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near the band of Hercules, was named Cerberus, in the Parisian menagerie, was remarkable not only by Hevelius.
for the cunning and adroitness with which it searched CERCA'RIA, a name formerly given to a sup- and rifled the pockets of visitors, but also for the posed genus of Entozoa, at first, from their minute readiness with which it applied a key to the opening size, mistaken for Infusoria, but now known to be of a lock, untied knots, uudid the rings of a chain, the young of Trematode Worms. In the form to and performed other similar feats. which the name C. was given, these creatures CERDO'CYON (Gr. cunning-dog), a genus of consist of an oval body with a thread-like tail; Canidæ, apparently intermediate between true dogs arid swin about with great activity in water, but and foxes, natives of South America. They are exhibit a strong instinctive propensity to penetrate sometimes called Aguara Foxes.
Their aspect is into the soft bodies of insect larvæ, which they do thoroughly vulpine, as are also their manners. Some by means of a spine-like weapon projecting from of them add to the dispositions of ordinary foxes a
singular propensity to steal and secrete brilliant or
gaudy objects. A Brazilian species has been known 6
to carry pocket-handkerchiefs into the woods. Some are natives of the coldest parts of South America, and have a rich fur.
CERE. See BILL.
CERE'A, a town of Lombardy, about 19 miles south-south-east of Verona. It is a straggling place, with the remains of an old castle, and a population
of 6000. d
CEREAʼLIA, or CEPRËAL GRASSES, so named
from Ceres (q. v.), are the plants which produce 3
grain or corn; in other words, all the species of grass
(Graminec) cultivated for the sake of their seed as Cercaria Sacs :
an article of food. They are also called CORN-PLANTS 1. A sac two lines long; c, oral carity; 6, alimentary canal ; or BREAD-PLANTS. They do not belong to any par
c, a cercaria developed within the sac; d, sporulæ not yet ticular tribes of the great order of grasses, but differ developed into cercariæ. 2. The sac of a different species remarkable for its abdominal processes. 3. Another species, from each other botanically, perhaps as much as any more simple in form and structure.
plants within the limits of that order. The seeds of
the grasses in general being indeed farinaceous and their head. The tail, as no longer needed, is now wholesome, the employment of particular species as left behind, the closing of the wound through which bread-plants seems to have been determined chiefly the C. enters apparently nipping it off. Within the by the superior size of the seed, or by the facility body which it enters, the C. loses all its spine, of procuring it in sufficient quantity, and of freeing becomes encysted, and awaits its passive migration it from its unedible envelopes. Some of the grains, into an animal of higher kind, there to become a as wheat and barley, are produced in ears or closetrematode worm. When it does not succeed in set spikes; some, as a few of those called millet, in finding, in due time, a larva into which to enter, spike-like panicles; others, as oats and rice, in rery the C. gathers itself up into a ball; emits a mucous loose panicles. The form and size of the grains vary sccretion, which soon hardens ; and incessantly not a little, some being roundish, and some elongated; turning round within this mucous mass, becomes maize is the largest, many of the millets are very in resied with a sort of shell, in which form it is not small. The plants themselves vary in size almost as unlikely to be swallowed by some vertebrate animal. much as their seeds, the millets being the smallest, The C. is not the immediate offspring of a parent and maize the largest of ordinary corn-plants like itself. It is generated in a curious little ani- Buckwheat and Spurry are sometimes ranked with mated sac (see figure, taken from Von Siebold's the C., but incorrectly, if the term is regarded as work on Tape and Cystic Worms), which is to be liavirg any botanical limits, for they are not grasses; found buried among the organs of fresh-water mol- but their seeds are used in the same way. The lusks, and within which this development of young Quinoa of South America, and the Kiery (Amatakes place by gemmation. See GENERATIONS, AL- ranthus) of India, with other plants of different
orders, might be added to the list on the same CERCELÉE, or RECERCELÉE, in Heraldry, is account; even the Lotus of the Nile, the Victoria à cross circling, or curling at the ends, like a regia, and other species of water-lilies might thus ram's horn.
be reckoned as cereal plants. The most extensively
cultivated grains are Wheat (Triticum), Barley CE'RCIS. See JUDAS' TREE.
(Hordeum), Rye (Secale), Oats (Avena), Rice (Oryza), CERCOCE'BUS (Gr. tail-ape), a genus of monkeys, Maize or Indian Corn (Zea), different kinds of natives of Asia and Africa, included by some nat- Millet (Setaria, Panicum, Paspalum, Pennisetum, uralists in the large genus Cercopithecus. These and Penicillaria), and Durra or Guinea Corn (Sorgmonkeys have large cheek-pouches, large callosities, humn or Andropogon). These have all been cnltivated and long tails. The species commonly called MAN- from time immemorial, and there is great uncertainty GANEYS, or WhitE EYELID MONKEYS, are commonly as to the number of species to which the many existreferred to this genus, besides the CALLITHRIX, or ing varieties belong; their original forms and native GREEN MONKEY, and the MalBROUK, or Dog-TAILED countries cannot confidently be determined. Barley, BABOON.
oats, and rye are the grains of the coldest regions, the CERCOPITHECUS (Gr. tail-ape), a genus of mor- cultivation of the two former extending even within keys, containing a large number of species, natives the arctic circle. Wheat is next to these, and in the of Asia and Africa, but chiefly of Africa. They are warmer regions of the temperate zone its cultivation called Guenons by French naturalists, but they have is associated with that of maize and rice, which no common English name more distinctive thau are extensively cultivated within the tropics. The Monkey. They have cheek-ponches and callosities, millets belong to warm climates, and durra is tropical and a long but not prehensile tail. A Mona, or or sub-tropical. Rice is the food of a greater numVARIED MONKEY (C. Mona)—an African species-- | ber of the human race than any other kind of grain.
Maize has the greatest range of temperature.- | blindness. Disease or destruction of one corpus quad. Besides these, other grasses are cultivated to some produces blindness of the opposite eye. Probably their extent, in different parts of the world, for the grain connection with vision is not their only function. they yield : a species of Eleusine (Mand) in India, The optic thalani probably participate slightly in and another (Tocusso) in Abyssinia ; a species of the visual function of the corpora quadrigemina ; Poa (Teff) in Abyssinia, and a species of Coix (Job's but we have no definite evidence on this point. They Tears) in India. Canary Grass (Phalaris) may also are intimately connected with the power of movebe named. Canadian Rice (Zizania) is used as a ment. Destruction of one of them causes rotation of grain, but is scarcely cultivated, and the same remark the animal, similarly to division of one of the crura applies to the Manná Grass (Glyceria) of the north of cerebri. Longet has shewn, that after removing all Europe, to some species of Bamboo (Bambusa), and the cerebral hemispheres and the corpora striata, to the Sea Lyme Grass (Elymus), which affords an the animal can still stand and walk, but that esteemed article of food, in small quantity, to the on removing one of the optic thalami, it falls down inhabitants of Iceland.
paralysed on the opposite side, or commences rotaOf all the C., wheat is by common consent admitted tory motion. to be that of which the grain is best fitted for the The function of the corpora striata is very uncermaking of bread, although others are to some extent tain; they have probably some connection with employed for this purpose. But some, as rice and sensation and volition, the precise nature of which maize, are scarcely suited for it, and other methods is at present unknown. are chiefly employed of preparing them for food. The parts hitherto considered—including the All the grains are also used to produce some kind of cerebellum-appear to comprise the apparatus (1.) fermented liquor or beer, and spirituous liquors are For the direction and government of all the unfelt obtained from them by distillation.
and involuntary movements of the parts which CEREBE'LLUM. See CEREBRUM.
they supply ; (2.) For the protection of sensations; CE'REBRINE,
and (3.) For the direction of such instinctive and CE'REBRIC ACID, is an organic acid of very complex composition, found in habitual movements as do not require the exercise the liver, blood, and nerves, but especially the brain be regarded as organs of the higher faculties of the
any reasoning or intellectual act. They cannot of animals.
mird. CE'REBRO-SPI'NAL FLUID. There is
The functions of the cerebral hemispheres are, in interval, termed the Sub-arachnoid Space, lying the words of Dr. Kirkes (Handbook of Physiology), between the two innermost of the membranes of those of organs by which the mind, 1st, perceives the brain and spinal cord-viz., the arachnoid and those clear and more impressive sensations which it the pia mater. This space, which is narrow on the
can retain and judge according to; 2d, performs surface of the cerebral hemispheres, but is compara- those acts of will, each of which requires a delitively wide at the base of the brain between the berate, however quick, determination ; 3d, retains two middle lobes of the cerebrum, and, posteriorly, impressions of sensible things, and reproduces them between the hemispheres of the cerebellum and the in subjective sensations and ideas; 4th, manifests medulla oblongata, is occupied by the C. F., which itself in its higher and peculiarly human emotions fills up the interval between the arachnoid and pia and feelings, and in its faculties of judgment, undermater, and keeps the opposed surfaces of the former standing, memory, reflection, induction, and imaginamembrane (which is a close serous sac) in contact. tion, and others of the like class. The C. F. is a clear, limpid, slightly albuminous • The evidences that the cerebral hemispheres are, fluid, having a saltish taste, and a faintly alkaline in the sense and degree indicated above, the organs reaction, and not containing more than 1:5 per of the mind, are chiefly these : 1. That any severe cent. of solid matters. It varies in quantity from injury of them, such as a general concussion, two to ten ounces, and is said to be most abundant
or sudden pressure by apoplexy, may instantly in aged persons. Its chief use is to afford mechanical deprive a man of all power of manifesting exterprotection to the nervous centres, and to prevent nally any mental faculty ; 2. That in the same the effects of external shocks or concussions.
general proportion as the higher mental faculties CE'REBRUM, CEREBE'LLUM. Cerebrum are developed in the vertebrate animals, and in man (Lat. the brain) is sometimes applied to the whole at different ages, the more is the size of the cerebral contents of the cranium or skull; but more usually hemispheres developed in comparison with the rest it denotes the upper portion, while the under and of the cerebro-spinal system; 3. That no other part posterior portion is called the CEREBELLUM, or little of the nervous system bears a corresponding probrain. In this article we shall briefly notice the portion to the development of the mental faculties; chief results which have as yet been obtained | 4. That congenital and other morbid defects of the regarding the uses of the various parts of the mass, cerebral hemispheres are, in general, accompanied referring to the article Brain for the necessary with corresponding deficiency in the range or power anatomical details.
of the intellectual faculties and the higher instincts.' The crura cerebri appear as the principal con- See MIND, THE HUMAN. ductors of impressions to and from the cerebrum. Cerebellum.--The functions of this organ have When one is divided, the animal moves round and been made the subject of much discussion and invesround, from the injured towards the sound side, as tigation. It is itself insensible to irritation, and has if from a partial paralysis of the latter side. The been cut away in various animals (by Longet and effect may be referred to the interruption of the other French physiologists), without elicting signs voluntary impulses from the C., for although the of pain; moreover its removal or disorganisation cerebellum seems to have the office of combining by disease is generally unaccompanied with loss or the muscles, whose co-operation is necessary for each disorder of sensibility, animals from whom it has action, the effort of the will must proceed from the been removed being apparently able to smell, see, cerebrum.
hear, and feel, as perfectly as before. Flourens The corpora quadrigemina are, as stated in the seems by his vivisections to have arrived at the article Brain, analogues of the optic ganglia of the correct view regarding the functions of this organ, lower animals. Their removal wholly destroys the and his results have been fully confirmed by Longet power of seeing, and diseases by which they are and others. He extirpated the C. in birds by sucseriously affected are usually accompanied with | cessive layers. Feebleness and want of harmony
of the movements resulted from the removal quoted), Carpenter's Human Physiology, Noble On of the superficial layers; when he reached the the Brain, Holland's Chapter on Mental Phiysiology, middle layers, the animals becaine restless; their and Brodie's Psychological Inquiries. movements were violent and irregular; but they were not convulsed, and their sight and hearing
CE'REMONY (Fr. cérémonie ; Lat cærimonia, a were perfect. By the time that the organ was eil- sacred rite). Almost any act, when performed in tirely removed, the animals had completely lost the a regular, orderly, and formal manner, and when power of flying, walking, standing, and preserving mode of its performance, becomes a °C.; and the
viewed, not with reference to its object, but the their equilibrium. When a pigeon in this state was laid upon its back, it could not recover its former more entirely the attention of the performers - is position ; but fluttered its wings, and saw and tried withdrawn from the object of the act, and fixed upon to avoid a threatened blow. Hence volition, sen
the manner of its performance, the more ceremonious sation, and memory were not lost, but merely the does it become. The purely formal character of C. faculty of combining the actions of the muscles. is thus illustrated by Hooker: The name cereFrom a large series of experiments of this kind, mony,' he says, ' we do not use in so large a meaning subsequently made on all classes of animals, Flour- as to bring sacraments within the compass arid reach ens infers that the C. belongs neither to the sensitive thereof, although things belonging to the outward nor to the intellectual apparatus ; and that it is not form and seemly administration of them are conthe source of voluntary movements, although it tained in that name.” The remark is applicable to belongs to the motor apparatus; but that it is the the most trivial ceremonies of social life and of state organ for the co-ordination of the voluntary move- pageantry, as well as to the most sacred rites of ments
, or for the excitement of the combined and religion, for a C. which is its own object, would harmonious action of the muscles.
scarcely be entitled to be regarded even as a cereThis view is confirmed by the phenomena observed mony;. The most empty display has always the ultein certain cases of disease, and to a certain extent rior object of imposing on somebody. by comparative anatomy, for to each of the four
Ceremonies may be divided into four classes : classes of vetebrata--if we reckon amphibians and 1. Religious ceremonies ; 2. Social ceremonies ; 3. reptiles as a single class—the species whose natural State ceremonies ; 4. International ceremonies. movements require the most rapid and exact com
Religious and state ceremonies will be treated of binations of muscular actions are those in which the respectively under their various denominations; see, C. is most developed in proportion to the spinal &c.; and for the second, Coronation, Court,
for the first, RITES, LITURGY, MASS, PROCESSIONS, cord ; and if we compare different species of the same class, we usually find the development of the &c. Social C. will in a great measure fall under the
PRESENTATION AT COURT, OPENING OF PARLIAMENT, c. to correspond very closely with the perfection and variety of the muscular movements.
For heads, ETIQUETTE, PRECEDENCE, COURTESY, FORMS example, in the frog the movements are exceedingly OF ADDRESS, &c.; and international C. under Diplosimple in character, consisting of little else than MacY, ConsuL, AMBASSADOR, &c. flexion and extension of the posterior limbs; and
CEREO'PSIS (Gr. wax-faced), a genus of birds the c. of this animal is extremely small com- of the family Anatidæ, to which the New Holland pared with the rest of the brain, being merely a goose (C. Nove Hollandic) belongs. This bird has thin narrow band of nervous matter. In the common been known since the southerii shores of that sea-turtles, the movements of the body are of a country were first visited by navigators. There, more varied character, and the motions of the head and on the adjacent islands, it is found in great and neck are more extensive; and here we have a abundance; and the earlier navigators easily supmuch more highly developed cerebellum. In the plied themselves with fresh provisions by knockalligator, again, a reptile whose motions closely re- ing them kown with sticks, so little were they semble those of quadrupeds, the C. is still more fully acquainted with the danger to be apprehended developed.
The cere is remarkably large, whence The influence of each half of the C, is directed to the name. the muscles of the opposite side of the body, and for CE'RÉS,
among the Greeks named Dēmēter, the right ordering of the movements, the actions of daughter of Chronos (Saturn!), by Rhea (Ops), sister its two halves must be mutually balanced and of Jupiter, Neptune, Juno, &c. She had the misforadjusted; for if the nervous structures uniting one tune, along with her other brothers and sister, to be of the halves of the C. with the medulla oblongata devoured by her father, who, however, vomited her and spinal cord be divided, strangely disordered forth again after taking the emetic which Metis movements occur, the animal falling down on the gave him. By her brother Jupiter she became the side opposite to that which has been injured, and mother of Persephone or Proserpina (q. v.). The continually rotating round the long axis of its body, chief myth relating to C. tells how her daughter sometimes for several days, at the rate of fifty or Proserpina was stolen by Pluto, and how the sixty times in a minute. Similar movements have mother wandered far in quest of the maiden. After been observed in men in whom one of the crura of travelling in human form nine days, and everythe C. has been diseased.
where distr:buting her gifts to mankind, she excited Phrenologists are of opinion, in accordance with the pity of Jupiter, by whom Mercury was desthe view originally propounded by Gall, that the C. patched to bring back Proserpina from the infernal is the seat of the sexual impulse and instincts; but world, but on the condition that she must spend this view has been long abandoned by almost all there a third part (or, as others say, one-half) of physiologists, for the reason that it has not been every year. The myth of C. was symbolical of found to be sufficiently supported by anatomical and the growth of grain; some consider that this is experimental facts, many of which are indeed directly intimated in the name Demeter, which is thought to opposed to it.
be equivalent to ge meter, “Mother Earth.' The Our limited space compels us to leave altogether relations of the worship of C. with agriculture, untouched many most interesting topics in Cerebral social order, &c., were expressed in her two great Physiology, as, for instance, the duality of the festivals—the Eleusinia (q. v.) and Thesmophoria brain, the plurality of the cerebral organs, &c. The (q. v.). C. was especially worshipped in Crete, reader who wishes for further information, is referred Delos, Sicily, Asia Minor, Arcadia, Argolis, and to Kirkes's Physiology (from which we have freely | Attica. Bulls, cows, pigs, honey-cakes, and fruits