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Natural Productions - Animals
Rivers -- Climate
the Garrâh, or united stream of the rivers Beyah CHAPTER I.
and Sutlej, extends a wide sandy desert, like those
of Africa or Arabia, as far as the Aravalli hills, Situation of India-Its Divisions-Hindustan The Deckan which run northwards from the western extremity
of the Vindhya range towards the city of Delhi. The whole of this tract, however, is not desert; its
south-eastern portion is remarkably fertile ; it conThe country which, following the ancients, we
tains many oases, and the region along the Indus, name India, lies in the eastern hemisphere, be
and watered by that stream, which overflows antween the eighth and the thirty-fourth degrees of nually
like the Nile, is rich and well inhabited. To northern latitude, and the sixty-eighth and ninety- the south of the Sandy Desert lie the two peninsulas second degrees of eastern longitude. Its length of Cutch and Güzerât ; and to the north, and exfrom north to south is about 1900, and
its greatest tending to the northern boundary of India, lies the breadth from west to east about 1500 miles. It is
fertile region named the Punjab, i. e. Five-rivers, bounded on the north by the lofty range of the
from the five tributaries of the Indus, by which it Himalaya a mountains, on the west by the river
is watered. Indus, on the east by the high lands eastwards of
Eastwards of the Aravalli range the country rises the Brahmapútra river, while its whole southern into an elevated plain, or table-land, to the height coast is washed by the waters of the Indian ocean.
of about 2000 feet above the level of the sea. On This region consists of two distinct parts, sepa- the south-east it is supported by hills proceeding rated by a mountain range. The northern portion from the Vindhya ranges, north-east it slopes into is a large oblong plain, the southern a triangular the basin of the Ganges. It is now known by the peninsula ; the former is named Hindũstân, the
name of Central India. The country thence eastlatter the Deckan 3; the mountain range which divides them is called the Vindhya mountains. They Bengal, which is not usually reckoned a part of
wards is the basin of the Ganges, including in it commence near the peninsula of Güzerât, and run
Hindústân. It may be regarded as one great and eastwards to the river Ganges. The only island of any magnitude on the coast of India is the great rises above the general level. This region appears
extensive plain, though in some places the land island of Ceylon, to the east of its southern ex
to have been the original seat of the civilization tremity.
and power of India. The portion of India which we denominate Hin
In the Deckan, on the west, the valley of the důstân, comprises the following regions. Eastwards river Nerbudda lies between the Vindhya and of the Indus, from its mouth to its junction with
another parallel range named the Injâdree or Sat
poora, south of which range is the valley of the 1 India is only the Latin name, the Greeks called it river Tapti
. The land then rises into a table-land, 'Ivdekj sc. ñ or xópa. It was derived from that of the extending to the extreme point of the peninsula ; river named in Sanscrit Sindhu, i.e. river, of which the it is of varied and undulating surface, in general Persians made Hindhu, the Hebrews, ejecting n, as usual, fertile, but displaying at times tracts of sandy Hodu (Esther i. 1), and the Ionian Greeks dropping the
desert. This table-land is supported on the west aspirate 'Ivờós, and the people 'Ivdoi. The Sanscrit name of the country between the Himalaya and the Vindhya moun.
and east by ranges named the Ghâts, of which the
western is the higher, and approaches nearer to tains is Yambudwîpa or Bharatakhanda,
the sea-coast. On either side of the peninsula 2 Snow-mountains; from hima snow, and alaya abode. Hence the Greeks named a part of the range Imaüs.
between the Ghâts and the sea, are strips of land 3 The South; in Sanscrit, Dakshina.
varying in breadth and in fertility. From that