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the arched vault formed by the under surface of under the acromion, where the head of the bone the acromion and coracoid processes. See SCAPULA. ought to be; the shoulder seems flattened; the As in movable joints generally, the articular surfaces elbow sticks out from the side, and cannot be made are covered with cartilage, and there is a synovial membrane which lines the interior of the joint. The most important connecting medium between the two bones is the capsular ligament, which is a fibrinous expansion embracing the margin of the glennid cavity above, while it is prolonged upon the taverosities of the humerus below. From its relations with the surrounding muscles, the ligament
Fig. 2.-Dislocation of the Shoulder-Joint downwards. 1, the clavicle; 2, the acroinion process ; 3, the coracoid pro
cess; 4, the glenoid cavity; 5, the head of the humerus lying
in the axilla. to touch the ribs; and the head of the bone can be felt if the limb be raised, although such an attempt causes great pain and weakness, from the pressure exerted on the axillary plexus of nerves.' -- Druitt's Surgeon's Vade-mecum, 8th ed. p. 282. There are at least five methods of treating this form of dislo
cation. It is sufficient to notice two of them. 1. Fig. 1.-The left Shoulder-Joint and its Connections. Reduction by the heel in the axilla. The patient 1, the clavicle or collar bone; 2, the acromion process ; 3, the lies on a couch, and the operator sits at the edge,
coracoid process ; 4, the capsular ligament; 5, the coracohumeral ligament; 6, the tendons of the biceps muscle ; 7, the shaft of the humerus or arm-bone ; 8,the greater tuberosity of the humerus ; 9, the lesser tuberosity; 10, the neck of the scapula : 11, anterior surface of the scapula.
pulls the limb downward by means of a towel
fastened above the elbow. There is a figure of this derives much of its strength. Accordingly, in para- operation in the article DISLOCATIONS. 2. Reduclysis of the arm, one or two fingers can often be tion by the knee in the axilla. The patient pressed into the joint towards the head of the glenoid being seated in a chair, the surgeon places one of cavity, from which the head of the humerus is now his knees in the axilla, resting his foot on the separated. .
chair. He then puts one hand on the shoulder, to The shoulder-joint exhibits the following varie- fix the scapula, and with the other depresses the ties of motion : 1. Flexion, to a great extent; 2. elbow over his knee.For a description of the Extension, in a much more limited degree; 3. Ad. symptoms and mode of treatment of the other forms duction, in an oblique direction, forwards and of dislocation, and of the different varieties of prac. inwards ; 4. Abduction very freely ; 5. Circumduc- tice, we must refer the reader to any systematic tion; and 6. Rotation slightly.
treatise on Surgery. The morbid affections of the shoulder-joint may
SHOʻVELLER (Rhynchaspis), a genus of ducks, be divided into (1) those arising from disease, and (2) those dependent on an accident. The most common diseases are acute and chronic inflamma- | tion of the joint, which often terminate in its anchylosis or immobility. The principal accidents are fractures and dislocations. There may be fracture (1) of the acromion process, or (2) of the coracoid process, or (3) of the neck of the scapula, or (4) of the superior extremity of the humerus ; or two or more of these accidents may be associated. Again, the head of the humerus may be dislocated from the glenoid cavity as the result of accident in three different directions-viz. (1), Duwnwards and inwards into the axilla, which is by far the most common form ; (2) Forwards and isswards; and (3) Backwards on the infra-spinous fogsa, or the dorsum of the scapula. The first of these varieties is of such common occurrence, that persons of ordinary intelligence should know how to recognise, and even (in an emergency) to treat it.
| Shoveller, male and female (Rhynchaspis clypeata). The bones are in the position shewn in the figure ; and the following are the most prominent symptoms : of the section having no lobe or pendent membrane “The arm is lengthened ; a hollow may be felt i on the hind toe, and remarkable for the expansion
SHOWERS OF FISHES-SHREWSBURY.
of the end of the mandibles in adult birds, particu- in which many are killed. Cats kill the S., but do larly of the upper mandible. The lamellæ of the not often eat it, probably on account of its strong mandibles are long and very delicate. . The legs are musky smell ; but it is the prey of weasels, hawks, placed near the centre of the body, so that these birds owls, and shrikes. Harmless and inoffensive as it walk much more easily than many of the ducks. is, it has long been very generally regarded with The Common S. (R. clypeata) is smaller than the wild duck, but rather larger than the widgeon. The S. is a winter visitant in New Jersey, but not very common. A few remain in the northern states all the year. It is widely distributed over Europe, Asia, and North America. Its flesh is very highly esteemed. A species of S. is found in Australia.
SHOWERS OF FISHES have occasionally fallen in different parts of the world, exciting great astonishment. Instances of this kind have occurred in Britain. A few years since, a shower of small three-spined sticklebacks fell near Merthyr-Tydvil in Wales, sprinkling the ground and house-tops over an area of at least several square miles. They were alive when they fell; yet if caught up by a whirlwind from any of the brackish ponds near the
Common Shrew (Sorex vulgaris). sea, in which this species of fish abounds, they
they dread and aversion by the vulgar. (See White's must have been conveyed through the air a
| Natural History of Seiborne).-The WATER S. (Neodistance of almost thirty miles. Another recent |
sorex albibarbis) is larger than the Common S., instance occurred at Torrens, in the isle of Mull, in
being fully 3 inches long, and the tail 2 inches. which herrings were found strewed on a hill five
is of a blackish-brown colour, gray or white on the hundred yards from the sea, and one hundred feet
underparts. It burrows in the banks of streams, above it.
and is very aquatic in its habits. It is found in the Showers of fishes occur much more frequently
northern United States. Some of the Indian species in those tropical countries where violent storms,
of S. attain a much larger size, as that called the sudden gusts of wind, and whirlwinds are most
Musk Rat (q. v.). common. In India, a shower of fishes varying from
There is an Italian species which
is the smallest of all known Mammalia. It is only a pound and a half to three pounds in weight has been known to fall. Sometimes the fishes are
about 14 inch in length, exclusive of the tail, which
measures about 1 inch. living, inore frequently they are dead, and some
SHREW MOLE (Scalops), a genus of insectiv. abundant in the sea or fresh waters of the neigh
orous Mammalia, of the family T'alpido, and very bourhood, and it cannot be doubted that they are
nearly allied to the moles. There are 6 incisors, 2 carried up into the air by violent winds or whirl
canine teeth, 8 false molars, and 6 true molars in winds ; although they sometimes fall at a consider
each jaw. The ear is destitute of auricle; the able distance from any water which could supply
eyes are very small, and much concealed; the feet them. The sudden reappearance of fresh-water
are 5-toed, the fore-feet large, as in the mole. The fishes in ponds which have been dried up for months
whole figure, and also the habits, resemble those of in tropical countries, is often popularly ascribed to
the mole.—There are several species, all natives their falling from the clouds ; but the truth is, that
of North America. they have been buried in the mud below, existing. SHREW'SBURY, a parliamentary and municipal probably in a state analogous to that of animals in borough and market-town, the capital of Shropcold climates during hybernation. A pool, the shire, stands on the Severn, by which it is nearly bottom of which has long been dry, and on which surrounded, 163 miles north-north-west of London grass has grown and cattle have walked, is again by the London and North-western Railway. It is filled with fishes in a few hours after it is filled irregular in plan, contains many inferior houses, with water.
partly built of timber, but often of very picturesque
appearance. In the modern quarters, the houses SHRA'PNELL SHELL. See SHELL.
are handsome and regular. "Two bridges, the SHREW (Sorex), a genus of small quadrupeds of 'English' and the Welsh,' cross the Severn, and the family Sorecido. They are often popularly con- connect the town with the suburbs of Abbeyfounded with mice and rats, but are really very Foregate and Coleham on the east, and Frankwell different, having insectivorous and not rodent teeth. on the west. To the north, is the other suburb of The head is very long; the snout elongated, attenu- Castle-Foregate. The town contains interesting ated, and capable of being moved about; the eyes remains of the ancient walls, the castle, two munas: small; the tail long; both body and tail covered teries, and a Benedictine abbey. The remains of with fine short hair; the feet have a broad sole and the Abbey Church now form the church of Holy 5 toes. The genus has recently been subdivided, Cross. There are other ecclesiastical edifices, a Free and the British species belong to more than one of School, with an income from endowment of £310C the subdivisions. The COMMON S. of Britain (S. or a year, and 22 exhibitions to the universities ; a Corsira vulgaris) was, until recently, confounded number of other important schools, institutes, hoswith S. araneus, a species common in continental pitals, &c. The Town and County Hall, the Public Europe. It is nearly 2 inches in length from the Rooms, a handsome Greek structure, and the snout to the root of the tail, the length of which is Market-house, dating from the reign of Elizabeth, about 18 inches. It abounds in dry fields, gardens, are worthy of mention. S. carries or manufacand hedge-banks ; feeding chiefly on insects and tures of linen-thread, canvas, and iron wares, and worms, for which it grubs with its long snout there is a salmon-fishery on the Severn. 'The amongst the roots of the herbage. It burrows, and Brawn and 'Shrewsbury Cakes' made here have inakes long runs just under the surface of the long been held in esteem. The borough returns ground. It is an excessively pugnacious little two members to the House of Commons. Pop. animal, and the males have fierce combats in spring, (1861) 25,803.
S., called by the Welsh Pengwern, was named by finger merely a small tooth, the movable finger the Anglo-Saxons Scrobbes-Byrig, and of this the hook-shaped. The beak is very short, affording a modern name is a corruption. The town connects ready distinction from prawns. The whole structure itself intimately with the history of the country from is very delicate, almost translucent; and the colours the 12th to the 17th century. It was taken by are such that the creature may readily escape Llewellyn the Great, Prince of North Wales, in observation, whether resting on a sandy bottom, or 1215. during the disturbances between King Jolin swimming through the water. The quick darting and the barons; and in 1403, Henry IV. here movements of shrimps, like short leaps, however, defeated the insurgent Percies and their allies with betray them to any one who looks attentively into great slaughter. It was taken by the Parliamen- a pool left by the retiring tide on a sandy shore. tarians in 1644.
When alarmed, they bury themselves in the sand, SHRIKE. or BUTCHER-BIRD (Lanius), a by a peculiar movement of their fanlike tail fin.--genus of birds of the family Laniadce (q. v.), imi- | The COMMON S. (C. vulgaris) is very abundant on tating in its bill the Falconidve more nearly than any the British coasts, and very generally elsewhere on other of that family; having a short, thick, and com- | those of Europe, wherever the shore is sandy. It is pressed bill, the upper mandible curved, hooked at about two inches long, of a greenish-gray colour, the tip, and furnislied with a prominent tooth, the dotted with brown. It is in great esteem as an base of the bill beset with hairs, which point for- article of food, and is generally taken by nets in wards. The species are numerous, most of then the form of a wide-mouthed bag, stretched by natives of warm climates, although some occur in means of a short cross-beam at the end of a pole, the more northern parts of the world. They prey and pushed along by the shrimper wading to the
knees. Sometimes à net of larger size is dragged along by two boats. The supply of the market with shrimps affords employment to a great number of people. The other species of S. seem to be equally fit for the table. Several are occasionally taken on the British coasts, but belong rather to more southern climates. Shrimps are very interesting inmates of the aquarium.
SHRO'PSHIRE, or SA'LOP, a frontier county in the west of England, bounded on the W. by North Wales, and on the E. by the counties of Stafford and Worcester. Area, 826,055 acres ; pop. (1861) 240,959. The Severn, the principal river, enters the county from Montgomeryshire, about 12 miles west of Shrewsbury. It pursues a generally southeast course of 70 miles across the county, is navig. able throughout, and is joined by two considerable
tributaries, the Tern and Teme. To the north and Great Gray Shrike (Lanius excubitor).
north-east of the Severn, the county is generally
level, and is under tillage; to the south and southon insects and small birds, and have a remarkable
east, it is billy and mountainous, and here cattle
breeding is extensively carried on. A breed of habit of impaling their prey on thorns; so that the
horned sheep is peculiar to this county. More Dest of a Š. may be discovered by the numerous
than three-fourths of the whole acreage are arable, insects impaled in the neighbourhood of it. Shrikes
or in pasture and meadow. The soil is generally kill and impale many insects which they never eat,
fertile and well cultivated, though there are still leaving them to dry in the sun; and in confinement *
extensive tracts of waste land. S. is remarkable they make use for this purpose of a nail, if provided
for its mineral wealth. The coal, iron, copper, and with it, or stick portions of their food between the
lead fields of Coalbrookdale, Snedshill, Ketly, &c., wires of the cage. They can imitate in some degree
are very productive. Several thousand persons are the notes of many birds, particularly those which
employed in raising coal, iron, stone, and lime, are the utterance of distress, and they seem to make
and in the iron manufacture. The county returns use of this power in order to attract birds within
| four members to the House of Commons. Capital, their reach. The most common British species, | Shrewsbury rarely seen, however, except in the south of Eng. land, is the RED-BACKED S. (L. colluris), a bird only SHROUDS are very strong ropes passing from about 7 inches in length, about a third of the the heads of the lower masts in a ship to the chains length being formed by the tail, which is square or channels on her sides, for the purpose of affording at the end." Insects are the chief food of this bird, lateral support. They are crossed by thinner rcpes, but it also preys on small birds, young frogs, and called ratlines, to form steps or ladders. The top. even young pheasants.--The GREAT GRAY S., or mast shrouds in ship-rigged vessels are similar, except SENTINEL Š. (L. excubitor), is about the size of a that they terminate in a row of dead-eves on the thrush. It is a rare bird in Britain, but common in outside of the tops. some parts of Europe, and is found also in Asia and SHRO'VETIDE (Anglo-Saxon scrifan, to shrive. North America. It was formerly used by falconers to confess) literally means .confession-time,' and is in catching hawks, of which it is greatly afraid, the name given to the days immediately preceding screaming loudly on their approach: the falconer Ash-Wednesday, which, as indeed the whole period waited in concealment, after fastening some pigeons after Septuagesima Sunday appears to have been, and a S. to the ground, until the scream of the S. were anciently days of preparation for the penitengave him notice to pull the string of his net. tial time of Lent; the chief part of which prepara
SHRIMP (Crangon), a genus of crustaceans, of tion consisted in receiving the sacrament of penance, the order Decapoda, suborder Macroura, and family i. e., in being shriven, or confessing. In the Crangonidæ, allied to lobsters, crayfish, and prawns. modern discipline of the Roman Catholic Church a The form is elongated, tapering, and arched as if trace of this is still preserved, as, in many countries, hunch-backed. The claws are not large, the fixed the time of the confession, which precedes the