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ARCHIEPISCOPO S. FLVMINIS IORDANIS
ARCHICOENOBII S. BENEDICTI CASSINENSIS PRIORI
GRATISSIMI ANIMI TESTIMONIVM
NECNON ET STUDII
WHEN the Delegates of the University Press invited Mr. Hammond to prepare a new edition of his LITURGIES EASTERN AND WESTERN, first published in 1878, with their consent he put the book into my hands with the generous permission to do as I liked with it. The present volume is an instalment of the result.
It will be obvious at once that considerable changes have been made, and I can best explain the aim of the present volume by describing its relations to Mr. Hammond's work.
In the first place, in consequence of changes described below, it has been necessary to divide it into two volumes. This first volume accordingly contains only the Eastern texts with related appendices, while the Introduction is confined to the description of materials, such properly liturgical discussions as I may have to offer being for the present reserved. The discussion of the Apostolic Constitutions, concerned as it is merely with the determination of their place among the data of the history of rites and not with their internal liturgical character, seems properly to belong to this Introduction. I cannot but regret the division of volumes, since part of the value of Mr. Hammond's valuable work lay in its handiness, and this is here sacrificed. At the same time Eastern and Western liturgies are so far independent subjects that the
division is not an unnatural one; and it is hoped that the present volume will be found, so far as it goes, complete in itself.
Secondly, Mr. Hammond confined himself to reprinting texts and translations, whether Latin or English, derived from the collections of the older ritualists and elsewhere, without reference to manuscripts or other authoritative sources. In the present edition resort has been had so far as possible in each case to original texts and authorized editions, and the translations are new or at least considerably revised and all are in English. This has involved some difficulty, and the results are, almost inevitably, not always entirely satisfactory. Complete and satisfactory manuscripts are not too common and, even when they can be heard of, they are not always accessible, and one has to be content with what one can get; while, as every one acquainted with the subject will know, printed service-books are difficult to handle with any confidence without a larger experience of the practical rendering of the several rites than most of us can pretend to, to say nothing of the difficulties of language. And some exceptions have to be made to the rule laid down above. The anaphora of the Ethiopic Church Ordinances follows the imperfect text of Leutholf: I had not realised at the moment when the translation was printed that there are available manuscripts in the British Museum. The text of S. Mark has been corrected, not by the Vatican manuscript, but by Dr. Swainson's edition of it.
And in some details, especially in the rubrics, the Armenian liturgy does not follow the current texts, none of which seem to be strictly authoritative, but has been adjusted by Dr. Baronian to what he holds to be a better authorised type. It will be noticed that in some cases texts of widely different dates have been combined. This is inevitable, but it is of no great importance: for, while rubrics of any explicitness are for