCOLE'MMA is the term applied to the meter; the individuals

S | delicate sheath which invests each primary muscular generally grouped in

fibre. See MUSCLE.

form cubes of four, sixteen, or sixty-four in the cube,

SARCOʻMA is a somewhat vague term used by Sarcina Ventriculi maoni. separated by rectangular | Abernethy and many subsequent surgical writers

The fied 1000 diameters striæ. Although the most to designate a fleshy or firm morbid tumour.

term sarcoma is comparatively rarely met with in (Copied from the Micrographic common seat of sarcinæ Dictionary. Lond., Van Voorst.j is the human stomach. | recent works on surgery.

they have likewise been SARCO'PHAGI. See CANNIBALISM. detected in the stomach of the tortoise, the rabbit,

SARCO'PHAGUS (Gr. flesh-eater), any stone the dog, the ape, and in the cæcum of the fowl;

1; receptacle for a dead body. The name originated in the urine, in a considerable number of cases ;

in the property assigned to a species of stone, found in the lungs; in the fæces and intestinal canal ;

at Assos in Troas and used in early times, of in the fluid of the ventricles of the brain; in cholera stools; in the fluid of hydrocele; in the of the teeth. within

consuming the whole body, with the exception

the space of forty days. hones; and Dr Lowe has noticed their existence in the oldest known sarcophagi are those of Egypt, stagnant water. It appears from the measure

some of which are contemporary with the pyraments of Welcher that the sarcinæ occurring in

mids. The earliest of these are of a square or urine are about half the size of those occurring in

oblong form, and either plain, or ornamented with the stomach, and the aggregations of sarcina cells

lotus leaves; the later are of the form of swathed are also smaller.

mummies, and bear inscriptions. The Phænician The occurrence of the sarcina in the urine, the

the urine; the and Persian kings were also buried in sarcophagi. fuid of the ventricles of the brain, &c., is probably a The Rom

C., 1s probably & The Roman sarcophagi of the earlier republican post-mortem phenomenon of little diagnostic or

period were plain. Sarcophagi were occasionally pathological importance. Its appearance in vomited

used in the later republic, although burning had Huids is, however, characteristic of a peculiar and

become the more general mode of disposing of the important form of dyspepsia. The vomited matter dead. The use of stone chests for the interment of in these cases has a faint acid smell, like that of distus

of distinguished persons has not been altogether disfermenting wort, and is obviously in a state of fer-lon

continued in modern times. mentation. After standing a few hours, it becomes covered with a thick, brownish, yeast-like froth,

| SARDANAPA'LUS. See ASSYRIA. and deposits a brown flaky sediment. On examin

SARDE, or SARDA, a variety of quartz, differing the froth and the deposit under the microscope, ing from carnelian only in its very deep red colour, sarcinæ are found in great abundance, together with blood-red by transmitted light. It is rare, and the torulæ characteristic of Yeast (q. v.)." The fluid brings a much higher price than common carnelian. is always acid, if sarcinæ are present. The amount The name is probably from Sardis. The S. was one of voinited matter is always large, and sometimes of the stones of the breastplate of the Jewish high. enormous. It is usually ejected in the morning, priest. There were also two in the ephod. The after a night spent awake from a sense of heat, SARDONYX is an Onyx (q. v.) containing layers of gurgling, and distention in the epigastric region ; | and its discharge gives almost immediate relief. Dr SA'RDÉS, or SARDIS, anciently a city of Asia Budd, one of the highest authorities in diseases of Minor, the capital of Lydia, was situated in a fertile the stomach, believes that the disease consists, plain between the northern base of Mount Tniolus primarily and essentially, in some organic change, and the river Hermus, about 60 miles east-north. which prevents that organ from completely empty. east of Smyrna. T'hrough its agora, or market-place, ing itself, and which causes a secretion from its | flowed the Pactolus, a tributary of the Hermus. coats, capable, when mixeil with food, of undergoing The city is first mentioned by Æschylus. It or exciting a process of fermentation ; and that the was taken by the Cimmerians, in the reign of



King Ardys (680—631 B. C.). In the reign of Cresus, smooth as if a sheet of ice had been floating below the last Lydian kiny, S. attained its highest the surface. prosperity. It became the residence of the Persian SARDI'NIA, KINGDOM OF, a former kingdom of satraps after the overthrow of the Lydian monarchy. Italy, and the nucleus of the present Kingdom of The Athenians burned it 503 B. C., and it afterwards Italy, included the duchies of Savoy and Genoan passed under the Romans, and was the seat of a and parts of those of Montferrat and Milan, the separate provincial government. It is one of the principality of Piedmont, the county of Nice, Seven Churches mentioned in the Book of Revela- and the islands of Sardinia and Caprera, amounttion.-Sart, the modern Sardis, is a poor village, ing in all to 19,564 English sq. m. of continental worthy of mention only for the ruins of the ancient territory, with a' pop. of (1857) 4,590,260, and 9205 city to be seen in the vicinity. Of these, the chief of insular territory, with a pop. of 577,282 ; total are those of a stadium, of a theatre, and of the area 28,769 English sq. m., pop. 5,167,542. In 1859, Acropolis.

it was increased by the addition of the Austrian por. SA'RDINE (Clupea Sardina), a fish of the same tion of the Milanese, and diminished by the cession in genus with the herring and pilchard, smaller than 1860 of Savoy and Nice to France, the change in the pilchard; abundant in the Mediterranean, and the continental territory being shewn by the followfound also in the Atlantic Ocean, although not so ing figures : area, 21,099 English sq. m.; pop. (1858) far north as the British shores. It is much 6,530,232; the insular territory remaining unaltered. esteemed for its flavour, and sardines preserved in The various districts above mentioned differ greatly oil are exported in large quantities from some of from each other in physical configuration and climate, the Mediterranean ports. But the “sardines' of and the more important of these are treated in sepathe west coast of France, which are largely imported rate articles. See also ITALY. The Roman Catholic into Britain, are generally not true sardines, but religion was established by law in March 1848 ; but young sprats—the garvies of the Firth of Forth - monastic orders, with the exception of those which and sometimes young herring.

are also benevolent institutions, were suppressed Sardines appear in shoals on the coasts of the May 28, 1855. In 1859, the army amounted to Mediterranean at particular seasons, as herrings 76,172 men, and the fleet to 29 ships (none of them and pilchards on those of Britain. The S. fishery men-of-war), with 436 guns; the revenue (1858), on the coast of Provence is chiefly in the months of which was mostly derived from customs, duties, and May, June, and July ; but the fishery for sprats, direct taxation, to £5,799,301; and the expenditure which are cured as sardines, and sold under that to £5,949,902--& want of equilibrium in the finances name on the coast of Bretagne and elsewhere in the which had long existed, and which caused the estabwest of France, takes place in the winter months. lishment, since 1819, of a gradually increasing The quantity of both kinds cured is so great as to national debt, that amounted (1858) to £27,080,810. ainount in value to 3,000,000 or 4,000,000 francs The annual import trade amounted (1857) to a annually, about £120,000 to £160,000 sterling. declared value of £19,123,054, and the exports to They are exported to the most distant parts of the £14,605,043. world ; cured with oil in tin boxes, forming a much The kingdom of S. was originated by a treaty esteemed delicacy, and, at the same time, a most (24th August 1720) between Austria and the Duke wholesome article of food. To cure them in this of Savoy (q. v.), by which the latter agreed to way, they are first carefully washed in the sea, then surrender Sicily to the former on condition of receiy. sprinkled with fine salt; and after a few hours, the ing in exchange the island of Sardinia, and the erechead, gills, &c. are removed ; they are then washed tion of his states into a kingdom. In 1730, Victoragain, and spread out on willow branches or wire Amadeus I., the last Duke of Savoy and first king of work, exposed to the sun and wind, if the weather S., resigned the throne to his son, Charles-Emmanuel is dry, but in damp and rainy weather, to a current 1. (1730-1773); but repenting his resolution, and of air under cover. They are next put into boiling attempting to resume the government, he was put oil, in which they remain for a short time, and when in prison, where he died in 1732. His son, by they are taken out, the oil is drained away from joining with France and Spain against Austria, them as much as possible, and they are put into obtained (1735) the territories of Tortona and the tin boxes, of which the shape and appearance Novara, to which were further added (1743), during are so familiar to everyone. The boxes being filled the war of the Austrian Succession, the county of with sardines, are filled up with oil, the lid is Anghiera, and the territories of Vigevano and Pavia soldered on, and they are placed for a short time in He was the author of the code known as the Cor. boiling-water, or exposed to hot steam. The boxes pus Carolinum. His successor, Victor-Amadeus 11. which have leaked or have burst in boiling are (1773–1796), acceded to the European coalition rejected, and those which remain sound are now against France, and was deprived in consequence of ready for the market.

Savoy and Nice in 1792; but sustained by England In the south of France, sardines are sometimes and the pope, he raised an army, and maintained cured in red wine, and those so cured are called himself in his kingdom till 1796, when Bonaparte Sardines Anchoisées, or Anchovied Sardines. forced him formally to relinquish the territories he

There seems to be no good reason why the sprats had lost. His son, Charles-Emmanuel II. (1796of the British coast should not be cured in oil, like 1802), was at first an ally of France; but the Directhose of the west coast of France, and so prove a tory, in 1798, compelled him to surrender all his

W source of wealth, besides probably being continental possessions, which were then incorporkraght at a lower prïce to the market, to the ated with France; and it was not till the first advantage of those for whom sardines are at present peace of Paris (May 30, 1814) that the House of too expensive.

Savoy regained its territories. The Congress of Several species of small Clupeido, much resembling Vienna (December 1814) annexed to S. the ancient the S., are found in different parts of the world, republic of Genoa, and the second peace of Paris and are used in the same way as the S. of the (1815) restored a small portion of Savoy, which Mediterranean. One species frequents the southern France still possessed, and gave the king a protecand eastern coast of Ceylon in such vast shoals, torate over the small principality of Monaco. Long that 400,000 have been taken at a single haul of before this time, Charles-Emmanuel had abdicated, the nets in a little bay; and when the shoal and his brother, Victor-Emmanuel I. (1802-1821), approached the shore, the broken water became as succeeded to his rights, and made his entry into


Turin, 20th May, 1814. His return restored the The country is mostly mountainous, some of the ancient misgovernment; and similar political changes i peaks of the central chain having an elevatior in the other Italian states revived the societies of of 6300 feet. The Limbara range, in the north. the Carbonari' (q. v.) and other similar secret west, is granite, the diagonal chain palæozoic, associations, whose aims were supported by a and the central range of the tertiary calcareous portion of the nobility and army, ani by the heir- formation ; many of the peaks, especially within the presumptive to the throne, Charles-Albert, Prince semicircle formed by the Limbara range, are extinct of Savoy-Carignan. The insurrection of the army volcanoes. The coasts are generally steep and on the 9th and 10th of March 1821, brought on a rugged. A few islands lie off the coast, and all, of general revolution. But the king having abdicated any considerable size and importance, are situated in favour of his brother, Charles-Felix (1821-1831), at the corners ; off the north-east corner are the and the Austrians having come to the rescue, the Maddalena group, consisting of Maddalena, Capiera, insurrection was put down. Under the protection and five or six minute islets ; off the north-west of an Austrian army of occupation till 1823, corner is Asinara; and off the south-west corner are Charles-Felix re-established absolute power, re- San Pietro and San Antioco. The island is well called the Jesuits, persecuted the Protestants, and supplied with streams, but none of them have a lrag took various other measures for rooting out all course, and only one is partially navigable. opposition. On his death, the elder line of Savoy Soil and Climate.--Between the mountain rangi became extinct, and the succession fell to the cadet are several wide valleys of remarkable beauty and branch of Savoy-Carignan (see Savoy, HOUSE OF), fertility. There are also several large sandy or whose rights had been recognised by the Congress stony districts (macchie), of almost irremediable of Vienna, and Charles-Albert (q. v.) (1831-1849) sterility. The mountain sides are partly rocky and ascended the throne. The liberals were gratis barren, partly clad with woods, and partly fitted for fied with some slight refornis, but the power of the pasture. The climate is mild, the temperature clergy was untouched, and the conspiracy of 30th ranging from 34° to 90°; but in the low lands, which November 1833 at Turin, and the mad inroad of are largely of a marshy character, and in the neighMazzini, at the head of a small band of German, bourhood of the littoral lakes, a deadly malaria Polish, and Italian refugees, in February 1834, only (inteinperie) prevails, especially in autumn. The disturbed the country, and confirmed the govern- inhabitants of those districts, who can afford to do ment in its despotic policy. The interior admi. so, migrate annually during the unhealthy season; nistration was, however, carried on with more and those who are compelled to remain never leave energy than under the two previcus reigns, through their houses till an hour after sunrise, and carefully the conclusion of treaties with France, Britain, return before sunset, taking all precautions to preTurkey, the Low Countries, Denmark, Austria, vent the entrance of the poisonous gas by door or and the Hanse Towns, &c.; the construction of window. The inhaling of the miasma by a stranger roads, bridges, and railways was vigorously pro- is considered among the inhabitants to be as deadly secuted, and agriculture and other industries were as a dose of strong poison. encouraged. In 1842, the king commenced a gradual Products. Wheat, barley, maize, oranges, and but progressive liberal policy, promulgated a limited other fruits are produced in abundance, and are act of amnesty to political offenders, relaxed the esteemed for their excellent quality. The vine is severity of censorship, reformed judicial adminis- extensively cultivated, but, from carelessness in the tration and prison discipline, and abolished the process, the wine is not so good as might naturally feudal system in Sardinia. The kingdom partici- be expected. The olive-grounds are extensive, and pated in the agitations of 1846 and 1847, which the produce excellent. Tobacco (of inferior quality), affected the whole peninsula, but was wholly exempt cotton, linseed, tlax, hemp, saffron, and madder are from insurrections and conspiracies, the people con- also produced. The woods which clothe the mountenting themselves with expressing their views and tain sides are chiefly composed of cork, chestnut, oak, wishes in petitions and demonstrations displaying pine, and other timber trees, which form a considerentire confidence in the government. On February | able item in the export trade. Many mountain8, 1848, the king announced a new and extremely slopes have, however, been much deteriorated in liberal constitution, which was proclaimed some fertility by the excessive cutting down of timber. weeks afterwards ; a liberal law of election was The bullock is the favourite animal for draugbt, decreed, the first Sardinian parliament convoked for but horses are also used; and a small species of the 17th April, and the act of amnesty declared pony, which in ancient times was mrch esteemed by general. In the midst of these changes, the revolu. the Roman matrons, is still found. The sheep are tion broke out, and Charles-Albert put himself at the of ordinary quality, and the swine are said to be head of the movement, and declared war against Aus- among the best in Europe. Few cows are kept, and tria. (See ITALY, RADETSKY, &c.) After the rout cheese is obtained almost wholly from sheep's and of Novara (13th March, 1849), he resigned the throne goat's milk. Wild boars and deer are not uncommon, to his son, Victor-Emmanuel II. (q. v.), who has suc and the Moufflon (9.v.) is found in the Alpine woods. ceeded in uniting Italy into one kingdom. By the Foxes, rabbits, hares, and martens are so abundant treaty of Villafranca, July 11, 1859, and peace of that a large export trade in their skins is carried Zurich, November 10, 1859, Victor Emmanuel obtained on. The fisheries are important. Western Lombardy, part of the Papal States, Parma, Manufactures are insigniticant, being mostly the and Modena, and by the treaty of Prague, August 23, result of home industry; but the royal manufactories 1866, the remainder of Lombardy with Venetia, and of gunpowder, salt, and tobacco are of considerable on October 9, 1870, the remaining portion of the Papal importance. S. is rich in minerals, but these, like Stutes was annexed to the kingdom by royal decree. its other resources, are as yet little developed ;

SARDI'NIA, ISLAND OF, the largest, after Sicily, silver, mercury, granite, gypsum, marble, alabaster, of the islands of the Mediterranean, lies directly amethyst, and other precious stones, are found; and south of Corsica, from which it is separated by the lead, iron, and copper are in considerable abundance. Strait of Bonifacio, a channel only 7 miles wide Gold, bismuth, and antimony are said to exist. in its narrowest part. S. is situated about halfway Inhabitants. The inhabitants bear a considerable between Central Italy and Africa, and between resemblance to the Greeks, and speak a barbarous Southern Italy and Spain. Its length is 166 miles; dialect, composed chiefly of Spanish, Arabic, and greatest breadth 90 miles ; and area 9205 sq. miles. | Italian; they are ignorant and bigoted, having

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