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as in joy: as decent, being added INQUIRY RESPECTING CHORAL unto actions of greatest weight and

solemnity, as being used when men To the Editor of the Christian Observer. tion. The reason hereof is an ad

most sequester themselves from acWithout saying whether I carry mirable facility which music hath to my admiration of choral worship express and represent to the mind, quite so far as the writer of “ A Visit more inwardly than any other sen

Cathedral,” I should be glad to sible mean, the very standing, rising, learn from some of your correspen- and falling, the very steps and indents when this form of service first flexions every way, the turns and commenced, and particularly whenthe varieties of all passions whereunto practice of singing Psalms and other the mind is subject; yea, so to imiportions of Scripture alternately or tate them, that, whether it resemble by course, was introduced. Perhaps, unto us the same state wherein our also, they would inform me what it minds already are, or a clean conwas in this usage that so greatly of- trary, we are not more contentedly fended Bishop Burnet, who wishes by the one confirmed, than changed “ that our cathedrals should be re- and led away by the other. In hargulated, especially as to that indecent mony, the very image and character way of singing prayers ;" which re- even of virtue and vice is perceived, gulation, he says, could be effected the mind delighted with their re“ without inconvenience.”

semblances, and brought by having I trust that your readers will not, them often iterated into a love of from my proposing the above inquiry, the things themselves. For which conclude that I am unfriendly to the cause there is nothing more contadelightful and apostolically prescribed gious and pestilent than some kinds practice of “ speaking to ourselves of harmony; than some, nothing in Psalms and hymns, and spiritual more strong and potent unto good. songs, making melody and singing And that there is such a difference to the Lord in our hearts;” respect of one kind from another, we need no ing which I concur with Hooker, proof but our own experience, inthat “ there were more cause to fear asmuch as we are at the hearing of lest the want thereof be a maim, some more inclined unto sorrow and than the use a blemish, to the service heaviness, of some more mollified and of God.” So far indeed from having softened in mind; one kind apter to any such wish, I go with Hooker stay and settle us, another to move himself to the very height of his and stir our affections : there is that descant on music employed in the draweth to a marvellous, grave, and service of God, than which I scarcely sober mediocrity; there is, also, that know a passage more sublime in the carrieth, as it were, into ecstacies, English tongue. Take a specimen: filling the mind with an heavenly

Touching musical harmony, joy, and, for the time, in a manner whether by instrument or by voice, severing it from the body: so that, it being but of high and low in although we lay altogether aside the sounds a due proportionable dispo- consideration of duty or matter, sition; such, notwithstanding, is the the very harmony of sounds being force thereof, and so pleasing effects framed in due sort, and carried from it hath, in that very part of man the ear to the spiritual faculties of which is most divine, that some have our souls, is, by a native puissance been thereby induced to think that and efficacy, greatly available to the soul itself by nature is, or hath bring to a perfect temper whatsoever in it, harmony: a thing which de- is there troubled; apt as well to lighteth all ages, and beseemeth all quicken the spirits as to allay that states; a thing as seasonable in grief which is too eager; sovereign against Christ. OBSERV. No. 360.

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melancholy and despair ; forcible to same category; that we have no draw forth tears of devotion, if the right to divide them; and that if we mind be such as can yield them ; able think wisdom, knowledge, or faith both to move and to moderate all still necessary, no less so are the affections. The Prophet David having, other Divine endowments. To this therefore, singular knowledge, not it is sometimes replied, that these in poetry alone, but in music also, gifts are of different classes, and judged them both to be things most ne- that there are obvious reasons why cessary for the house of God, and left some might be continued while others behind him to that purpose a number have been suspended; since wisdom, of divinely endited poems, and was knowledge, and faith are needful at further the author of adding unto all times and in all places; while poetry melody in public prayer, me- the others were requisite only in the lody both vocal and instrumental, infant state of the church. The for the raising up of men's hearts, distinction thus made appears to and the sweetening of their affections me solid ; and I see nothing in it towards God. In which considera contrary to a just interpretation of tions the church of Christ doth like- Scripture, and the analogy of faith. wise, at the present day, retain it as But admit that they are all to be an ornament to God's service, and an dealt with alike, even on this interhelp to our own devotion.”

pretation they do not bear out the If such be the powerful effect of idea of the perpetual continuation music, why should it not be em- of three ordinary and seven miraculous ployed in all its potency in the public gifts ; but rather that the wisdom, worship of God, and this to a much knowledge, and faith, here alluded larger extent than it usually is in to were miraculous as much as the our parish churches ? Perhaps some other seven ; and that the whole of of your correspondents, in replying the nine are discontinued. May it to my queries, may afford some use- not be that this is the right interful suggestions on the subject. pretation; and that by wisdom, know

ledge, and faith, were meant extraordinary and temporary manifesta

tions, and not what we understand ON THE LIMITATION OF THE GIFTS of by those words in the ordinary course

of the Divine life in the soul of man?

If so, the incongruity so often obTo the Editor of the Christian Observer. jected to of dividing these nine gifts I SHOULD feel interested in seeing vanishes; we confine them all to the from the pen of any of your corre- early church, and this without in spondents who have Scripturally any way diminishing from those studied the subject, a calm reply to graces or endowments of the Holy the inquiry, What limitation as to Ghost which belong to all times and time or place is there in regard to all places. May the infinite Author all, or any, of the gifts of the Holy of truth guide us into a right knowSpirit, mentioned by St. Paul 1 Cor. ledge and unshaken belief in a xii. 7-10? The gifts there speci- matter of so much moment–if, fied are nine-fold ; namely, wisdom, as it appears to us, it be of great knowledge, faith, healing, miracles, moment-both as regards his glory prophecy, discerning of spirits, and the building up of his church. tongues, and the interpretation of

AN INQUIRER. tongues. Those who advocate the opinion that miracles have never ceased in the church, and of late have been remarkably revived, tend that all these gifts are in the






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waters, and fatten on the animalcules

the they contain; and that the transpaPRETENSIONS OF THE EVANGELICAL rent Rhine reveals the trout and char,

that seek a purer stream. Now we

may imagine that for a time these To the Editor of the Christian Observer. respective habitants may remain in Those of your readers who have ever perfect ignorance of the nature of followed the course of the Rhine, the stream which is running paralmust have been struck with the re- lel with their own; and that the markable phenomenon which presents carp and the eels of the one, shrouditself at Bingen, where the waters of ed in their muddy waters, may have the Nahe fall into its channel. Down no idea of the clear silvery stream to that point, the Rhine has flowed which is so near them. We may also in the purity of mountain torrent imagine, that if any adventurous carp from the Lake of Constance; while or erratic eel should wander from the Nahe comes loaded with the al- the dark medium in which he had luvial soil which it never has had been basking, and arrive at the conleisure to deposit. At the point of fine of the other stream, he would junction the two streams, instead of be prodigiously displeased at the blending together as portions of the change in the element; and would same element, pursue their course hasten back to his shoal, exhibiting, separate and distinct ; and, as far as in some way or other which would the eye of the spectator can reach, answer the end of language, his surhe beholds the singular phenomenon prise at the discovery and his disof two different rivers flowing in the taste at the change. same channel.

Now something like this is conThe scene which the confluence tinually going on among men as well of these mighty waters exhibits is as among fishes. Down the channel no unapt representation of what is of mortality two streams of society passing in the moral world; and the are flowing, not less distinct from union of these rivers, so combined each other in complexion and in chaand yet so distinct, presents to the racter than these two rivers. Each imagination a picture of that union of these streams likewise has its which, as far as our eye extends, pre- proper and indigenous tenants; and vails over the stream of social ex- these, like the fishy tribes, are atistence. The turbid waters of the tached to the waters in which they Nahe resemble the anxious polluted live and find their nourishment and character of a worldly life. The shelter. The streams are generally clear blue waters of the Rhine, which known by the designation of the seem to reflect the very tint of the Church and the World : I will not sky that is above, represent the peace dwell on the propriety of the appeland purity of a religious course; and lations, but use them as expressive while we see these two streams flow- of the difference which they are ining on together in the same channel, tended to convey. Each of these hurrying at the same rate towards streams also has its tenants. In the their common depository, the ocean, former are found those who seek we cannot but feel that it is thus first the kingdom of God and His that men of different shades of moral righteousness; men who, under vacharacter are side by side hastening rious denominations of religious proonwards to eternity.

fession, and considerable difference But, to carry the resemblance far- of religious feeling, are still agreed ther, it so happens that each of these in the conviction that one thing is streams has its peculiar inhabitants ; needful, and that without it they are that the muddy Nahe has the carplost. In the second, are found the and the eel, which love such turbid various tribes who are occupied with the pursuit of earthly things, to the notwithstanding it numbered in its exclusion and depreciation of those list some of the most eminent schothat are heavenly. An ignorant or lars of the kingdom, many of the incareless spectator who sees the con- dividuals most distinguished for pubtents of a net which has been drawn lic spirit, and a large proportion of over the united streams, may say that the rising talent in the universities of they are all fish ; and in so saying England. For many years the exhe may speak truth : but a more in- istence of this class has appeared to telligent observer will know that, escape the observation of the perspithough all may be fish, they are fish cacious northern critic; or if ever it of very different kinds ; so much so, happened to be alluded to, as it might that the one could not exist where chance to be by some facetious genthe other delights and revels. In the tleman in his peregrinations from the same way, the politician may talk of Foundling to St. Paul's, it was inatone men as men, and imagine there is of sneer, as if its members were as an identity of tastes and character contemptible in their qualities as in in all ; but he who knows more, and their supposed number. looks deeper, will be conscious that The case is, however, altered. This there are species of men as distinct obnoxious class can no longer be overfrom each other, though living to looked. It may be said of them, as gether, as the trout which plays on was said by the early apologists of the surface, is from the eel which the Christians, “We are of yesterburies itself in the mud.


; yet we have filled the forums, But as we supposed that now and the courts, the towns, and the vilthen a straggling fish from the darker lages ;” and as the sophists in the water approaches the limits of the time of the Antonines could no longer clearer river, and returns horrified affect that well-bred ignorance on by what he has seen, so is it in the the subject, which Seneca or Tacigreat stream of human society. A tus maintained, so the Edinburgh worldly minded man is occasionally Review is at last compelled to notice led to take notice of what is pass. the existence of those on whom it ing in the purer stream which flows has long been glad to shut its eyes, beside him; and when he does so, because it saw nothing in them that he usually betrays the same sort it loved. Well, I own I rejoice in of agitation which a carp might be the fact, and in the inference which expected to shew, when suddenly it seems fair to deduce from it: Either plunged into spring water.

the purer waters are predominating A case of this kind was lately no- when the natives of the muddy stream ticed in your pages (see Christian are beginning to complain ; or else Observer for October, p. 633). The the sordities which the latter stream Edinburgh Review, in one of its was carrying along are beginning to rambles, has been led, it seems, to subside: and either hypothesis would notice what it courteously calls “the be delightful, if it could but be subpretensions of the Evangelical class.” stantiated by the result. Now whatever may be the feelings The cause of the reviewer's deof any supposed member of this re- viation from his usual stern silence probated class as to the article in ques. is stated to be the appearance of a tion, he cannot but consider it as a pamphlet at Edinburgh, containing favourable omen for the world that some remarks on theatrical amuseour northern censor is constrained to ments as inconsistent with the habits notice such a class at all. For many of religious society; and, though years, writers of the stamp of the there does not appear any thing in Edinburgh Reviewers scarcely con- the pamphlet calculated to excite descended to imagine that there was peculiar indignation, the result has such a class in existence; and this been a violent tirade on what the

you are.

reviewer is pleased to denominate quite accurately: the fifth line of the
“ the pretensions of the Evangelical second stanza I forget, and therefore
class.” As to the gentle critic's state- substitute one appropriate to the oc-
ment of these pretensions, it would casion.
be unnecessary to trouble


Come, little reviewer, come list with me; ers with it. It is the mere repeti- But pry'thee first answer me questions tion of that “trash,” (I use this word three. emphatically, as I find it employed First, can you garble well? in West-Indian classics, to designate

Neatly, neatly:

Flourish in compliments ? the dry, sapless, refuse mass left after

Sweetly, sweetly: the crushing of the sugar cane; all Cut up an author well ? husk and no sweetness, and fit Oh completely! only to be burned ;) that trash, that Dip your pen in this gall, and a critic

The answers are honest, bold, and free ; verbiage which is heard in every

you'll be. quarter, from St. James's to St.

Yet ere, little critic, you list with me, Giles's, whenever the character of Again pry'thee answer me questions three. this obnoxious class has been dis- First, can you lie well ? cussed. It exhibits the same igno

Roundly, roundly:

Rate Evangelicals ? rance of the subject, and the same

Soundly, soundly: hatred of the cause.

It assumes all

Prate when you're ignorant ? that the writer wishes to have sup

Oh profoundly! posed; and having made out a cha- The answers are honest, bold, and fair, racter for the religious world about Dip your pen in this gall, and my critic as much resembling it as the effigy paraded before my window, while I am But to be serious, in a matter writing, resembles the original Guido which requires seriousness ; I think Fawkes, the reviewer then proceeds that I shall perform a more useful with laudable fury, and “faggot service to your readers, and to the and stake,” to consign the object of community at large, if, instead of his hatred to the bonfire he has kind- pausing to answer the reviewer's led, and shouts over the auto-da-fe he inuendos in detail, I endeavour to conhas so nobly performed. Who is the sider the subject which he has introcritic, I know not; but his per- duced, in the character of a Chrisformance reminds me of a playful tian Observer, convinced that it is effusion attributed to the present one which involves consequences of Bishop of Llandaff some twenty too much importance to be ever disyears ago, at the time of his contro- cussed without advantage. versy with the Edinburgh Reviewers, That Scripture does authorize the who in allusion to Dr. Copleston's idea, that there are two great classes office of professor of poetry, had sar- under which all mankind must be castically closed their scurrilous attack arranged, is a fact too clear and upon him with,

too familiar to require any laboured

proof. Even in the earliest ages of I nunc et tecum versus meditare canoros.

which any record exists, in those The professor, if it were he, proved preceding the Deluge, the children that he could meditate, not only of God and the children of men are versus canoros,” but verses of a named, as constituting distinct and humbler order, yet in their way not separate classes in society. For a to be despised; for thus, in a parody time the children of Israel continued on an old ballad, did he depict the typically, or in reality, to be the mighty master of the Edinburgh Re- people of inheritance; when the view enlisting some unfledged co-ad- Gospel broke down the distinctions of jutor; I will not say the prototype nations, and the kingdom of heaven of the writer whose “trash” has call- suffered violence, the division was ed forth my remarks. I quote from not lost sight of; the two streams distant memory, and not perhaps were still traced as they emerged into

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