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Obs. B. Instead of is in English followed by the present participle, but in French it is followed by the infinitive. To play.

| Jouer 1.
To listen.

Ecouter 1.
Instead of listening.

Au lieu d'écouter.
Instead of playing.

Au lieu de jouer.
Do you play instead of studying ? Jouez-vous au lieu d'étudier ?
I study instead of playing.

J'étudie au lieu de jouer.
That man speaks instead of listen. Cet homme parle au lieu d'écouter.


Have you a sore finger?
I have a sore finger.
Has your brother a sore foot ?
He has a sore eye.
We have sore eyes.

+ Avez-vous mal au doigt?
+ J'ai mal au doigt.
+ Votre frère a-t-il mal au pied ?
† Il a mal à l'ail.
# Nous avons mal aux yeux.

The elbow.
The back.
The arm.
The knee.

Lo coude.
Le dos.
Le bras.

Le genou.

Do you read instead of writing ? Lisez-vous au lieu d'écrire ?
Does your brother read instead of Votre frère lit-il au lieu de parler ?

speaking ?

The bed.

Le lit. Does the servant make the bed ? Le domestique fait-il le lit ? He makes the fire instead of making | Il fait le feu au lieu de faire le lit.

the bed.

To learn, learning. | Apprendre * 4, apprenant.
I learn, thou learnest, he learns. J'apprends, tu apprends, il apprend.

(See Note 5, Less. XXIV.)
I learn to read. J'apprends à lire.
He learns to write. Il apprend à écrire.


76. Do you go to the play this evening ?-I do not go to the play.What have you to do?-I have to study.-At what o'clock do you

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Are you an Englishman ?

| Êtes-vous Anglais ? Obs. A. Where the indefinite article is used in English to denote qualities, the French make use of no article. Ho, Sir, I am a Frenchman. Non, Monsieur, je suis Français. He is a German.

Il est Allemand. Is he a tailor?

Est-il tailleur ? No, he is a shoemaker.

Non, il est cordonnier. He is a fool.

Il est fou.

The fool.

See Note 1, Lasse

The evening.
The morning.
The day.

Le fou. (Plur. 8.

Le soir.
Le matin.
Le jour.

Obs. B. Often the indefinite article in English answers to the definite article in French. Ex.

I wish you a good morning.
Does he wish me a good evening?
He wishes you a good morning.
He has a large forehead.
He has blue eyes.

Je vous souhaite le bonjour.
Me souhaite-t-il le bonsoir ?
Il vous souhaite le bonjour.
Il a le front large.
Il a les yeux bleus.

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Great, big or large, tall. Grand.
A large knife.

Un grand couteau.
A great man.

Un grand homme.
A French book.

Un livre français.
An English book.

Un livre anglais.
French money.

De l'argent français.
English paper.

Du papier anglais.
Obs. C. All adjectives expressing the names of nations are placed after
their substantives. Ex.
Do you read a German book ?

Lisez-vous un livre allemand? I read an Italian book.

Je lis un livre italien.

Ce que.


To listen to something.

Ecouter quelque chose. To listen to some one.

Ecouter quelqu'un. What, or the thing which. Do you listen to what the man tells + Écoutez-vous ce que l'hommo vous

dit ? [ listen to it.

+ Je l'écoute. He listens to what I tell him.

+ Il écoute ce que je lui dis. Do you listen to what I tell you? + Écoutez-vous ce que je vous dis ? Do you listen to me?

+ M'écoutez-vous ? I do listen to you.

† Je vous écoute. Do you listen to my brother?

+ Écoutez-vous mon frère ? I do not listen to him.

+ Je ne l'écoute pas. Do you listen to the men ?

+ Écoutez-vous les hommes ? I listen to them.

+ Je les écoute.

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· Un grand homme means a great man, but un homme grand a tall-man. A similar distinction is made with respect to the word pauvre, poor, which expresses pitiful, or a want of intellect, when before, and indigent when after, the substantive. Ex. Un pauvre homme, a sorrowful (pitiful, miseru. ble) man, and un homme pauvre, an indigent man.

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80 Do you go for any thing ?—I do go for something.-What do you go for ?-I go for some cider.-Does your father send for any thing? -He sends for some wine.-Does your servant go for some bread ? -He

goes for some. -For whom does your neighbor send ?-He sends for the physician.--Does your servant take off his coat in order to make the fire ?-He takes it off in order to make it.-Do you take off your gloves in order to give me money ?-I do take them off in order to give you some.-Do you learn French ?—I do learn it. -Does your brother learn German ?--He does learn it.-Who learns English ?- The Frenchman learns it.—Do we learn Italian? -You do learn it.-What do the English learn ?-They learn French and German.-Do you speak Spanish ?-No, sir, I speak

Italian.-Who speaks Polish ?—My brother speaks Polish. Do our neighbors speak Russian ?—They do not speak Russian, but Arabic. -Do you speak Arabic ?--No, I speak Greek and Latin.-What knife have you ?-I have an English knife.--What money have you there? Is it (est-ce) Italian or Spanish money ?-It is Russian money.-Have you an Italian hat ?-No, I have a Spanish hat.-Are you a Frenchman ?-No, I am an Englishman.-Art thou a Greek ? -No, I am a Spaniard.

81. Are these men Germans ?-No, they are Russians.-Do the Russians speak Polish ?— They do not speak Polish, but Latin, Greek, and Arabic.-Is your brother a merchant ?-No, he is a joiner.-Are these men merchants ?—No, they are carpenters –Are you a cook? -No, I am a baker.—Are we tailors ?—No, we are shoemakers.Art thou a fool ?-I am not a fool. What is that man!-He is a physician.—Do you wish me any thing ?-I wish you a good morning.–What does the young man wish me ?—He wishes you a good evening.-Do your children come to me in order to wish me a good evening ?— They come to you in order to wish you a good morning. -Has the German black eyes ?—No, he has blue eyes.—Has that man large feet ?-He has little feet, a large forehead, and a large nose.—Have you time to read my book ?—I have no time to read it, but much courage to (pour) study French.—What dost thou do instead of playing ?-I study instead of playing.–Dost thou learn instead of writing ?-I write instead of learning.--What does the son of our friend do ?-He goes into the garden instead of doing his exercise.- Do the children of our neighbors read ?—They write instead of reading.–What does our cook ?—He makes a fire instead of going to the market.—Does your father sell his ox?-He sells his horse instead of selling his ox.

82. Does the son of the painter study English ?—He studies Greek instead of studying English.—Does the butcher kill oxen ?-He kills sheep instead of killing oxen.—Do you listen to me!—I do listen to you.—Does your brother listen to me?-He speaks instead of listening to you.-Do you listen to what I am telling you ?-I do listen to what you are telling me.-Dost thou listen to what thy brother tells thee?-I do listen to it.—Do the children of the physician listen to what we tell them ?—They do not listen to it -Do you go to the theatre ?-I am going to the warehouse instead of going to the theatre.-Are you willing to read my book ?-I am wiiling to read it, but I cannot; I have sore eyes.—Does your father correct my exercises

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