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central rite of that worship of the Church on earth, which,” he rightly says, “ought to be moulded on her worship in heaven.”1

Before speaking of the plan, a word of explanation is necessary respecting the method selected in dividing the Office. As the book is intended for devotional purposes, it seemed best to adopt that which is at once most simple and natural to those using it. To the ordinary communicant, there are but two divisions-the first after the Prayer for the Church Militant, the second after the Sanctus. The interruption following the one, caused by the customary withdrawal of some of the congregation, and the solemn hush which succeeds the uplifting strains of the other, so strike the senses and the imagination, that to substitute others, suggested by a comparison of our Office with the Gallican, Roman and Eastern Liturgies, would, it was thought, confuse the mind, always more impressed by usage than theory. It would not, however, have been easy, if this practical objection had not existed, to have made divisions that would have been beyond the reach of criticism, as will be seen by comparing the Tables given in The Divine Liturgy" by the Dean of Lichfield, and 'The Liturgies and Offices of the

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1 Milligan, "The Resurrection of our LORD," pp. 275, 276.

Church" by Mr. Burbidge, both of which are differently arranged. The truth would seem to be that

whilst we know that Cranmer was anxious to make our present order in accord with primitive usage, we are still in the dark as to the principles which governed his mind in the sweeping alteration that was made in 1552, “a change so striking that it is not possible," writes Mr. Burbidge, "to compare together the two Prayer Books of 1549 and 1552.”1

But whilst "the changes made cannot be exactly explained," it would seem probable, from the insertions of the Exhortations and the Prayer of Humble Access-both of which are introductory to the parts which follow-at the particular points at which they are respectively made, that those who framed our present Liturgy designed that the Prayer for the Church Militant and the Sanctus should sum up, as it were, the preceding devotions. The writer therefore adopted them as marking the divisions of the Service not only on practical grounds, but as being, so far as he could see, the only indications of the intentions of those who drew up the Office.

The placing of the Creed with the Offertory and Prayer for the Church Militant as part of the First Offering is not without some justification. "One of

1 "Liturgies and Offices of the Church," pp. 172, 177, 184.


the patterns which in all probability helped to guide our Reformers in restoring the Eucharist to its ancient character is the Ecclesiastical Hierarchy of Dionysius." In that old account of the Service of the Holy Communion, the Creed, which occupies the same position as it does in our Office, has a definite Eucharistic meaning, being there called the Catholic Hymn of Praise or the Hierarchic Thanksgiving. That our Reformers had this aspect of the Creed's use in mind would seem to be suggested by the instruction in the rubric that it should be sung or said.

The plan of the Manual is briefly this:

First, to set forth, with such justification as could be found, the Eucharistic interpretation of the office for the administration of the Holy Communion.

Secondly, to supply such a method of preparation as may help the Communicant to be in hearty sympathy with its spirit of sacrifice.

Thirdly, to assist the Communicant during the service, by suggesting both to the imagination and. intellect, especially in places where attention is apt to flag, such thoughts as may give freshness and fulness to words that from their long familiarity sometimes fail to impress.

Fourthly, by such additions as the Kalendar, the

1 "Liturgies and Offices of the Church," pp. 172, 177, 184.

Intercessions, and the Special Intentions, to give a wider range to the purpose of the Holy Eucharist than is ordinarily apprehended among us.

Fifthly, by marking off the parts of the office from one another, to suggest at once to the eye the main features of the Eucharistic idea which binds them all together.

Lastly, to help those who desire to remain at a Second Celebration to use the Kyrie and Confession without unreality, and to exercise their priestly office of interceding for the world and the Church.

The author desires to express his gratitude to the many, known or unknown, whose thoughts, prayers, and hymns have given the chief value to his work. In some places, he has been able to acknowledge his obligations; in others, feeling that the constant insertion of names would be a source of distraction to the Communicant, he has felt obliged to omit them. His best thanks are also due to the Reverend Professor Cady, D.D., and others, who have assisted in the correction of proofs, and given many valuable suggestions.

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