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the stratagems of a disingenuous God and Saviour. Christ who, in criticism. Our author's style is pure his human nature, descended from and forcible, and admirably perspi- the Jews, is ' over all, God blessed cuous. It is a little wanting in ease, for ever.' The practical importance and in that faculty of creating an of faith in the Deity of Christ.” interest in the mind of the young, Such a work does not well admit which ease and imagination bestow. of detached quotations, and much of The fairness with which his opponents it lies beyond the capacity of judgare treated—the admissions made ment and line of attainment of nuagainst his own argument- the un- merous readers. For these reasons, wearied and minute investigation of its sale may be slow and its adthe most intricate points - the com- mirers at first few. But it is not parison of authorities, and the con- on these accounts the less valuable. scientious summing up of the cases To the clergy of every confession in at last, leave a conviction upon the our own country, and on the contimind of the unbiassed reader of the nent, it will gradually become known: most permanent and forcible cha
students for holy orders will be diracter.
rected to it for valuable aid; and The volume contains twenty-one even the great mass of unlearned notes and dissertations, with a con- Christians will indirectly derive adcluding address on the practical im- vantage from the stores which enrich portance of faith in the Deity of Christ. the mind and fortify the faith of their The following are the topics :- pastors and instructors.
“ The canonical authority of the The mere fact of a much-respected Epistle to the Hebrews. The
pre- member of a body of Christians existence of Jesus Christ before John unconnected with any Established the Baptist. Christ, the Redeemer Church, with his prejudices and edu—the Living One—in the time of cation rather lying against than in Job. The existence of Christ before favour of received opinions, coming Abraham. The existence of Christ forward and bearing his decided teswhen the world was created. The timony in favour of the doctrines of eternal pre-existence of Christ. Christ Scripture which have ever been acpre-existent in the form of God, and counted fundamental, is of no small on an equality with him. The Chaldee moment. Targums, and the doctrine of their
In natural science the great authors respecting the Word of Je- mass of mankind judge from the hovah. The creation of all things united testimony of those whom they by the Word or Son of God. God know to be competent witnesses, as made the worlds by his Son. The to all the chief facts which are in testimony of the Apostle Paul, that question. Mistatements may for a the Psalmist addresses the Son of time prevail ; prejudice and party God as the Creator of the universe. may obscure certain particulars ; The Son the image of the invisible but another age comes on without God, the First-born of the whole these false impressions ; the truth creation, and the Creator of all things flows out, and the united and concurin heaven and in earth. The preach- rent opinion of persons of different ing of Christ to the Antediluvians. classes, without any motive for misThe angel who bore the name and representation, and admitted by the displayed the attributes of God. best judges to be well informed on The Deity of the Word. The pro- the question, decide mankind. phecies of Isaiah in chap. vii, viïi, and
So it is in the great truths of ix. 1–6. Christ the Branch is Je- Christianity as they stand connected hovah our Righteousness. The va- with the knowledge of the learned rious readings of 1 Tim. ii. 16. languages, of the laws of criticism, Additional observation on 1 Tim. the comparison of MSS., the weight üi. 16. Jesus Christ • our great of ancient testimony, and similar points. Few persons can judge of on the ground of mere hypothethese matters for themselves. But sis, which he had no means of bringthe united decision of those who ing to the test of truth. He would can, and who are known and ad- wait, to say the least; and in the mitted to be capable of judging; mean time would go on in his former persons of every religious body, course. And thus acts the unlearned without motive to deceive, living in Christian who cannot make himself different countries and educated with master of the intricacies of biblical every variety of early associations; criticism; and thus, we might add, satisfies, and ought to satisfy, the the learned Christian also, so far as great body of their Christian brethren. his opportunities do not suffice to inWe have, for instance, in favour of vestigate for himself every minute the ordinary interpretation of John point, respecting which he may i. 1-14, the concurrent testimonies safely rely upon the testimony of of all the ancient Fathers who under- others. An unlettered mechanic acts, stood the language in which the and acts rightly, and with perfect passage was written, and lived nearest confidence upon rules and formula to the times of the writer. We have which the philosopher and mathethe opinions of all the Reformers, as matician have laid down and proved; well as of the writers in the church and the whole business of life defrom which they separated. We pends upon this current adoption of have the sentiments of all the later demonstrated results. critics who have examined manu
But faith, divine faith, holy sancscripts and compared readings with tifying faith, the operation of God in the greatest care, and the verdict and the heart, and the source and spring decisions of the most able scholars of love to God and man; of vicof our own day. They all agree as tory over the world, of mortification to the reading, as to the interpretation of sin, of hope of everlasting life ; which the laws of common sense gives the sincere Christian a still and of all language require, and as higher position on which to stand, to the harsh and inadmissible cha- and which the merely critical apparacter of the expositions preferred ratus of words cannot reach. The by the Socinian writers. This satis- great fundamental truths of Christifies, and ought in reason to satisfy, anity have been wrought as printhe minds of the unlearned, as to ciples into his habits by Divine grace. the critical question involved in this The fall and corruption of man, resublime passage. But further than demption by the sacrifice of a Divine this, even the English reader has Saviour, regeneration, and progresmeans of safety which may still sive sanctification by the Holy Spirit, more completely calm his mind. A reliance upon Christ, prayer to Christ, new version is presented to him by love to Christ, communion with the Unitarians, in which the sacred Christ, are with him practical princilanguage of the Apostle concerning ples, first elements of religion. They the pre-existence and Deity of the have actually produced in his heart Word, and the creation of all things and character, and are producing in by Him, is denied. But he receives his heart and character, those posino new version, without waiting for tive blessings,- that peace, that love the sanction of the great body of and fervent holiness, that mortificathose whom he knows to be ac- tion of sin, that hope of heaven, which counted best able to judge. Here as much confirm the truth of the is his safety; just as in medicine, law, Gospel and constitute its subsidiary agriculture, a practical man would evidence, as health produced in one receive nothing, on the allegation sick of a fever, confirms the value of a learned person, which contro- and efficacy of the medicine which verted all his experience, and pro- professed to heal him. posed novel methods of proceeding, And yet more, the great truth. of
Revelation do not depend on a few and that the old and accustomed in-
Again; nothing is to be found in Notes and Dissertations in reference the Inspired Volume abstractedly to this grand topic; that is, let any stated, no doctrine for the mere one, who, with the humility of a sake of the doctrine; nothing is re
Christian, has something of the vealed for the purposes of theologi- literary furniture required for such cal science, if we may so speak; but a study, calmly weigh the topics as all is connected with our duties,
our author has illustrated them; his our salvation, the illustration of the answers to the Unitarian writers, Divine glory, the consolation of a his exposure of their version; let troubled conscience, our progress in him trace, with Mr. Gurney, the holiness, our preparation for heaven. whole doctrine of the Word in both But these considerations by no means
Testaments; let him take in the col. lessen, they rather enhance, the value lateral evidence from the concur. of such solid criticism as is found in ring received opinions of the purest Mr. Gurney's volume. A single re
doctors, and from the meaning they mark, in his preface, is invaluable in would necessarily attach to St. John's this view.
language; let him consider the tes“While I have been engaged in the timony of all the early Christian composition of this volume, and in the writers, to whom Greek was the previous study necessary for the purpose, native language ;-let him do this, one general remark has been frequently and he will rise from the study with suggested to me, and has excited a feeling of gratitude to our Heavenly Father, who
a strengthened faith, with an enhas graciously adapted the revelation of larged and deepened conviction of his truth to men of every condition. It is the grand mysterious truth of the that, as far as regards essential truth, the Divinity of our Lord. obvious sense of Scripture — the sense which is naturally imbibed by the cottager belief in this doctrine, and, we may
We can truly say, that after a firm or the school-boy- seldom fails to be wrought out and established by impartial add, not a short or careless study of and elaborate research. It stands the test the principal controversies respectof careful investigation.” p. iv.
ing it, we have received from these It is indeed satisfactory to find that pages a most consoling and heartthe labours of the most learned men cheering confirmation of our previous in different ages and nations, not sentiments. only serve to repel the invasions The glaring unsoundness, and of the rash and unbelieving scholar, even dishonesty, of the Unitarian but to strengthen on each occasion criticism, is not the least useful part the main truths which were so rude- of the exposure made by our author. lyattacked. Such works, therefore, as For example, when the Socinian that before us have the highest value. translator would evade the true They confirm the grounds of our meaning of the sublime introduction faith, they prove that all attempts of St. John's Gospel, by a manner to give novel interpretations to the of proceeding which, if any one language of Scripture utterly fail, were to apply to an act of parliaCHRIST. OBSERV. No. 359.
ment, or a sentence in any historical God,” &c. (Col. i. 15); and the corcomposition, or a clause in a deed responding one (Heb. i. 3), “ The conveying an inheritance, it would brightness of the Father's glory, and be pronounced the grossest impo- express image of his person.' We sition ; we feel the obligation which have never seen these terms so judithe public owes to the faithful friend ciously and satisfactorily developed. who has detected the artifice. But The essay on the preaching of we do not intend to dwell on par. Christ to the Antediluvians, in referticulars which admit not well of ence to 1 Pet. ii. 18—20, is curious abridgment. We will only briefly and satisfactory; and Bishop Horsley's direct the attention of our readers to comment is ably refuted. a few cursory points of observation
In the essay on the Deity of the on some of the critical notes.
Word, there is a masterly and comThe first essay, on the canonical plete refutation of the Socinian soauthority of the Epistle to the He- phism, that because there are some brews, is of itself worth the price of few places in which the sacred name the volume-calm, deliberate, con- is applied, under certain limitations, clusive-a beautiful specimen of in- to judges and others, the genuine ductive reasoning. The essay on the force of John i. 1, where no such Chaldee Targums chiefly import- limitations are found, may be evadant as bringing out the general opi- ed. nions of the Jews, as to the term, The next contains a noble explithe Word of God. We give the con- cation of the prophecies in Isaiah clusion.
vii. viii. and ix. 1-6. But no por“ It appears then, that by the phrase tion of the work gives us more deWord of Jah,'the Targumists sometimes light than the remarks on Jer. xxii. denote the power or operating energy, and
5, 6. We remember the triumph at other times the mind or rational faculty
which Dr. Blayney's new interpreof the Supreme Being—that hence this term is often employed by them as a sy- tation gave to the Socinian Monthly nonyme for God--that nevertheless it · Reviewers. We remember at that generally points to him, in his peculiar
time, that we determined to wait, character of the ever present and ever acting protector and helper of his people
till the concurrence of testimony and lastly, that there are in the Targums, should prove or disprove the profesnumerous passages in which the Word of sor's criticism, or our own progress Jah is decribed as a person possessing the
in Hebrew enable us to judge for ourattributes and performing the works of Deity, and yet distinguished from Je- selves. It has so happened that Mr. hovah, as one sent is distinguished from Gurney's Fssay is the first that has one sending
completely satisfied our minds, that “ When, therefore, the Apostle John
the attempt of Blayney was rash employed the title soyos, Word, in order to describe our Saviour, as one, whose name
and untenable. We insert our auwas the name of God, and whose works thor's conclusions. were the works of God; but who was ne
“ On the whole, then, it appears, vertheless, in some respects, distinct from God, even the Father, with whom he was
“ That the construction of this verse, in the beginning, and by whom he was sent proposed by Blayney,-a construction into the world—he made use of language which detaches · Jehovah' from the name which was probably very intelligible to
of the Branch,-is neither justified by the many of his countrymen, and of the sig- example of the LXX, nor required by nification of which their known views of the rules of Hebrew grammar. the subject may now enable us to form a That, on the contrary, the usually
received construction of the passage correct estimate." p. 142.
The essay on the Son, the Image agrees with an idiom of frequent occurof the invisible God, the First-born various critical considerations, is proved
rence in the Hebrew Scriptures, and, by of the whole creation, and Creator to be correct. of all things in heaven and earth, “ That, were Jehovah-Tsidkenu the affords the best observations we are
proper name of the Messiah, it might
possibly admit of that circuitous explanaacquainted with on the important ex
tion, which has been adopted by the Jews; pression, “ The image of the invisible but that, on the ground of its not being
his proper name, (and that it was not so, against implicitly following that rewe learn from the New Testament,) we
nowned critic. This excellent dismust conclude, that it is an emphatic description of his person and character.
sertation will fully warrant the “That this method of interpretation is Christian minister in dwelling on abundantly justitied by the phraseology of the sacred passage, as it is rendered the Hebrews, as appears from numerous
in our English translation, without other passages of Scripture.
“ Lastly, that in the present instance, throwing in any doubts as to the its correctness is confirmed by the evi- reading, or hesitating to adduce the dence of the context." p. 361.
testimony thus unequivocally borne We cannot but add the protest to the Deity of our Saviour; a result which Mr. Gurney enters against a of great importance in practical thecursory remark of Blayney, that the ology. Divinity of our Saviour draws its A few general reflections shall decisive proofs from the New Tes- close our observations. tament only.
And, first, it is surely a striking " I must now briefly enter my protest circumstance, that Providence raises against the assertion of Blayney, that the doctrine of the Divinity of Chříst draws up defenders of the Gospel in a day its decisive proofs from the New Testa- like the present, from every class of ment only. Until reasons are adduced to Christians. This work, together the contrary, far stronger than any which with author's accompanying he has urged, I shall always believe, that
essays on Christianity generally, decisive proofs of that doctrine are contained in those evangelical prophecies, and on the holy Sabbath*, form a which have formed the subject of this and highly valuable and seasonable acthe preceding essay.” pp. 363, 364. cession to our stores of sacred litera
We remark only, further, that the ture. There is a manliness, a canessay on the various readings of dour, a reasonable deference to an1 Tim. iii. 16, appears to us amongst tiquity, a moderation on doubtful the most lucid and calm specimens points, a force and energy on of critical investigation with which main truths, a solidity of literary we are acquainted. All is laboured acquirements, a practical submission out with a patience, a fairness, a force of faith to Divine revelation, a holy and acuteness of intellect, which are practical reliance on the efficacy of not often met with. The result is redemption, throughout the work, thus given :
which must command attention“ On a mature consideration of this which the unbeliever cannot affect comparative statement, I deem it to be to despise—and which, in our auindisputable, that the evidences in favour of ords, which include many of the Alex: thor's own particular body, must be andrine, some of the Western, and nearly productive of the highest advantages. all the Byzantine authorities, greatly pre- The very sect, also, among whom, a ponderate over those in favour of ó; ; and few years since, the Deity and sacrialthough a considerable allowance may fice of our Lord were supposed to reasonably be demanded for ós, on the ground of its being the most probable have been too much lost sight of, is origin of é, I cannot avoid concluding, by this publication recalled, by one that Griesbach, on his own professed of their own members, to the standprinciples of classification, had no suffi- ard of truth. This circumstance calls cient reasons for the expulsion of otos; but that this long-received reading ought for gratitude to Almighty God; and clearly to be retained in the text of the when connected with other great Greek Testament.” pp. 391, 392.
works on the same momentous subThe dissertation on the various jects, both by Churchmen and Disreadings of 1 Tim. iii. 16, is the more valuable, as it exhibits some of the
* A small book which has just appeared, defects of Griesbach's system of and which we cannot too strongly recomclassification—a subject to which mend to our readers. It will form an we called the attention of our read- appropriate companion to Mr. D. Wil
son's inestimable work on the same topic, ers in our volume for 1814—and which we are glad to see has already arleads to caution the young student rived at a second extensive impression,