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even some Protestant antiquaries and Queen Elizabeth visited Winchessentimentalists express themselves in ter, but did not reside long in it; but a very dubious manner on the subject; her sister Mary did, and celebrated as if they could forgive what is evil her marriage there, and was much in virtue of its being picturesque, attached to the place, as well she and forget the soul-condemning doc- might be, for, like many other of our trines of Popery in the magnificence ecclesiastical towns, it continued a of its spectacles and the imposing favoured lurking-hole of Papal presplendour of its ritual. Now I do judice long after Protestantism had to my heart love antiquity, after enlightened more secular places, and my humble manner of appreciating was in all its bad eminence of honour it; and more miles would I walk to during her reign, from the presimuse over an ancientarch or groining, dency of that execrable man who than furlongs to dazzle my eyes with occupied its episcopal throne, Bishop the jewels and feathers of a royal and Chancellor Gardiner. I have drawing-room; but not one sigh do no authorities at hand to which I I heave when I think of all these can turn for accurate information dilapidations: I am Vandal enough of the scenes which passed in this to rejoice at them with my whole city during the Marian persecution. soul, though I will not undertake to Milner, the Roman Catholic histojustify every circumstance that at- rian and antiquary of Winchester, tended them, or the appropriation says little enough, as might be exthat was, in many instances, made of pected, on the subject : and throughthe confiscated revenues. But these out his elaborate work every apology nests of corruption needed to be is offered for the evil deeds of his utterly exterminated; for they were own church, and every aggravation the strong holds of a debased system brought forward of those in the Proof religion, and were too often nur- testant communion; and such a colour series for hypocrisy and licentious- is given to his whole publication as ness; and, while they remained, no might lead an unwary person to think hope was there that England would that Popery was the most enlightever be spiritually reformed. As to ened, lovely, and Christian system the boasted benefits which monas- possible—the quintessence of all that teries, nunneries, and kindred founda- was for the glory of God and the tions conferred upon the poor, I alto- good of man,--and Protestantism one gether doubt the fact : they tended, mass of error and absurdity, destiindeed, to generate a mass of pauper- tute of piety, taste, common sense, ism, and to train up the poor to those and charity. Books of this kind are depraved habits of squalid filth and more dangerous from their negatives unblushing mendicancy which still than even from their assertions; and, disgrace many Roman - Catholic by the way, I do not think it to the countries ; but any thing like an credit of the Protestantism of the honourable provision for the virtuous literary caterers of such a place as and industrious poor, to the exclusion Winchester, that the popular“Stranof the vicious and indolent, they did ger's Guide,” should be merely a not, and could not afford. Their superficial compilation from this doles, alms, and viatorial bounties, Roman-Catholic oracle, without any in fact, did far more harm than good; attempt to correct those overstateand it was not the least of their evil ments and understatements, those results that on account of the poor deficiencies and transgressions, which having been accustomed to them, might be expected in a zealous parthe councillors of queen Elizabeth tizan of the Papal Church. I will just were obliged to devise that bane of quote a short passage from this manual England, our poor laws, to prevent on the subject in hand, as an illustrathe obloquy that would otherwise tion oftheinsidiously false views which have attached to the Reformation. are often conveyed in popular works, in which their compilers neither in- regarded by Elizabeth and her mitended nor suspected any mischief. nisters. They endeavoured to ex“In the religious persecutions," says pel the lawful sovereign from the the Winchester Guide, “ which throne, and to place on it a person Mary carried on against the Pro- of their own persuasion ; and for testants, one person, Thomas Ben- this political crime they suffered, bridge suffered death in Winchester, though doubtless it was their religious and another person connected with opinions that prompted them to it. it, Archdeacon Philpot, was executed But to compare these executions, in London. In that (persecution] right or wrong, severe or necessary, which Elizabeth raised against the with the flames of Smithfield, or the Catholics, about a dozen individuals, blazing market-place of Winchester inhabitants of the city, or persons and other cathedral towns in the otherwise connected with it, were days of Mary, is an utter falsificaput to death, either in Winchester tion of truth and history. It must itself or the metropolis.” Now with. never be forgotten that Popery neout going into details, this passage cessarily involved politics by its adconveys under a specious front, the herence to a foreign potentate; but most palpable misrepresentation. Mary had no such cause for perseUnder Mary we are told, two persons cuting Protestants. suffer, and under Elizabeth about The exceptions to which I alluded a dozen, in consequence of “reli- were those of the Anabaptists, who gious persecution.” The inference certainly did suffer for their theowhich an unwary reader would draw, logical notions; notions abundantly is, that Protestants and Papists both wild and absurd, but which, as the did wrong, but the former in six venerable martyrologist Fox pathetimes the ratio of the latter. I tically pleaded with Elizabeth, ought am far from defending the sangui- not to have subjected them to the nary severities of Elizabeth's reign; penalty of death. The age, however, but to call them “religious persecu- was not prepared for religious toletions,” in the same sense as the re- ration; nor did Fox think of asking ligious persecutions of her sister, is it: but he did ask that they might a palpable and monstrous misrepre- only be subjected to moderate corsentation. Mary's atrocities were rection, and not have their living strictly religious persecutions; Eli- bodies destroyed by fire and flame zabeth's “ executions” were in ge- raging with pitch and sulphur; more neral for offences against the state, after the cruelty, said he, of the Pafor plots, sedition, and treason, to pists, than the mercies of the Goswhich the name of religion was only pel. “ There is imprisonment,” exan adjunct. I say “in general,” be- postulated the tender-hearted old cause there were some unhappy ex- man, “there is perpetual exile, there ceptions, which I should as little justify are branding and stripes, and even as the murder of Servetus. But these the gibbet; this I earnestly depreexceptions were not in the case of cate that you would not suffer the Papists, but of heretics or secta- fires of Smithfield, which under your ries unconnected with Rome; for most happy auspices have slept so never can I consent to view such long, to be rekindled.” But he sufferers as Campian and his com- pleaded in vain; the spirit of religipanions as men persecuted for reli- ous intolerance, which Popery had gion. True, they viewed themselves introduced and cherished, was not as religious martyrs, and religious yet exorcised; and these poor men martyrs the Church of Rome still suffered a cruel death. But the considers them; and their avowed Roman-Catholic sufferers were reobject was the restoration of Popery: bels: therefore judge of the fairness but it was as men who were plot- of such a passage as that which I ting against the state, that they were have quoted above from a popular

Guide Book.
But the passage is

Winchester had the high honour not only unfair in calling both cases of giving to the noble army of marequally, “ religious persecutions,” tyrs one of its most illustrious ornabut in making up

“ about a dozen ments, in the person of her archdeaagainst two, without a particle of con, John Philpot; a man“ of a information as to the particular worshipful house in Hampshire,” facts. But take it at the worst, that educated, if I recollect rightly, at among

the persons who, during Eli- Winchester College, and greatly rezabeth's long reign of nearly half a spected for his talents and learning, century, were executed in London and but still more for his unshaken conthe country, for offences arising out stancy for the cause of Christ against of the perilous state of the times, the corruptions of Popery, and for there were as many as twelve who that memorable spirit of faith, love, could be traced up directly or indi- and godly zeal with which he bore rectly to a connexion with Win. his testimony to those blessed docchester, even this is not an over- trines of Scripture which were his whelming proof of extreme barbarity, support in life, his consolation durwhen we consider the peculiar cir. ing his protracted imprisonment, and cumstances of the case, and that his crown of rejoicing in death. I Winchester was one of the strongest have no words to express the admifortresses of Popery, and a prolific ration which I feel for this illustrious seed-bed of Anti-Protestant sedition martyr; or rather, would I say, for and treason. I do not indeed jus- the grace of God in him : for I do tify even one case of unnecessary not believe that it is in human nature political severity, much less religi- to have borne up as he did, during ous persecution ; but to compare the nearly twenty trying examinations, two reigns with a view to give the when he was a prisoner in Bishop preference to the clemency of Mary, Bonner's coal-house, and suffered is too absurd to need further argu- that protracted moral torture which ment to prove it so. I will only is far more difficult to sustain than add, what Popery would have us a few sharp hours of bodily agony. forget, that the number of persons When I read his own account of who perished during the Marian per- thirteen of these examinations, which secution at the stake was small, com- he contrived to pen and secrete notpared with those who suffered impri- withstanding the vigilance of his sonment, loss of goods, expatriation, jailors, God having doubtless decruel mental inflictions, bodily tor- signed it to survive, in order to tures, and ultimate loss of life in the strengthen the faith, and to put to depths of dungeons, or by the wast- shame the cowardice, of his servants ings of insidious persecution. In the in after ages, I stand humbled and days when the secrets of the prison- overwhelmed at the manifest infehouse shall be disclosed, what a riority of most of us who call our. fearful account will there be to be selves Christians in these latter days; rendered of what passed in these and I can only resolve it into this, abodes of darkness and misery in that God is pleased to adapt his those atrocious days of anti-Christian heavenly manifestations to the pebarbarity! I by no means except culiar circumstances of his servants, from my execration the cruelties of and that if we were equally tried, and racking and other tortures inflicted were led equally to depend upon Him under Elizabeth, as well as under for assistance, His strength would be Mary, and in succeeding reigns also. made perfect in our weakness, as it One's blood curdles in reading the was in theirs. But, as it is, where is horrible barbarities inflicted upon our faith? where our courage ? where Campian and others. I can only say, our resignation? where our holy boldin explanation, not extenuation, that ness? where our willingness to bear they were the customs of the age. everything, and to give up everything

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for Christ? Nay, not only eminent perusal. When you next look at divines and stout-hearted men did the stall which he occupied in your this, but delicate women and tender cathedral, think of what he underchildren. “I can tell,” to use the went from the memorable day when words of Mr. Irving, “ of those who he passed the Rubicon, by protesting fought with savage beasts, yea of against the heresies of Popery in his maidens who durst enter into the place in the Convocation House, to ring to take their chance with infu- the joyful hour—for to him, after his riated beasts of prey; and I can tell severe toils and sufferings, such was of those who drank of the molten it—when he exclaimed, I

pay my lead, and handled the red fire, and vows in thee, O Smithfield.” The played with the bickering flames." recollection will be salutary, if And thus has it been, not in one only it lead us to feel more inage only, or another, but in all tensely our privileges as Christians, places and at all times where perse- as Britons, and as Protestants; and cution has been permitted to assail to bind to our hearts with greater the church of Christ, either before affection that blessed book, and or since his advent. The eleventh those celestial truths, which holy chapter of the Epistle to the He- men like Philpot died at the stake to brews brings down the narrative to rescue from the paralysing grasp of the Christian era; our early church- Popery, and to bequeath as their best historians continue it during the ten legacy to their children's children. great persecutions ; detached records I am not inclined to cherish desponddepict various local instances; the ing views of passing scenes: but the venerable martyrologist Fox was day is dark; and I cannot but think raised up to record with much pious that an hour of trial may await many care the Marian barbarities; and of us for which we are ill prepared ; Waldenses, Hugonots, and other not, indeed, imprisonment, bodily despised servants of Christ, have not torture, or death ; but other trials, been without similar memorials. I privations, and reproaches, which depreciate none of them ; I love and the slothful and self-indulgent feel. venerate them all; and among our ings of modern Christians would English martyrs I should be utterly dread to encounter, though they are at a loss which to place first, as most' as nothing to the stripes and agonies renowned for wisdom, strength, cou- of former ages of persecution. Our rage, zeal, and all the exalted graces modern sinews are relaxed; the of one who is accounted worthy to sun-shine of spiritual ease has enersuffer for Christ. They did not, vated our firmness ; even the book however, seek these distinctions of God is not to us what it wa to among themselves, nor will I dis. holy men of old time, who knew honour their memories by unworthy scarcely any thing, or cared to know comparisons; more especially as any thing, beyond it; nor is our what they had was not their own, communion with God so close and but the especial gift of God. Still intimate and soul-strengthening as very high on the list must I, and was theirs who had nothing else to will I, place John Philpot, Arch- support them along the weary pildeacon of Winchester. You can grimage of life. Even in an afterrefresh your memory with the ac- age, the standard was higher than it count of his examinations in Fox *; is now; for we fall, I fear, as short and well worthy are they of re- of many of those whom reproach

called Puritans, as they perhaps fell The Religious Tract Society has just short of their predecessors, the first reprinted them in one of its cheap vo- reformers and martyrs. But they lumes of the lives and works of the Re- too, the Puritans I mean, lived in formers. These cheap editions of valuable stern times, and the thought of a works are a great public blessing; more so, perhaps, than even the society's tracts better world was often their only for the poorer classes of the community. comfort in this. I cannot resist quoting what has been said of them ministering angels had charge over in a work where eulogy on such a them. Their palaces were houses subject was little to be expected- not made with hands; their diadems the Edinburgh Review. The paper crowns of glory which should never was at the time currently ascribed fade away! On the rich and the eloto a young senator, the splendour of quent, on nobles and priests, they whose talents may well call forth an looked down with contempt; for earnest prayer to the infinite Donor they esteemed themselves rich in of all good gifts, that they may never a more precious treasure, and elobe misappropriated. The passage is quent in a more sublime language, 80 replete with interest and elo- nobles by the right of an earlier quence, that though you must have creation, and priests by the imporead it before I shall not stint you sition of a mightier Hand. The with a meagre extract.

very meanest of them was a being The Puritans were men whose ' to whose fate a mysterious and minds had derived a peculiar cha- terrible importance belonged ; on racter from the daily contemplation whose slightest action the spirits of superior beings and eternal inte- of light and darkness looked with rests. Not content with acknow. anxious interest, who had been desledging, in general terms, an over- tined, before heaven and earth were ruling Providence, they habitually created, to enjoy a felicity which ascribed every event to the will of should continue when heaven and the Great Being for whose power

earth should have passed away. nothing was too vast, for whose in- Events, which short-sighted politispection nothing was too minute. cians ascribed to earthly causes, had To know Him, to serve Him, to enjoy been ordained on his account. For Him, was with them the great end his sake empires had risen and flouof existence. They rejected with rished and decayed. For his sake contempt the ceremonious homage the Almighty had proclaimed his which other sects substituted for the will by the pen of the Evangelist, pure worship of the soul. Instead

Instead and the harp of the Prophet. He of catching occasional glimpses of had been wrested by no common the Deity through an obscuring veil, deliverer from the grasp of no comthey aspired to gaze full on the in- mon foe. He had been ransomed tolerable brightness, and to com- by the sweat of no vulgar agony, by mune with him face to face. Hence the blood of no earthly sacrifice. It originated their contempt for ter- was for him that the sun had been restrial distinctions. The difference darkened, that the rocks had been between the greatest and the mean- rent, that the dead had arisen, that est of mankind seemed to vanish, all nature had shuddered at the when compared with the boundless sufferings of her expiring God. interval which separated the whole “ Thus the Puritan was made up race from Him on whom their own of two different men;-the one all eyes were constantly fixed. They self-abasement, penitence, gratitude, recognized no title to superiority passion; the other proud, calm, inbut His favour ; and, confident of flexible, sagacious. He prostrated that favour, they despised all the himself in the dust before his Maker ; accomplishments and all the digni- but he set his foot on the neck of his ties of the world. If they were un- king. In his devotional retirement acquainted with the works of philo- he prayed with convulsions, and sophers and poets, they were deeply groans, and tears. He was half read in the oracles of God. If their maddened by glorious or terrible names were not found in the registers illusions. He heard the lyres of of heralds, they felt assured that they angels, or the tempting whispers of were recorded in the book of life. If fiends. He caught a gleam of the their steps were not accompanied by beatific vision, or. woke screaming a splendid train of menials, legions of from dreams of everlasting fire. Like

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