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the sweating sickness towards the rate heat, and measurable clothes, close of the fifteenth century, with the many escaped. Few which used most approved method of treating it. this order after it was found out died We are not aware of any forms of of that sweat. One point diligently prayer having been issued on this above all others, in this cure, is to be occasion, or during the times of observed, that he never put his hands Popery.

or feet out of the bed to refresh or cool “ In the year 1486, a new kind himself, which to do is no less jeoof sickness invaded suddenly the pardy than short and present death. people of this land, passing through Thus this disease, coming in the first the same from the one end to the other. year of king Henry's reign, was judged It began about the 21st of Septem- . (of some) to be a token and sign ber, and continued till the latter end of a troublesome reign of the same of October, being so sharp and deadly king.” that the like was never heard of to Hume says of this sickness, referany man's remembrance before that ring to Rymer as his authority, that time. For suddenly, a deadly burn- “it seemed not to be propagated by ing sweat so assailed their bodies and any contagious infection, but arose distempered their blood with a most from the general disposition of the ardent heat, that scarce one amongst air and of the human body.” In less an hundred that sickened did escape than twenty-four hours the patient with life; for all in manner, as soon usually died or recovered. In a few as the sweat took them, or within a weeks, whether from alterations in short time after, yielded up the ghost. the atmosphere, or by regimen and Beside the great number which de- improved treatment of the disease, it ceased within the city of London, abated its violence. two mayors successively died within We might have noticed an earlier eight days, and six aldermen. At pestilence in the year 1349, in the length, by the diligent observation reign of Edward III. at the very of those that escaped (which mark- time of the institution of the order ing what things had done them good, of the Garter. " A sudden damp,” and holpen to their deliverance, says Hume,“ was thrown over this used the like again, when they fell festivity and triumph of the court of into the same disease, the second or England, by a destructive pestilence third time, as to divers it chanced), a which invaded that kingdom, as well remedy was found for that mortal as the rest of Europe; and is commalady, which was this :-If a man puted to have swept away near a in the day time were taken with the third of the inhabitants in every sweat, then should he strait lie down country which it attacked. It was with all his clothes and garments, probably more fatal in great cities and continue in his sweat twenty- than in the country; and above fifty four hours after so moderate a sort thousand souls are said to have peas might be. If in the night herished by it in London alone. This chance to be taken, then should he malady first discovered itself in the not rise out of his bed for the space of north of Asia, was spread over all twenty-four hours; so casting the that country, made its progress from clothes that he might in no wise one end of Europe to the other, provoke the sweat, but to lie tem- and sensibly depopulated every state perately that the water might distil through which it passed. So grievous out softly of its own accord, and to a calamity, more than the pacific disabstain from meat, if he might so position of the prince, served to long suffer hunger, and to take no maintain and prolong the truce bemore drink, neither hot nor cold, tween France and England.” In than would moderately quench and perusing this passage, our readers assuage his thirsty appetite. And will probably have formed a paralthus, with lukewarm drink, tempe. lelism in their minds, which may lead. to salutary reflections. That de- save their own souls, or the souls of structive pestilence, like the disorder those around them, who by their now impending, came from the East, prayers and warnings are led to turn working its deathful way across to their offended God. But whatEurope ; it attacked and humbled ever may be the event, the Christian England at the very height of her is safe : he is sheltered in the arms pomp and festivity: and it had at of infinite mercy, and may welcome least one beneficical effect, that it poverty, disappointment, sickness. kept two jealous rival nations from or death itself; the last most of all, resorting to arms. May it not be as being a messenger to convey him that, in the present season of strife, to the bosom of his Redeemer, and when the nations are looking upon the long-sought rest of an eternal each other with hostile jealousy, and world. We will only add, that if the all Europe is but one armed truce, purpose of such a visitation caused a liable to be broken by the most tri- truce between two hostile nations, it vial casualty, this visitation may be may well bring nigher together the designed to curb the outbreaking scattered and contending members of animosity, and to lead each to forget the body of Christ. Oh, what would its jealousies towards its neighbour be our estimate of the amount of in its own impending calamity. And half the matters that now separate at home also, still more, may it not chief friends, if each duly felt that be designed either to silence our the Bridegroom is at the door : and bitter contentions, or to punish us what more calculated to impress such for them? If any thing could quella conviction, than knowing that the party warfare which is raging death hovered on every side around throughout the land, it would surely us, and that hundreds who smiled be a visitation which brought death gaily on this morning's rising sun and eternity nigh to every house ; shall never behold its setting beam. which forced its ravages into our In 1551, as we learn from Strype's families, and left every man to carry Cranmer, letters were issued July 18, his life in his hand from day to day, to all the bishops, from the Council, not knowing what to-morrow might exhorting all the people to pray bring forth. This is, indeed, true during the pestilence which that year at all times; but it is more pecu- broke out ; but no special form of liarly and impressively so at seasons prayer is known to have been used. of great mortality. Then we feel The disease was the sweating sickstrongly the frailty of life, and are ness, and the mortality was so great taught, if happily we listen to the that eight hundred persons, it is said, voice that speaks from above, to ap- died in a week, in the then compaply our hearts to wisdom. Not that ratively small population of London. there is anything in sword, or famine, In the year 1563, the sixth of the or pestilence, sufficiently potent of reign of Elizabeth, and the year itself to soften the hard heart of fallen when the memorable. Council of man, or to take it away and to give Trent broke up, after eighteen years' a heart of flesh; but as means they session, a dreadful plague devastated have often been used by Divine England, and especially the metroProvidence for that purpose, and polis, where twenty thousand persons sometimes with blessed effect, as

died of it in the course of a year. in the case of Nineveh ; but, alas! It had been imported by the English often without any such result, as soldiers who returned home after the in many other instances mention- loss of Havre. It had been either geed in Holy Writ. Then comes the nerated, or greatly increased, by their wrath - deferred, with tenfold ven- severe fatigue, bad diet, and mental geance ; then in vain Noah, Daniel, depression : one proof among innuand Job shall pray for an impenitent merable on record, that the typhoid and devoted land. They shall but disorders, jail distempers, and similar


scourges, which have swept off in and Wednesdays in the parish different countries large numbers of churches, prescribing for this occathe human race, have arisen, or been sion a form of prayer, much the fearfully aggravated, by causes which, same with that that had before been under the blessing of God, may be appointed in the Guises time, a few kept greatly in check, especially in a words only in the same being altered. rich country, where the peopleare well For you must know, that about the fed, well clothed, and well housed, year 1559 or 1560, the nation was and where there are no peculiarly in great fears and apprehensions of depressing circumstances to facilitate Queen Elizabeth's safety, upon the the susceptibility to disease. A con- malice of the Duke of Guise and tented and happy spirit-happy from his brother, who ruled all France in the best of causes, peace with God those times, and, being uncles to the as a reconciled Father in Christ Jesus, Queen of Scots, laboured to reduce with confidence in his love and good- Scotland under France, and to wound ness, and his willingness to make all England on that side. And having things work together for our good, a peculiar hatred to Queen Elizais no mean check to the progress of beth, for the sake of her religion, communicative disorder.

* bent themselves with might and At the breaking out of this con- main,' as Camden writes, to work tagion of 1563, the Archbishop of her destruction, relying upon the Canterbury, Dr. Parker, was very promises of some English that were anxious that seasons of humiliation, averse to the Protestant religion.' fasting, and prayer, should be pub- Upon these jealousies a form of licly appointed. Strype gives the fol- prayer had been drawn up, probably lowing circumstantial account of the by our archbishop, and ordered to be matter, which we copy, as it affords used in the kingdom for her Majesty's some curious particulars relative to safety, and the good estate of the the state of the Church of England nation, and the religion professed at that early period, and the diffi- therein. culties of form, etiquette, and poli

after the archtical scruple which had to be sur- bishop had accommodated them to mounted before so proper and reli- the present occasion, he prescribed gious a proposal could be carried now to be used in Canterbury. This into effect.

he did, not enjoining the like to the “ In the latter end of the month rest of his diocese, nor to the rest of (July 1563), I find our archbishop, his province, for wantofsufficient warat his house at Brakesbourn, near rant from the prince or council, lest he Canterbury, a place of retirement, might otherwise run into some transhealthfully and pleasantly seated, gression of the laws. But he writ which he took a great deal of delight to the secretary, that he marvelled

Here he piously considering he had no advertisement from above, how the nation was at this time enjoining him to take order for so afflicted universally by war, and the pious a purpose, in a time that so pestilence broken out at London, and much required it. And lest it might a famine at Canterbury, the people be objected to him, and the rest of wanting necessary provisions, as the bishops, that they by their vocawas reported to him; he thought tion should have had special regard good to call upon the Mayor of of such matters, he answered, that Canterbury, and his commonalty, to they were holden within certain meet him on Friday, at the cathe- limits by statutes, and so might dral church, where he did himself stand in doubt how it would be exhort them to prayer, and then taken, if they should of themselves appointed Friday for the future to have given order herein. This was be set apart for prayer and preach- the cause that he thought it prudent ing in the cathedral, and Mondays not to charge the rest of his diocese

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These prayers,

with injunctions for fasting and those letters also. For this the prayer, but left them to their own archbishop thanked him ; and keepliberty to follow them in the city ing the copy by him about a week, for common prayer, if they would. altered some parts thereof, not in But withal the archbishop desired substance and principal meaning, a warrant from the council for the but in the circumstances ; and that same; that he might direct his pre- for this reason : * Because, as he cepts, as he thought it very neces- said, ' he saw offence grew by new sary, to exercise the said public innovations; and he therefore doubtprayers.

ed whether it were best to change “The archbishop having made this the established form of prayer apgood motion, Cecil, the queen's pointed already by law, in this altersecretary, immediately acquainted ation of prayer for a time, as that the queen therewith, and recom- formular (of Bishop Grindal) would mended the devising a form of so- infer, which directed all the service lemn prayer and fasting, unto Grin. to be said in the body of the church. dal, Bishop of London, chiefly for Which being once in this particular the judgment of the plague, then order devised, he judged they abolying upon the nation, brought over lished all chancels, and therefore the from Newhaven, in France, when Litany, with the new Psalms and the English surrendered it. This

This Collects, he judged might be said, very matter that careful and pious as Litany is already ordered, in the bishop had already thought on, and midst of the people.' But the other made some progress in, before the parts, containing a second service, secretary's letter came to him for he approved to be celebrated in the that purpose ; having sent to the chancel. In short, the archbishop Dean of St. Paul's, Alexander said, he had no otherwise altered Nowel, to open an homily meet for the book and orders used. And the time; which the said dean whereas the Collects were some. accordingly did. But that bishop what long, he wished they had been meant it at first, but' for his own shorter ; fearing the service to be cure,' to use his own expression; too long, as he said, for their cold meaning, I suppose, thereby, his devotions.' But the composers had cathedral, or the city of London, or designedly made them long; for this at most his diocese. But since the reason, that the people might consecretary had admonished him to tinue in prayer till four in the afterprepare a form of prayer to be used noon, and then to take one meal. And more generally, he proceeded fur. this also, the archbishop seemed not ther, by the help of the said dean; to like, saying, that all things agreed and having finished it, he sent the not every where. This book was secretary a copy of it; advising him soon printed, and began to be exerafter he had perused it, to send it cised in London in the month of speedily by one of Jug the printer's August, and so likewise in all the men to the archbishop. Accordingly, provinces.” the secretary having reviewed it, and Such were the circumstances under adding somewhat in divers places which the form of 1563 was comthereof by his own hand, without posed. Strype goes on to analyse delay dispatched it to Canterbury; its contents at some length, and desiring the archbishop's last review too tediously for citation ; but as we thereof, and so to remit it to be have the form itself now before us, printed. And withal procuring, ac- we will notice a few of its obserycording to the archbishop's request, able passages. The form, long as the queen's letters to the archbishop, it was, much longer than popular to authorise him to publish a public modern week-day or Sunday devoform of prayer and fasting to be ob- tion would approve, was to be read served through the nation, he sent twice every week, and a fast was to

be observed every Wednesday; and letter is authoritatively to enjoin upon this continued from August 1563, the clergy and laity to follow the good till the beginning of the next year, order prescribed by the archbishop. when, the plague abating, a form of Her majesty does not say a word of thanksgiving was appointed in its “with the advice of her privy council." place. The Queen's letter to Arch- Then follows a preface, declaring bishop Parker, authorising him to the causes of national punishments, set forth a form, and enjoining the and the duty and encouragement to clergy and laity to comply with it, is national humiliation under them. dated “ At our Manor of Richmond, This preface and various other porAugust 1;" but we find, in Strype, a tions of this service were used on letter written some days before (dated similar occasions afterwards, partiFulham, July 22), by the Bishop of cularly in 1603. Our extracts shall London (Grindal) to his Archdeacon, therefore be here, where the passages telling him that “great assemblies of first occur. The preface thus compeople for public prayer and preach- mences : ings, in this contagious time, might “ We be taught by many and be occasion to spread the infection of sundry examples of Holy Scriptures, the disease,” but directing him to that upon occasion of particular

give orders to all pastors and punishments, afflictions, and perils, curates and ministers" in his arch- which God of his most just judgdeaconry to exhort the people to ment hath sometimes sent among repair diligently to their respective' his people, to shew his wrath against parish churches on Sundays, holi- sin, and to call his people to repentdays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, ance, and to the redress of their evil and also “ in their private persons lives ; the godly have been provoked and families to use private prayers, and stirred up to more fervency and fasting, and abstinence, with other diligence in prayer, fasting, and the fruits of faith and true repent- alms-deeds, to a more deep consiance; most earnestly praying to deration of their consciences, to Almighty God that it may please ponder their unthankfulness and him to remember us in his mercy, forgetfulness of God's merciful beand to turn away from us, if it be nefits towards them, with craving of his blessed will, this his plague and pardon for the time past, and to ask punishment, most justly poured upon his assistance for the time to come, us for our sins and unthankfulness.” to live more godly; and so to be Grindal himself composed “ certain defended and delivered from all fursuitable prayers " for the occasion ; ther perils and dangers. So king which we presume he incorporated David, &c. (the passage goes on to into the public service of August 1. cite the cases of Jehoshaphat, HeSir William Cecil had this book of zekiah, Judith, Esther, and Daniel, prayer printed as a manual for private and then continues :] Now, there

fore, calling to mind that God hath The service opens, as we have said, been provoked by us to visit us with with the queen's letter to the arch- the plague and other grievous disbishop, which commences with a eases, it hath been thought meet to solemn preamble, perfectly scriptural, set forth by public order, some ocbut by too many now-a-days forgot- casion to excite and stir up all godly, ten, that “ like as the Almighty God people within this realm, to pray hath of his mere grace committed to earnestly and heartily to God to us next under him the chief govern- turn away his deserved wrath from ment of this realm, and the people us, and to restore us as well to the therein, so hath he of his like good- health of our bodies by the wholeness ordered under us sundry prin- someness of the air*, as also to godly cipal ministers to serve and assist us • In this preface, as slightly altered in in this burden.". The purport of the the form of 1603, there is nothing said. CHRIST. OBSERV. APP.

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