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ing or of being affected. To ascer. Kaedia
is frequently used by all the tain the distinctive character of New Testament writers, and in vathis faculty, is our present object. rious senses. The different shades Take the following as a specimen of meaning in the use of this word of very many passages in which will be found to correspond with the word occurs distinctively, Ps. those already mentioned, as indixix. 9. “The statutes of the Lord cated by the Hebrew (235) and with are right rejoicing the (35) heart." the uses of the English word heart. Ps. xxxiv. 19. “The Lord is nigh It is not found at all in the New unto them that are of a broken (35) Testament, however indicating the heart.” Ps. ci. 5.—“him that hath muscular organ, whose vibration an high look and a proud (335) sends the blood through the arteheart will not I suffer.". Prov. xiv. ries, and receives it through the 13. “Even in laughter the (25) veins, but this is undoubtedly the heart is sorrowful.” Prov. xv. 15. radical meaning of the word, being “He that is of a merry (35) heart derived from a verb which signifies hath a continual feast.”. Isah. Xxx. to pour out. It is used for the 29. “Ye shall have-gladness of middle of the earth in Matth. xii, (325) heart.” Isah. xliv. 20, “A : 40. But what concerns the predeceived (35) - heart hath turned sent discussion is the distinctive him aside.” Jer. xvii. 9. " The use of xagdsa for the faculty of feel(357) heart is deceitful above all ing, from which all the affections things.” Ezek. xi. 19. “I will take proceed, and which is the source the stony (35) heart out of their of moral character. Take the few flesh.” Ezek.xviii. 31,"and make passages which follow to illustrate you a new (35) heart."
." Nahum ii. our meaning. In Mark vi. 52, we 11.—" and the (351) heart melteth.” read“ their heart (raedia) was harThese are sufficient to show that. dened.” chap. X. 5. “For the hardthe Hebrew word for heart is used ness of your heart (oxango-veçdiær) for that which feels joy, contrition, he wrote, you this precept;" and pride, sorrow, and gladness; and is the same sentiment is contained deceived, deceitful, and hard, or chap. xvi. 14. John xvi. 6, we have melts. All those definite and limit- - the phrase “ sorrow hath filled your ing 'expressions indicate the facul- heart (xaediav), and verse 22, “your ty of feeling in distinction from heart (reedra) shall rejoice." See understanding, or the faculty which also, Acts ii. 26. “Therefore did knows. With the exception of my heart (xapdra) rejoice," verse 37. deceiver and deceitful, none of them “ they were pricked in their heart”. could be applied to understanding (ragdia); also'xxi. 13," what mean without violating all propriety of ye to weep and break my heart," language: nothing except a faculty (rapolav); Rom. ii. 5, after thy of feeling can agree with the ap. hardness and impenitent heart (waga propriate meaning of those terms. dræv) treasurest up. unto thyself Let any man substitute faculty of wrath;" ix. 2, "I have great heavifeeling for heart in the above cited ness and continual sorrow in my passages of the English transla- heart,” (reedia): and 2 Cor. ii. 4, tion, and the sense will not be al. “For out of much affliction and tered.
anguish of heart (ragdsas) I wrote Let the inquiry be pursued in unto you.” These are a few of the New Testament, and learn its many passages in which xaposee is result. The examination of a single used to denote the faculty of feelGreek word (raporce) will be suffi- ing, and when it cannot consistentcient for our present purpose, ly mean any thing else. It is enalthough some other words are tirely plain that there must be a used to indicate the same thing. permanent something, call it fa
culty, or principle, or what we examination here, because the subplease, which is distinct from un ject will again recur in a subsederstanding, and distinct from all quent article. We have now room mental exercises. The above asso only to say some general things on ciated expressions which limit the this part of the subject. application, and define the mean It is obvious that the terms for ing of heart, cannot be applied to will in the Hebrew, Greek, and mind in its general signification, English scriptures are used in vawithout perverting the intention of rious senses. As a matter of inthe Spirit; and they would make terpretation it is important to disnonsense if applied to understand tinguish those meanings. Someing, or to any mental exercise. It times the meaning will be found to would express neither sense nor be equivalent to command, some truth, to speak of a hurd or pained times to express desire, at other understanding: and it would be times volition, and often the faculty still more absurd to speak of sor- of choosing. If it shall be found row filling their exercise, or of being on examination, that in some inpricked in their exercise. If there stances, the latter is its meaning, be any distinction in language, be- the 'doctrine will be established, tween things and the motions of and it must have an important things; there must be in the lan- bearing on some speculations which guage of the bible distinctions be
are disturbing the church at the tween faculties and their exercises. present day. On the right interCan any one, who believes the di- pretation of those passages, which vine origin of the scriptures, enter- contain the recognition of the hutain the absurdity of ascribing to man will depends the settlement of the Holy Ghost such instruction as many controversies which have of. this phraseology would convey, a de-- ten disturbed the peace of the ceived, hard, and pained exercise, church. We deem it, therefore, of desires of the exercise, &c. Nothing great importance, at the present can be more inconsistent than such day, to examine this subject with à supposition with the language of great care. This we propose to do the bible. Enough has been inti- in our next article. mated on this subject. Every man, In the mean time, let those who who examines the scriptures for take any interest in this discussion, himself, whose mind is not govern- apply some of the suggestions, reed by prejudice, and whose opi- lative to the discriminating use of nions and exercises are not guided the terms heart and understanding, by speculative theories, will per- to the scriptural use of the term ceive that the New Testament will. A few experiments in submost cléarly recognises the exist- stituting the phraseology involvence of a distinct faculty of feeling ing the doctrine which we have denominated the heart.
stated for will, cannot fail to conAs we enter on the inquiry which vince them that any other meaning respects the will, it may be proper would be inadmissible in many into state the philosophical doctrine stances. Let them substitute heart contained in our essays, that it may for will, in those passages where be distinctly compared with the faculty or principle is intended, and scriptural instruction. The doc- the sense will be much perverted trine is this, the will is a distinct or destroyed. faculty of choosing, and is always We are aware that the distinc. governed by the pleasure of the tion between the heart and will is heart.
esteemed by very many as either It will not be our object, at any of little consequence, or untrue. considerable length, to pursue this We hope to show that the scrip
tures recognise this distinction, in A degree of currency has been a manner which settles both its given to what I hold to be a very truth and importance. If this unsound opinion—it is, that the should be done, much vague the General Assembly is the only ology may be settled, and much body that is authorized, by the erroneous philosophy corrected. constitution of our church, to send
These remarks are intended only missionaries to the heathen. On to intimate the importance of the the contrary, I am satisfied that it investigation, and invite the most is perfectly competent to any prescareful
attention to the interpreta- bytery, or to any Synod--which is tion of God's word, which, as a only an enlarged presbytery-to revelation from him, must settle institute, sustain, and direct a heathe question. No man, acquainted then mission--always subject, no with the history of errors in the doubt, to the supervision of the church, will doubt that this has General Assembly-as are
all been the starting point of almost other ecclesiastical concerns, in all heresy. Views of the human our church-to see that nothing will enter into the first principles is done, inconsistent with the puof the most numerous class of er- rity and .peace of the church, and rors. Correct these views, and the the general interests of religion. errors may be corrected; and the It would, indeed, be marvellous, if true interpretation of God's word any thing contrary to this were the is the only effectual corrective. doctrine of our standards. A
F. more sacred, important, and fun
damental duty, is not required of the church, than the maintaining of missions, of every description.
By missions, as a principal instruAt the late ordination of the ment, the world is to be evangemissionaries, Messrs. Pinney and lized, and converted unto God: Barr, the editor of this Miscellany And to suppose that the primary was appointed by the Presbytery judicatures of the church-as presof Philadelphia, to make an ad- byteries confessedly are—the foundress to the audience. In prepar- tain of power, and the direct and ing it, he thought it might be use- efficient agents in propagating the ful to endeavour to remove some gospel, are never to originate impressions, or apprehensions, un- and execute plans and operations favourable to the contemplated for its propagation, is, in my apmission, which he knew existed in prehension, absurd and monstrous the minds of a number-not be- in the extreme. lieved, however, to be a large num The General Assembly-for ber of the audience present. But whose legitimate powers no one he entirely omitted this part of his would more strenuously contend address in the ordination service, than the speaker--the General Ason account of the length of the senbly is a delegated body. It previous exercises, and the late possesses not a particle of power hour of the evening at which he which has not been conceded to it spoke: Yet believing it may be by the presbyteries, in a written of some use to that portion of the constitution, and all power which religious publick among whom has not been expressly granted, is this work chiefly circulates, the retained. The question then is editor now inserts it in the Chris- Has this power of originating tian Advocate. After a short in- and sustaining missions-primatroduction, the subject referred to rily and entirely inherent in preswas introduced as follows
byteries and synods-been by them
PRESBYTERIAN MISSIONS TO THE
wholly granted and transferred session of this power, which is to the General Assembly; so that granted to the Assembly. “The it is now exclusively possessed by Assembly may, of their own knowthat body, and entirely removed ledge, send missions;" implies from the lower judicatories of the that besides superintending, prochurch? I confidently affirm that motir:g, encouraging, and regulatsuch is not the fact. The eigh- ing the missions which may have teenth chapter of our Form of been originated, patronized, and Government, is the only one that supported by presbyteries and syso much as mentions missions. nods, it may also originate misThat chapter concludes thus- sions of its own,--missions which, “The General Assembly may, of of its own knowledge, it may see their own knowledge, send mis, to be expedient. or important, to sions to any part, to plant churches, supply the defects of the inferior or to supply vacancies: and for judicatories, or to give a more exthis purpose, may direct any pres- tended scope to missionary operabytery to ordain evangelists, or tions, than the inferior judicatories ministers, without relation to par- could give: and even in the exerticular churches: provided always, cise of this power, the article in that such missions be made with question shows that it is to be the consent of the parties appoint- done through the agency of presed; and that the judicatory send. byteries, who are not only to oring them, make, the necessary pro- dain the missionaries, but to make vision for their support and re- provision for their support and reward, in the performance of this ward, in performing the service service.” A single sentence in this assigned them. Accordingly, it extract is,. it seems, supposed by may be seen by consulting the resome, to convey away from pres- cords and proceedings of the Asbyteries and synods' the power of sembly, that from first to last, originating and conducting mis- that body has acted on the consions, and to vest it exclusively in struction which has now been the Assembly. Surely, it would given to the part of the constitube reasonable to expect that so im- tion under consideration—the conportant a power as that contem- struction that leaves to presbyteplated, if it was ever really intend- ries and synods the right of instied to be resigned and transferred, tuting and conducting missions of should have been yielded up in a every kind and character, and formal and solemn manner,
and only claims for the Assembly a parnot disposed of cursorily, and in a ticipation in this right and power, single sentence. Moreover, it is with that of superintending, and confidently believed that the very so far as it may see to be necessasentence relied on, to show that. ry and proper, regulating the the power of exclusively origina- whole. Thus, at a very early peting and conducting foreign mis- riod, the synod of Virginia, and sions, is given to the Assembly- the synod of the Carolinas, with is, in its very language, hostile to the entire approbation of the Asthis construction. The words are sembly, conducted missions by
-" The Assembly may, of their themselves; and one of them was own knowledge, send missions to an Indian mission, which was reany part, to plant churches, or to signed but a few years since to the supply vacancies." This language American Board.
The synod of seems clearly to indicate, that it is Pittsburg, also—the synod under a participation of power to origi- whose auspices the missionaries nate and conduct missions—a par are now before you-established ticipation, and not an exclusive pos- the Western Missionary Society,
with a board of trust, and sustain prejudice the immeasurably imed for a series of years, a most portant enterprise in which we have promising Indian mission at San- embarked. I wished, also, by addusky. The Assembly, so far from verting to radical principles, to disapproving of this proceeding of place before you, on their just the synod, although not consulted foundation, the rights and duties about its origination, gave it great of the several judicatories of our encouragement, and helped its church, relative to the great conboard of trust, by several pecunia- cern of sending the gospel to heary grants. Reports from these then nations. synods were always made to the Nor can I proceed to the main Assembly, of the effects and state subject of this address, till I have of the missions, but they were spent a very few words in removwholly conducted by the synods ing another apprehension, unfathemselves, and agreeably to their vourable to our cause, and which own views and plans. It was, there is known to exist in the minds of fore, in accordance with its own some. It is that our operations uniform procedure, that the Gene- will interfere unfavourably with ral Assembly, at their very last those of the A. B. C. F. Missions. meeting, on hearing of the estab- No such interference, be assured, lishment, by the synod of Pitts- is wished, or intended by the burg, of a Western Foreign Mis Board now organized by the Pressionary Society, noticed it in the byterian church. Toward the Narrative of the State of Religion, American Board no feelings are in the following warm and em- cherished but those of the most phatic language "The Assembly friendly kind, and no wishes are would hail with pleasure, the ap- indulged, hostile to the most expearance of a deeper interest in tensive usefulness of that Board; the subject of Foreign Missions, re- in whose past success we do most cently manifested in the churches of sincerely rejoice, and for that sucthe west, by the establishment of a cess offer our sincere thanksgivWestern Foreign Missionary Soci- ings to God. We believe that by ety. We would that allour churches instituting a Foreign Board of might have a strong sense of their Missions under the special and unobligation to send the gospelto divided superintendence of the every creature," and afford fairer Presbyterian church, more
much evidence of the sincerity of their more--missionary work will be perdaily prayer," thy kingdom come." formed, than if this church should You perceive, therefore, that it is remain in the character of an auxwith the decisive approbation of iliary, merely, to the American the supreme judicature of our Board. We also believe, that it is church, that the Western Foreign a duty sacredly incumbent on our Missionary Society is carrying on church, in its distinctive characits operations, and that the ser- ter, to support heathen missions vices of this evening have been „And yet, till these young brethren performed.
shall arrive in Africa, the PresbyBrethren-I have spent so much terian church, as such, will not time in clearing and establishing have in the field of operation, a the point before us, because I wish- heathen mission on the face of the ed to remove the apprehensions, earth. We wish to wipe off this which I know have existed in some blot which has rested on the chaminds, that our proceedings, in this racter of our beloved church-a great concern were not altogether blot foul and deep, since it was to orderly-apprehensions which, if the church distinctively, that our not removed, might materially glorious Redeemer entrusted the