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A, D. 1754.-60.
POWER OF THE MARATTAS.
the vizîr, learning that a body of Marattas was Indus to Pêshậwar, and then crossed it, and coming to the aid of his opponents, consented to keeping to the mountains, as it was the rainy seamake peace, and retire to Oude. Ghâzi-ud-din son, advanced till he reached the other side of the then turned his arms against the Jâts, and, while Jumna, He there fell on a body of the Marattas, he was thus engaged, the emperor, who was grown commanded by Scindia, which he cut to pieces, their quite weary of his arrogance and insolence, with- leader being among the slain. Another division, drew, under the pretence of hunting, with what under Holkar, as it was making southwards was troops he had about him, in order to try to effect overtaken by the Dûranee troops sent in pursuit his emancipation, but Ghâzi-ud-din soon sent the of it, and utterly destroyed (1759). Marattas after him, who made him a prisoner. He
At this time Ghâzi-ud-dîn, fearing the vengeance forthwith repaired to the imperial camp, where he of his royal master should Ahmed Shâh be victodeposed the emperor, and put out the eyes of both rious, issued his orders for the murder of that unhimself and his mother. He then placed on the happy monarch, and placed another prince of the throne a prince of the blood royal, under the title family on the throne; but his puppet was never of Alumgîr II. (1754.)
acknowledged. Shâh Alum, the heir, was at this The ambitious and active Ghâzi-ud-dîn soon after time in Bengal, where we shall meet him in the tried to recover the Punjab from the Dûranees ; progress of our narrative. but he resolved to proceed by stratagem, not by The Maratta power was now at its height; nearly force. The widow of the late governor ruled it in all India, from Himalaya to Cape Comorin, was the name of her young son, and the vizîr, advancing either directly subject to it or paid it tribute. The to Lahore under the pretext of espousing her pêshwa, who was its real head, had brought it to a daughter, to whom he was betrothed, surprised the degree of order such as it had never previously town, and made the regent a prisoner in her bed. known. Its army, instead of consisting of mere Ahmed Shâh, as soon as he heard of this treacher-marauding bands, now contained a large body of ous deed, put himself at the head of his army, and well-mounted and well-paid cavalry, and a force of speedily appeared within twenty miles of Delhi. | 10,000 infantry, disciplined by those who had Here Ghazi-ud-dîn, by means of the late regent of served with the Europeans on the coast of Corothe Punjab, with whom he had been reconciled, ob- mandel. It also possessed, for the first time, a tained his own pardon. But Ahmed required money, large train of artillery. The pride and self-conand Delhi became a scene of plunder and mas- fidence which this force produced was only stimusacre, as in the time of Nadir; for, though Ahmed lated to exertion by the account of the disasters of was not ferocious like him, he was not so well able Scindia and Holkar, and it was resolved to make a to restrain his troops, by whom a massacre still strenuous effort for the complete empire of India. more wanton and barbarous was perpetrated on The command of the Maratta army was given to the Hindoo pilgrims at Muttra. The hot weather, Sedasheo Råv, the pêshwa's cousin, thence called which the Afghâns cannot endure, coming on, and the Bhâo, i.e. Brother. He was accompanied by causing mortality among them, Ahmed led his Wiswas Râo, the pêshwa's son and heir, and by all troops home. He espoused a princess of the house the great Bramin and Maratta chiefs. He advanced of Timûr, and at the request of the feeble emperor, to Delhi, which had a small Dûranee garrison; the as a protection to him against the vizîr, he made Marattas entered by a neglected bastion, and the an able Rohilla chief, named Najeeb-ud-doula, citadel yielded to the power of their artillery. The commander of the forces at Delhi (1757).
Bhâo plundered the palace and every public ediGhâzi-ud-dîn, who was then at Furrockabâd, set fice of all their ornaments ; le seized the splendid all the regulations of Ahmed Shâh at nought; but, throne, and stripped off the silver ceiling from the not feeling himself alone sufficiently strong, he hall of audience. He was going to proclaim Wiscalled in the never-failing aid of the Marattas. He was Râo emperor of India, but he was induced to was joined by a force under the pêshwa's brother, delay it till he should have driven the Dûranees out Ragoba, and taking possession of Delhi, he laid of the land (1760). siege to the fortified palace. It held out for a It was the advice of the prudent old rajah of month, at the end of which time the emperor, the Jâts, that the Marattas should leave their in(Najeeb-ud-doula having previously made his es- fantry and artillery in his country, and carry on cape from it) opened the gates, and received the war in the usual Maratta fashion with their Ghâzi-ud-dîn as his vizîr. Ragoba then was in- cavalry, and the climate would then, he said, soon duced, by the intelligence he received of the state force the Dûranees to retire. But the Bhâo spurned of the Punjâb, to attempt the conquest of it. He at this counsel, and resolved on regular warfare. met with no opposition, the Duranees retiring over Ahmed Shâh was at this time encamped on the the Indus at his approach ; and, leaving a Maratta frontiers of Oude, arranging matters with Shujagovernor, he returned to the Deckan (1758). ud-doula and his other allies; and as soon as the
Shuja-ud-doula, son of Sufder Jung, of Oude, and rains permitted he put his troops in motion, and the other Mohammedan princes of India, seeing the advanced toward Delhi. A bold and rapid pasgreat increase of the Maratta power, now combined sage of the Jumna which he made inspired the for their mutual protection. The Marattas imme- Marattas with such respect for his prowess, that to diately invaded and ravaged Rohilound in their be out of his reach they retired to Pânîpat, and usual manner; but Shuja-ud-doula fell suddenly there they formed an intrenched camp, defended on them, and drove them with great loss over the by their numerous artillery. The Bhâo's force Ganges, and, as they heard that Ahmed Shâh was consisted of 55,000 regular and 15,000 irregular on his march, they proposed a peace, to which the cavalry, with 15,000 disciplined infantry. He had confederates agreed. The Dûranee Shâh, who 200 guns, and numerous wall-pieces, and a large had been engaged in reducing the Belooches in the supply of rockets, which were much used in Indian southern part of his dominions, marched up the warfare. The whole number within his lines, inclusive of the soldiers and their followers, is stated | which however did no mischief, as the balls went at 200,000 persons. The army of Ahmed Shah over the enemies' heads. Their disciplined infantry was composed of 40,000 Afghâns and Persians, then advanced with charged bayonets on the Ro13,000 Indian horse, and 38,000 Indian infantry, hillas who were on the right, and routed them with of which the Rohillas were the only effective por- great slaughter, and then took the centre in flank, tion. He had about thirty pieces of cannon, and a which was at the same time assailed in front by good many wall-pieces.
the Bhâo and Wiswas Râo with the flower of the The Shâh encamped in the neighbourhood of the Maratta cavalry. Ahmed, seeing the peril of his Marattas, whose lines he did not venture to attack. centre, brought up the reserve, but the advantage Meantime, a body of about 12,000 Maratta cavalry still was on the side of the Marattas. He then had advanced from the lower Jumna and was cut- rallied all his men and made his whole line adting off his supplies, and great distress began to be vance, and directed one division to wheel and take felt in his camp; but an active detachment came them in flank. This manœuvre was successful, . up with the freebooters and cut them to pieces, and “ All at once, as if by enchantment," says the writer the Maratta camp was now in its turn straitened who was present," the whole Maratta army turned for provisions, as the enemy had got the command their backs and fled at full speed, leaving the field of the open country. Constant skirmishes took of battle covered with heaps of dead.” No quarter place, and the Marattas made some fruitless attacks was given, the pursuit continued for fifteen or on the Dûranee lines. Ahmed's allies were urgent twenty miles, the peasantry cut off those that with him to bring matters to issue by a general escaped the soldiers, and the whole number of the action; but his reply was,“ This is a matter of war slain is said to have been 200,000. The Bhão with which you are not acquainted. In other himself and Wiswat Râo were among the dead, affairs do as you please, but leave this to me.” and every chief of note was either slain or wounded. He used also to say to them, “Do you sleep ; I The pêshwa did not survive the shock which the will take care that no harm befalls you.” In effect, tidings of this great defeat gave him. Dissensions he was indefatigable; he omitted no precaution, broke out among the Maratta chiefs, and it was and he was on horseback nearly the whole day. some time before the Maratta power became again
At length the Bhâo, having endeavoured in vain formidable. to effect a peace through the mediation of Shuja- Ahmed Dûranee, after his victory, went on to ud-doula, resolved to conquer or perish in the field, Delhi, whence, after a short stay, he returned to rather than see his whole army die of starvation; his own country, and never again concerned himand ere daybreak on the morning of the 6th of self with the affairs of India. These now began January, 1761, the whole Maratta army, placing to assume a new character; for the
for the people from their artillery in front, advanced to assail the hostile the far West, into whose hands the empire was deslines. Ahmed Shah, having had timely information, tined to come next, had just at this time begun to drew his troops up in front of his camp. The action establish themselves in Bengal. To relate the began by the discharge of the Maratta canpon, | formation of their empire is now our task.
A. D. 1418-97.
DISCOVERY OF THE ROUTE TO INDIA.
BRITISH EMPIRE IN INDIA.
Italian traders, especially the Venetians, of whose CHAPTER I.
wealth and power it was the main support.
In the fifteenth century, the profits of the eastern Early trade to India- Discovery of the Monsoons--Portu- trade being manifestly so great, other nations began
guese Discoveries-- Passage of Cape of Good Hope-Voyage to long for a share in it, and to meditate on the of Vasco da Gama-Voyage of Cabral-Second Voyage of possibility of making a direct passage to India. The Gama--Of the Albuquerques ---Soarez --Almeida_Albu- writings of the ancients, which were now becoming querque-Conquest of Goa--Of Malacca-Extent of Por
better known, informed men of the opinion which tuguese Empire in the East-Defence of Diu-Of Goa
had prevailed of the possibility of circumnavigating Voyages of the Dutch-Their Trade and Settlements.-
Africa ; and the knowledge of the globular form of The French
the earth, joined with the notion of India being From the most distant ages, as we have seen, the the most distant region of the East, led to the inproducts of India were conveyed to the West; but ference, that by steering boldly across the Atlantic the course was chiefly a land one, from the coast of one would be sure to reach the coast of India. Arabia Felix, or the head of the Persian Gulf, and This last, as is well known, was the idea of Columthe trade was almost entirely in the hands of the bus, and it led to the discovery of America. The Phænicians. At length, when Alexander the Great former idea gradually unfolded itself to the Portuhad built the city named from himself in Egypt, guese, whose situation at the western extremity of and that country formed an independent kingdom, Europe, and their familiarity with the sea, and under the Ptolemies, the Indian trade began to enmity with the Moors of Africa, led them to extake a new direction, and vessels leaving the plore the western coast of that continent. Don vicinity of the modern Suez proceeded down the Henry, one of the sons of John I. by an English Red Sea, along the coast of Arabia, whence they princess, has the honour of being the originator of sometimes sailed across the mouth of the Per- Portuguese discovery. While governor of Ceuta, sian Gulf to the Indus, and thence round Cutch he had learned much from the Moors respecting and Güzerât to the mouth of the Nerbudda, and the African nations to the south. This confirmed then occasionally along the coast of Malabar. When him in the idea he had conceived of pushing disthey had obtained their cargoes, they returned by covery southwards, for he had already sent out the same circuitous route, and the commodities, vessels which had succeeded in doubling Cape Non, being conveyed by land to Alexandria, were thence the previous limit of southern navigation, and coming distributed over the West. This, however, was not in view of Cape Bojador. On his return from the common course, for the ships of Egypt in ge-Ceuta, Don Henry fixed his abode at Sagrez, near neral went no further than the coast of Arabia, Cape St. Vincent, where he would always have the where they purchased the goods which Arabian or ocean in view; and to the end of his life (in 1463) Indian vessels had brought thither by the route he kept his thoughts directed on the one object of above described.
African discovery. In 1418, he sent out a vessel It seems strange that, in this long-continued in- which was to attempt to double Cape Bojador. The tercourse with India, the phenomenon of the Mon- attempt proved a failure, in consequence of a soons, and their applicability to the purposes of storm ; but the island of Porto Santo was discoverd, trade, should never have engaged the thoughts of as that of Madeira was in a future voyage. It was any of the navigators. It was not till about the not till 1433 that Cape Bojador was passed, and as middle of the first century of our era, that a the sea beyond that promontory, contrary to expecmariner named Hippalus, observing the regularity tation, was found to be calm and tranquil, the prowith which the one blows for six months, from the gress of southern discovery was rapid. After the south-west, and the other for an equal period, from death of Don Henry it languished a little ; but it the north-east, drew the natural conclusion, that if had struck root too deeply ever to cease. It was a vessel were to sail with the former, from the speedily resumed, the river Congo and the Gold mouth of the Red Sea, she must be carried to some Coast were discovered, and in 1471 the Portuguese point on the coast of India, and that the other then monarch, Don John II., assumed the title of Lord would bring her back to the place from which she of Guinea. This prince, being now convinced that had started. He had the courage to put his theory there must be a termination of the African contiinto practice, and the event fully justified his anti- nent, resolved to make every effort to reach it, and cipations. The Indian trade now took a new course; thus to open a route to India. In 1486, he sent but Alexandria continued to be its great emporium. out three vessels, under the command of BartholoPolitical changes had no effect on it. The Roman mew Diaz, to make the attempt. Leaving the empire was succeeded by that of the Khalîfehs, and Congo, Diaz proceeded southwards along the coast, this by that of the Mamlooks; but still it was from till a tempest came on which drove him out to sea Alexandria that the spices of the East were dis- | in a southern direction. At the end of thirteen persed to the West, the great agents being the days the tempest ceased, and they then steered eastwards in order to recover the land. But to The court of Portugal resolved to lose no time their amazement, after proceeding for some days, in taking advantage of this brilliant discovery, and they still saw nothing before them but a wide early in the following year a fleet of thirteen ships, ocean. They then steered northwards, and soon carrying twelve hundred men, under the command fell in with the land. They had in effect, without of Alvarez Cabral, sailed from the Tagus. The being aware of it, passed the Cape in quest of circumstance of eight Franciscan friars being put which they had sailed. At the desire of Diaz they on board, and the admiral being instructed to waste went on eastwards till they reached what is now with fire and sword every country that would not named the Great Fish River. , As they were re- listen to their preaching, shows that religious turning, to their great joy and surprise they fanaticism, even more than the spirit of commerce, discerned the long-sought promontory, to which actuated the councils of the Lusitanian monarch. . Diaz gave the name of Cabo Tormentoso, or Stormy By keeping out to sea in order to avoid the Cape, but which appellation the king changed to coast of Africa, Cabral had the good fortune to that of Cape of Good Hope, its present name.
discover Brazil in South America. In his passage Circumstances prevented the king from following round the Cape of Good Hope he encountered up this discovery of a route to India, and it was not fearful tempests, in which he lost four of his ships, till the reign of his successor, Emmanuel, that the on board of one of which was the intrepid Diaz, project was resumed. In 1497, Vasco da Gama, a who first had passed that formidable promontory. . gentleman of the royal household, sailed from the Cabral reached Calicut with only six ships ; but Tagus with a squadron of three ships, with orders this force, and the account of the power of Portugal to make every effort to reach the coast of India; given by some Hindoos whom Gama had carried and after a voyage of less than eleven months hé away and Cabral had brought back, induced the arrived at Calicut on the coast of Malabar. The Samorim to treat him with respect, and he was particulars of this voyage require not to be narrated, allowed to establish a factory in Calicut. The they are so generally known; and it has had the Moors, though they at first affected to be friendly good fortune to have been sung in enduring strains disposed, soon began to thwart the Portuguese, by the muse of the renowned but hapless Luis de and through their influence the native merchants Camoens.
delayed supplying them with the goods for which As Gama was proceeding along the east coast of | they had contracted. The Samorim, when applied Africa, he found Mozambique, Quiloa, Melinda, and to, in a fit of impatience bade them to seize the all the other towns inhabited by Mohammedans, or cargo of one of the Moorish ships, but at the same as the Portuguese called them, Moors 1; and as there time to pay its full value. Correa, the Portuguese happened to be in them some traders or others factor, a warm, impetuous man, and urged on by from the north coast of Africa, who knew the Por. his pretended friends among the Moors, pressed tuguese as the hereditary enemies of their race and Cabral to execute this project, and the Moors, to creed, they exerted themselves to stir up the hos- draw him on, began ostentatiously to lade a large tility of the natives against them. In this they vessel with the choicest spices, taking care to let succeeded every where but at Melinda, whose the Portuguese know the time appointed for her prince, on the contrary, became the steady friend of departure. Cabral, contrary to his better judgthe strangers, and supplied them with a pilot, who ment, yielded to the instances of Correa and of his carried them to Calicut. Here also Gama found men, and, sending his boats, began to transfer her the trade principally in the hands of the Moors, cargo to his own ships. The Moors ran instantly that is, the traders of Arabia and Egypt, who to the king, crying that the Christians had now naturally sought to prevent the commercial rivalry shown themselves to be what they always said they of the Europeans, and to destroy them if possible. were, mere pirates. He gave them permission to The sovereign himself, called the Samorim, a Hin- redress themselves ; and, joined by a number of doo in faith, looking only to the benefit of his the Nairs, as the military class is called in Malasubjects, was inclined to favour the strangers, who bar, they made an attack on the Portuguese fachad a faithful friend in a Moor of Tunis, named tory. Correa and fifty men were slain, the rest Monzaide who was settled at Calicut; but the escaped by jumping into the sea and swimming to Moors bribed to their side the Cutwal, or prime the ships. Cabral seized ten Moorish ships and minister of the Samorim, and through him the burned them after he had taken out their cargoes ; prince himself, and plans were formed for the de- and then, getting in close to shore, he cannonaded struction of the Portuguese ; but Gama, having had the city till he had set it on fire in several places. timely information from Monzaide, frustrated them, He then weighed anchor, and, proceeding southand set sail on his return to Europe. He arrived wards, came to Cochin, the largest city on the coast in the port of Lisbon on the 29th of August, 1499, after Calicut. after an absence of nearly two years and two months. It has always been the fortune of the colonizers
or conquerors of new countries to find allies ready 8 Hence we find our writers calling the Mohammedans of to their hand, in consequence of the tyranny or India, Moors. The Portuguese called the original nations of oppression of the predominant power among the India Gentios, i.e. Gentiles, and hence our Gentoos. From natives. Thus the Spaniards, in their invasion of the Portuguese tanque (from stagnum), a pond, we have Mexico, found zealous allies in the Tlascalans; and made tank, as from casta a race, caste. They were also in
now the king of Cochin, an oppressed vassal of the the habit of putting their nasal tone (m) at the end of words
Samorim, became the warm friend of the Portuterminating in a vowel, and this we have changed into n.
guese. Cabral, having supplied himself here with Thus they call Cape Kumârî Comarim, our Comarin, Samori
pepper, did not make any long stay, but went on to Samorim, &c. As their & sounds like our sh, we meet with Abex for Habesh, or Abyssinia, Muxadabad for Moorsheda
Cananor, where he was also well received, and then bad, &c. They called the princes of Quiloa, and other towns proceeded on his homeward voyage. Before he on the coast of Africa, Xeques, i.e. Sheikhs.
arrived an additional squadron of three ships had A. D. 1503-10.
been sent out to reinforce him, under John da| chase peace by the delivery of a large quantity of Nova, who, finding a letter at San Blas on the coast pepper, and by opening his port to the Portuguese of Africa relating what had occurred and advising
But the capture of one of his ships him to proceed direct to Cochin, made sail at once by the Portuguese broke this peace, and, after a to that port. While there, he defeated a large fleet vain attempt to intimidate him, the Albuquerques sent against him by the Samorim. On his home- sailed for Europe, leaving Duarte Pacheco with a ward voyage, he discovered the island of St. Helena, few hundred men for the defence of Cochin, as he had fallen in with Ascension Isle as he was The Samorim now resolved to make every effort going out.
to reduce the king of Cochin, and it is asserted In Portugal Cabral's expedition, owing to the that the army he assembled for this purpose numloss of life and of shipping in it, was in general re- bered 50,000 men. Two Milanese, who had degarded as a failure, and people began to think that serted to him, taught him, we are told, to cast brass it was a hazardous thing for a small kingdom like cannon and other European arts of war. The dePortugal to engage in hostilities, at the other end fence of the town was committed to Pacheco, for of the world, with a powerful monarch like the the natives lost all courage ; and seldom have more Samorim. But the king, like most monarchs, was skill and energy been displayed than during this bent on conquest and extent of empire ; the pope siege. All the attacks of the enemy were gallantly had lately by a bull divided as it were the world repelled, and the Samorim at last, having lost a between him and the king of Spain, giving to the great part of his force by war and sickness, found one all the countries to be discovered east, to the it necessary to raise the siege and retire. The deother those west of a certain line, his infallibility fence of Cochin, by demonstrating to the Portunot perceiving that they thus must meet at last; guese their great superiority in arms
over the finally, he reflected that he had allies in the princes Indians, tended greatly to foster their lust of conof Cochin and Cananor, and might gain others. quest. He therefore assumed the title of " Lord of the Pacheco was succeeded by Lope Soarez, to whom Navigation, Conquest, and Commerce of Ethiopia, the Samorim sent very advantageous offers of peace. Arabia, India, and Persia," and sent out a fleet of Soarez sailed to Calicut, and all was proceeding fifteen sail, under Vasco da Gama, to Cochin and satisfactorily, till he made a demand of the surrenCananor, and another of five vessels, under Vicente der of the two Milanese. At this the negotiator Sodra, to cruize against the Moors at the mouth of paused, requiring time to consult the Samorim; the Red Sea (1512).
but the haughty Soarez would hear of no delay, Those who have formed their idea of the cha- and instantly began to cannonade the town. He racter of Vasco da Gama from the poem of Camoens, then, at the desire of the king of Cochin, destroyed or even from the narrative of his first voyage, will the town of Cranganor, after which he returned to be shocked by the account of the barbarities of Portugal. which he now was guilty. Having taken a large The views of the Portuguese monarch gradually Moorish ship off the coast of Arabia, he first plun- extending, the title of Viceroy of India, with a dered it, and then, shutting the crew up in the hold, suitable establishment military and ecclesiastic, set it on fire. When he came before Calicut, and was conferred on Francis Almeida, who replaced had opened negotiations, he placed on the deck fifty Soarez (1505). Shortly after his arrival, he received persons whom he had taken out of the vessels a splendid embassy from the Hindoo king of Bejâwhich he had captured, and, with an hour-glass in yanugur, offering his daughter in marriage to the his hand, told the Samorim's envoy, that if he did prince of Portugal ; and, though the offer was not not receive satisfaction before the sand had run, accepted, a
accepted, à courteous and friendly answer was he would put them all to death ; and, as the reply returned. did not arrive within the limited time, he performed The Mamlûk sultan of Egypt, incensed at the his threat, and then cutting off the hands and feet daring conduct of the Portuguese, and the losses of his victims sent them on shore. He left Cali- sustained by his subjects, resolved, in conjunction cut, but was induced by an artful Bramin to return with the Moslem king of Güzerât, to make a vigorin a single ship ; by which rash act he narrowly ous effort to extirpate them. An Egyptian fleet of escaped being captured. Having cruized about twelve sail was accordingly joined by that of the for some time, and taken some valuable ships, he king of Güzerât, under his ablest general, Âiâz returned to Portugal. As soon as he was gone, the Sultânee (1508), and a furious attack was made by Samorim prepared to take vengeance on the king of the combined force on a part of the Portuguese Cochin. He invaded his territory at the head of fleet, commanded by the viceroy's son Lorenzo, off a large army, and, on his refusal to give up the the port of Chaul, to the south of Bombay. After susPortuguese and abandon their alliance, made a
taining a fight for two successive days, the Portufurious assault on his capital, took it, and forced
guese put to sea and escaped ; but, tlie ship of him to seek refuge in the adjacent sacred islet of Lorenzo Almeida having got entangled in some Vipeen.
fishing-stakes, he refused to leave her, and perished Three separate expeditions now sailed from fighting gallantly. On this occasion, the courPortugal (1503), under the brothers Alfonso and
teous Âiấz wrote a letter of consolation to the Francis Albuquerque and Antonio Saldanha.
viceroy. Francis Albuquerque, who arrived first, having While Almeida was preparing to take vengeance met on the coast of Arabia the remainder of the
for his son, Alfonso Albuquerque came out with a squadron of Sodra, who had perished in a storm, feet and a commission to supersede him. Albuquerproceeded to Vipeen and relieved the king of
que had first proceeded to the coast of Arabia, Cochin, who was now reduced to extremity. He where he reduced Muscat and other towns, and then, being joined by his brother, carried on the
then sailed up the Persian Gulf, and made the war against the Samorim, whom he forced to pur- | prince of the wealthy isle of Ormuz consent to pay