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the fame proportion. The only use the Arabs now make of this temple, is to shut up their cattle in it. Our Author was obliged to take a hafty draught of this very antient and wellpreserved edifice, being not only in great pain from an abfcefs formed by a fever, but likewise interrupted by the Arabs, who are extremely jealous of strangers visiting these ruins; for they take them for magicians, and their drawings for talismans. Not only in Egypt, but all over Africa *, where there are any ruins, the people imagine immense treasures are to be found; and as they care little for the most beautiful remains of antiquity themselves, they fuppose travellers have other views than merely to look at ruins, and that they mean to carry off something more than the appearances of things. From this place a species of money different from the parat, is made use of; the bourbe, twelve of which make a parat; and the sevillan, worth a hundred parats. Wood is not to be had here for money. - The people higher up are called Ababuda. They are a sort of rebels, against whom force must be continually employed, to make them obedient.
Edfu is the Apollinopolis of the antients, of which our Author has given a view. Here is an antient portal, extremely well preferved, which the Turks have turned into a citadel; and some pretend, that it was originally built for that purpose.
The architecture is regular, and simple. There are three ranges of hieroglyphics on every fide, resembling infants, but of a Colossal form, being larger than men: also the ruins of a temple of Apollo, the greatest part buried under ground; of the rest, the Arabs have made fome paultry dove-cotes.
After passing nine or ten villages, the Author arrives at a place called Jabel, or Tshabel Estelsele, the mountain of the chain. The tradition is, that here the paffage of the Nile was fhut up by a chain; and this feems to be confirmed by the narrowness of the river, and the situation of the mountain to the east, and a rock on the west side of the Nile, which narrows here considerably; but iminediately beyond this pass, it spreads again to its usual fize. The rock to the west is 15 feet high, with holes for the feet to ascend to the fummit, which is ten feet high, and to this the chain was fastened. Round about are a great number of grottos,' charged with hieroglyphics. In one the Author found four 'human figures, of a common fize, fitting; the two in the middle are men, with their arms across their breast; the other two are women, 'having each a man under her arm. I deteft, and with reason,
*Ste Leo Africanus, palim,
says says our Author, the malice and fuperftition of the Turks
and Arabs, who have strangely defaced these figures.' On the fide of these figures is a table of hieroglyphics, in bas relief, extremely well preserved, tho' of a fandy stone. It should feem to contain the epitaphs of those whole bodies are inclosed within that grotto or cavern,
Paffing by feven villages, the Author arrives at Komombi, where, hid by a mountain on one side, and by some misers able huts on the other, may be seen the principal monument of the antiquities of this place. It is an edifice supported by kwenty-three fine columns, adorned with hieroglyphics. The ftones that cover it are of a prodigious size: and it may be easily seen, that the architrave, which is now split in two, was of one single stone. Under the cornice is the cartouch, or usual ornament for portals, finely wrought. All the stones are covered with hieroglyphics, in like manner as are the ruins of Medinet-Habu, described above. The columns are
e twenty-four feet in circumference, and higher than those of Medinet Habu. It is great pity this edifice cannot long fubsist : two sides only remain.. The top is already covered with earth, and the columns, with the rest of the building, are three parts under-ground.
We are now come to the seventh part of this work, which contains Mr. Norden's travels from Esfuaen to Deir, or Derri, the utmost extent of his voyage up the Nile, from whence he returned to Cairo,
The town of Effuaen, fituate on the eastern side of the Nile, is not more considerable than other towns in Upper Egypt, only it has a fort, with an Aga; but it is more remarkable on account of its being the place where the first cataract ends, marked by rocks feen in the middle of the Nile, before they are approached. The captain of the bark, who was a Janissary, announced his arrival with the Franks on board, to the Aga; and, at the same time, prelerted him with letters from Osman Aga, Chief of the Janiffaries at Cairo. Ibrahim (that was the Aga's name) received them with great civility, and wished them not to think of proceeding farther up
the Nile : You will be destroyed,” said he, you go not amongst men, but wild beasts. However, finding them resolved, he furnished them with letters, and for a certain consideration agreed on between them, sent his brother with them. This honeit Aga had not a sheet of paper left to write his letters on, till they supplied him from the bark.
Our Author now visited a little island, known to the antients by the name of Elephantin, situate in the neighbourhood of
Efluaen, Effuaen, and very near the west side of the Nile. The east part of the ille is hilly, and covered with ruins, almost undirtinguishable ; but amongft the rest is seen an antient edifice; Mill standing, called the Temple of the serpent* Knuphis; but to judge of it by appearance, it should feem no other than a sepulchral monument. It is surrounded with a kind of cloyfter, supported by columns. At each of the four corners, is a solid wall. The whole building is covered with hieroglyphics, and seemingly of the most antient fort. The inside forms á grand apartment, leading into which are two large entrances, one north, the other south. In the middle, on the western side, 'is a square table, without any inscription; on which, perhaps, once stood a mummy, or an urn:" this edifice meas fures about eighty, by twenty, Danish feet. Near to this is a kind of pedestal, made of large blocks of white stone, covered with Greek infcriptions, which, our Author says, he had not time to copy. From hence he went to the western fide, to take a view of the ruins of the antient Syene ; concerning which, fee Strabo, Pliny, and others. There was scarce anything of consequence amongst these ruins : however our Author has given us a plan of them. Before they set fail, a Mohammedan
* This ferpent is often mentioned by antient authors, under the name of Cnepb, and is called arados Acofiwe, or good genius, not only by the old Greeks, but in many inscriptions on the Abraças, as may be seen in Mountfaucon's Antiqui ies. Cnepb seems to be the same with the Arabic Conapha, covered, protected, nence allo the word comopy. These Divini protectores on the Abracas are fre. quently called Δεξιαι δυναμεις, fortunate powers, alfo ΙΑΩ and ΑΔΩ. NAI, the Hebrew names of God, Jehovah, and Adonai, which fig. nifies Lord. The usual image on thefe pieces, which are fomecimes metal, sometimes (tone, is a large ferpent; and on others a monster, having the head of a cock, and tail of a serpent, both fymbols of Afculapius, with the body of a man, holding a whip in one hand, as the depeller of evils, and a shield in the other, as an emblem of protection, which is the ûgnification of the oriental word, Cneph. And perhaps the word Abracas is derived from Abarac, benedixit, and the celebrated eastern charm, Abracadabra, from the same word compounded with Bara, which signifies fanavit, as well as creavit, with the particle 78, or lead inserted betu een. Dio. genes Laertius, in his eighth book, menuons a priest of Memphis,
"Xovepus. x in the Coptic, is the same with a cow in the Greek, and veps is ayudes; fo that in the Egyptian language, icnonphi is the good genius. But the words IAS and AANNAI being certainly Hebrew, and cysce o:ofdate of the Hebreivs, we have given the 'Hebrew interpretation allo of Cneph Let our learned Readers determine as they please sebiji tv odds a bit pau, faint touched the coffers, and the men, with a crooked stick, which he held in his hand, blefiing them after his manner; but coming to a dog, who had not been used to look upon the touch of a stick as a benediction, he flew at the saint, who then uttered curfes as plenteously as he had bestowed his bles. fings a moment before : but two Sevillans appeased him.
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In passing through a plain of sand, between Ellyaen and the Cataract, our Author discovered a very large comitery, filled with stones, every one of which had an inscription ; but in what language, the Jew valet, who could read Turkish and Arabic, did not know. The tradition of the country is, that they are the tombs of the Mamalukes, who were killed when the Calif entered Egypt. Which is not very probable. Such monuments are seldom raised in honour of a conquered people. It is great pity our Author did not copy some of the characters; if they are Coptic, that is a language still understood : and whatever the characters are, if there is but a sufficient quantity given, a good Orientalist, and a good decypherer, will interpret them. One reason, however, we have to sufpect these characters not to be Coptic, is, that the resemblance between the Coptic and the Greek, is fuch, as that our Author would, in all probability, have called them Greek, if they had been Coptic.
Before we leave the cataract, it is proper to inform our Readers, that the fall was no more than four feet, at the time Mr. Norden took his survey of it, and about thirty feet in extent.
Gieseret el Heif is the Phile of the antients, situate at fome distance from the eastern banks of the Nile, and near to another island, that is much larger, but desert, and covered with rocks of granite. The rocky shores of the first-mentioned itland, are wrought into the form of a wall; and many colonades, and other grand monuments of antiquity, are found in the place: of which three views were taken from on board the bark. The first represents the island, such as it appears to view upon quitting the first cataract; and here a port or citadel is feen, resembling that described among the antiquities at Edfu: thoʻthis of El Heiff is better preserved. The hieroglyphies are of the same size in both places, but of different forms ; fome sit, and have mitres on their heads; others are erect, with weapons in their hands. There are some works like bastions, which appear to be in good condition. The wall being broke down in some parts, discovers the columns, which appear to be many, and of good workmanship. On this fide are seen, upon the granite rock, many hieroglyphics, wrought
nearly in the fame manner as those seen at Efuaen. The fecond view is taken from the east: the third from the south. On our Author's return, he went on shore on this ifland, and entered a magnificent teniple of Isis, a most noble monument, and almost entire. There is a view of this building, in which are distinguished the principal entrance, the interior court, the fecond ențrance, the vestibule, the basse-cour, divers chambers; and the outward court. From hence he went into and ther temple, much less than the former, but of extraordinary taste and beauty. He supposes it to be the temple mentioned by Strabo, lib.xill. There were other temples, and from the fairs remaining, he supposed there must be subterraneous apartments; but the paflages were all choaked with filth and ruins, and he had not time to examine them. However, he has given us a sheet of columns and capitals, which are very beautiful. I
did not quir this island,' says our Author, but with great regret. One day would have been fufficient for taking defigns of a great number of hieroglyphics, which would have cleared up the story and worship of Ifis. But my inclinations were forced to yield to prudence.'
At Deboude is a long and large edifice, built of square ftones, and closed, except in the front; to which is a grand portal, and apertures, like windows, on each side, formed by four columns. On the top of the edifice is a plain cornice, and under it, as also at the four angles, is a moulding *, common to Egyptian buildings. This edifice is surrounded by a high wall, much damaged, particularly towards the portal. Opposite are three portals in a row, which seem to form a passage leading to a canal forty feet wide, now ruined, and full of fand; the sides of which were lined with a thick wall, made of large blocks of stone. Within the principal edifice are columns that seem antiently to have belonged to a temple.
At Hindau, our Author saw four or five columns, and (for the space of a quarter of a league) walls, and foundations, of several magnificent buildings. At Sahdacb, he found another antient edifice: and near Teffa, fome other remains, of which he has given us a sketch. At Sherk Abohuer, he saw an antient ftone quay along the Nile, about gun fhot distance to the north of the town; the stones 'were wrought in the form of prisms, and to closely joined, that no interftices could be discovered. At some distance, are five or fix huts, built of stones, covered with hieroglyphics, wrought by a good hand, but never paint
* Th's moulding is semi-circular, and is called by architects, an Alragal, Tondino, or, when larger, Battone.