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mission to be a member of the church whereof he was, the church cannot make a member no member, but by excommunication.*

Acts, xviii, 27.

8. If a member be called to remove only for a time, where a church is, letters of recommendation are requisite and sufficient for communion with that church in the ordinances and in their watch; as Phebe, a servant of the church at Cenchrea, had letters written for her to the church at Rome, that she might be received as becometh saints.

Rom. xvi. 1, 2. 2 Cor. iii. 1.

9. Such letters of recommendation and dismission, were written for Apollos; for Marcus to the Colossians; for Phebe to the Romans, for sundry others to other churches. And the apostle telleth us, that some persons, not sufficiently known otherwise, have special need of such letters, though he for his part had no need thereof. The use of them is to be a benefit and help to the party for whom they are written, and for the furthering of his receiving amongst the saints in the place whereto he goeth, and the due satisfaction of them in their receiving of him.

Acts, xviii. 27. Col. iv. 10. Rom. xvi. 1. 2 Cor. ii. 1.


Of excommunication and other censures.

1. The censures of the church are appointed by Christ for the preventing, removing, and healing of offences in the church; for the reclaiming and gaining of offending brethren ; for the deterring others from the like offences; for purging out the leaven which

* A timely admonition to those churches which are in the habit of dismissing members at their own request, without censure, and without recommendation.-Ed.

may infect the whole lump; for vindicating the honor of Christ, and of his church, and the holy profession of the gospel ; and for preventing of the wrath of God, that may justly fall upon the church, if they should suffer his covenant, and the seals thereof to be profaned by notorious and obstinate offenders.

1 Tim. v. 20. Deut. xvii. 12, 13. Jude, 19. Deut. xii. 11. 1 Cor. v. 6. Rom. ii. 24. Rev. ii. 14–16, 20,

2. If an offence be private, one brother offending another, the offender is to go and acknowledge his repentance for it unto his offended brother, who is then to forgive him ; but if the offender neglect or refuse to do it, the brother offended is to go and convince and admonish him of it, between themselves privately: If thereupon the offender be brought to repent of his offence, the admonisher hath won his brother; but if the offender hear not his brother, the brother offended is to take with him one or two more, that in the mouth of two or three witnesses every word may be established, whether the word of admonition, if the offender receive it ; or the word of complaint, if he refuse it ; for if he refuse it, the offended brother is by the mouth of the elders to tell the church, and if he hear the church, and declare the same by penitent confession, he is recovered and gained ; and if the church discern him to be willing to hear, yet not fully convinced of his offence, as in case of heresy, they are to dispense to him a public admonition; which declaring the offender to lie under the public offence of the church, doth thereby withhold or suspend him from the holy fellowship of the Lord's supper, till his offence be removed by penitent confession. If he still continue obstinate, they are to cast him out by excommunication.

Matt. v. 23, 24. Luke, xvii. 3, 4. Matt. xvii. 15–17. Tit. iii. 10.

3. But if the offence be more public at first, and of a more heinous and criminal nature, to wit, such as are condemned by the light of nature, then the church,

without such gradual proceeding, is to cast out the offender from their holy communion, for the further mortifying of his sin, and the healing of his soul in the day of the Lord Jesus.

1 Cor. v. 4, 5, 11.

4. In dealing with an offender, great care is to be taken, that we be neither overstrict or rigorous, nor too indulgent or remiss; our proceeding herein ought to be with a spirit of meekness, considering ourselves, lest we also be tempted ; and that the best of us have need of much forgiveness from the Lord. Yet the winning and healing of the offender's soul, being the end of these endeavors, we must not daub with untempered mortar, nor heal the wounds of our brethren slightly. On some have compassion, others save with fear.

Gal. vi. 1. Matt. xviii. 34, 35. Ezek. xiii. 10.

5. While the offender remains excommunicate, the church is to refrain from all member-like communion with him in spiritual things, and also from all familiar communion with him in civil things, further than the necessity of natural, domestical or civil relations do require, and are therefore to forbear to eat and drink with him, that he may be ashamed.

Matt. xviii. 17. 1 Cor. v. 11. 2 Thess. iii. 6, 14.

6. Excommunication being a spiritual punishment, it doth not prejudice the excommunicate in, nor deprive him of his civil rights, and therefore toucheth not princes or other magistrates in point of their civil dignity or authority; and the excommunicate being but as a publican and a heathen, (heathens being lawfully permitted to come to hear the word in church assemblies,) we acknowledge therefore the like liberty of hearing the word, may be permitted to persons excommunicate, that is permitted unto heathen. And because we are not without hope of his recovery, we are not to account him as an enemy, but to admonish him as a brother.

1 Cor. xiv. 24, 25. 2 Thess. iii. 14.

7. If the Lord sanctify the censure to the offender, so as by the grace of Christ he doth testify his repent

ance with humble confession of his sins, and judging of himself, giving glory unto God, the church is then to forgive him, and to comfort him, and to restore him to the wonted brotherly communion which formerly he enjoyed with them. 2 Cor. ii. 7, 8.

8. The suffering of profane or scandalous livers to continue in fellowship, and partake in the sacraments, is doubtless a great sin in those that have power in their hands to redress it, and do it not. Nevertheless, inasmuch as Christ and his apostles in their times, and the prophets and other godly in theirs, did lawfully partake of the Lord's commanded ordinances in the Jewish church, and neither taught nor practised separation from the same, though unworthy ones were permitted therein ; and inasmuch as the faithful in the church of Corinth, wherein were many unworthy persons and practices, are never commanded to absent themselves from the sacraments, because of the same; therefore the godly in like cases are not presently to separate.

Rev. ii. 14, 15, 20. Matt. xxiii. 3. Acts, iii. 1. 1 Cor. vi., and xv. 12.

9. As separation from such a church wherein profane and scandalous persons are tolerated, is not presently necessary ; so for the members thereof, otherwise unworthy, hereupon to abstain from communicating with such a church in the participation of the sacraments, is unlawful. For as it were unreasonable for an innocent person to be punished for the faults of others, wherein he hath no hand, and whereunto he gave no consent ; so it is more unreasonable, that a godly man should neglect duty, and punish himself, in not coming for his portion in the blessing of the seals as he ought, because others are suffered to come that ought not; especially, considering that himself doth neither consent to their sins, nor to their approaching to the ordinance in their sin, nor to the neglect of others who should put them away, and do not; but on the contrary doth

heartily mourn for these things, modestly and seasonably stir up others to do their duty. If the church cannot be reformed, they may use their liberty as is specified, chap. 13, sect. 4. But this all the godly are bound unto, even every one to do his endeavor, according to his power and place, that the unworthy may be duly proceeded against, by the church to whom this matter doth appertain.

2 Chron. xxx. 18. Gen. xviii. 25. Ezek. ix. 4.


Of the communion of churches one with another.

1. ALTHOUGH churches be distinct, and therefore may not be confounded one with another; and equal, and therefore have not dominion one over another ; yet all the churches ought to preserve

church communion one with another, because they are all united unto Christ, not only as a mystical, but as a political head, whence is derived a communion suitable thereunto.

Rev. i. 4. Cant. viii. 8. Rom. xvi. 16. 1 Cor. xvi. 19. Acts, 15, 23. Rev. ii. 1.

2. The communion of churches is exercised sundry ways. 1. By way of mutual care, in taking thought for one another's welfare. 2. By way of consultation one with another, when we have occasion to require the judgment and counsel of other churches, touching any person or cause wherewith they may be better acquainted than ourselves. As the church of Antioch consulted with the apostles and elders of the church at Jerusalem, about the question of circumcision of the Gentiles, and about the false teachers that broached that doctrine. In which case, when any church wanteth light or peace amongst themselves, it is a way of communion of churches, according to the word, to

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