Images de page


[ocr errors]

conversion in the south and west of Ireland has one likes, the other dislikes ; what one admires as probably drawn away a portion of their funds, and excellent, the other secretly scorns; what wakes is deserving of the intense interest excited in its the pleasure of one, moves the disgust of the other ; favour, I have really a doubt whether in its aim what kindles the enthusiasm of one, excites the or results, good as they are, it inspires a higher ridicule of the other. The views, the habits, the confidence, or has to acknowledge more of the tastes, the modes of thinking, the modes of exdivine blessing, than the comparatively quiet pression, which are pleasing to one, are distastelul working of the Ladies' Hibernian Female School to the other. The two natures are diametrically Society.” The number of schools in connection opposite. There are no points of affinity between with the society is 181, and the number of pupils them. It seems as if they could never be made to (inclusive of 3,301 Ronanists) is 8,356. Some harmonize and coalesce. All attempts at union idea may be formed of the character and results of seem but to make the breach wider." You strive the scriptural instruction given in the schools by a to conciliate, but you repel; you strive to soothe, knowledge of the portions of the bible learned'in but you only create greater aversiou and scorn. one of the society's schools in the county of Cork. “It it be possible," says an inspired apostle, For instance : “ Two children repeated the first much as lieth in you, live peaceably with all men”; and second chapters of Proverbs, the tenth of implying that there were cases in which this is Romans, and the second chapter of the first epistle impossible. of St. John. Nine children repeated the first four And these antipathies are not occasioned merely chapters of St. Mark. Thirteen children repeated by misconduct and moral delinquency on the part the first three chapters of St. Mark, the latter of the object of them; for then the removal of the being in the second class.”

delinquency would cause them to cease. They EMIGRATION FROM RAGGED SCHOOLS.- subsist between those who are unexceptionable in From July, 1848, to April, 1852, no less than outward conduct, nay, between those who feel an 365 emigrants bave been sent from the schools in involuntary respect for each other's characters. connexion with the “ Ragged School Union.” No, disguise the matter as we may, there are unThe cost of their education, board, lodging, and conquerable natural repugnances which all the emigration, on an average, is estimated to have courtesies of society can barely gloss over, and been not more than £25 each : so that the total which keep many who are moving in the same cost amounted to £9,125. But the cost, had they sphere of action as much alienated from each other, been sent out as convicts—and there was every as wide asunder as the poles ; which keep the bosom prospect, in their cases, of such a climax-would of each as close as death from the other, and which have been £109,500 ; and the cost to the Aus- make each an everlasting constraint upon the tralian public would have been an imposition of other. These antipathies we perceive to exist; 365 branded convicts, instead of as many useful and I fear we must regard them as evils, positive and tolerably well-trained emigrants. To the evils, inseparable from our own fallen, a postate English public alone, therefore, the benevolent, condition. Christian-minded patriots, who conduct these When man departed from God, these disruptions schools, have been the means of saving no less an and contrarieties of nature (the fruitful source of expenditure than upwards of £100,000. This bitterness and misery) seem to have followed as a calculation does not include the far less expensive, necessary consequence. And, doubtless, one of but no less efficient, plans adopted for providing the blessed characteristics of the unfallen state of situations for hundreds of other scholars, nor for existence, as contradistinguished from ours, is, that training thousands in the knowledge of gospel in that blessed state there is no place for these distruth, and leading them to reduce their lessons likes and antipathies. “ There antipathies are to the practice of every-day life. H. S. none.". The perfection, both of mind and body,

attained there prevents the possibility of them. There all is perfect; and perfection necessarily

excites admiration and love. But here all is SKETCHES.

imperfect, all is corrupt and sin-defiled; and this By the Rev. Denis KELLY, M.A.,

imperfection and sin produce alievation and aver

sion among children of the same parent. Alas! Minister of Trinity Church, Gough-square, these antipathies seem a necessary adjunct to our Fleet-street, London.

fallen condition. They have existed for thousands

of years, and there seems as little hope of reconNo, LXV.

ciling those in whom they exist (as the world is now constituted) as of blending together the most

discordant and antagonist elements in nature; for "Antipathies are none" _

nothing that we know of—at least, no human COWPER.-"TASK” (Winter Walk at Noon).

means--can conquer and overcome that natural We often find in this world what are called antipa- repugnance and contrariety in taste which keeps thies, i. e., invincible dislikes subsisting between some asunder. It must be a work for God, and individuals and families, and even races of people ; not for man, to effect this. Then what is to be and these are the fruitful poisonous springs of done or advised in a case like this? That which some of the worst evils and miseries that afflict our cannot be entirely removed may, nevertheless, be lot. There are repugnances, mutual dislikes, lessened and mitigated. That which is a sore evil which alas ! it would appear,'nothing can over in itself may be overruled for good, and made to come. They seem to be founded in an essential subserve high and important purposes. difference of constitutional temperament, in a

I believe that these very repugnances and antipanatural contrariety of taste and feelings. What thies may be overruled for good ; that they may be


come the most powerful incentives to a separate and action. They may make them, instead of subindependent course of thought and action, both in mitting to mean condescensions and compliances, nations and individuals (Gen. xiii. 8). One indi- aspire to constrain the admiration and respect of vidual, for example, is the object of antipathy to others by those virtues on which God himself has another. The repugnance seems to be founded on set the stamp of his approval. constitutional temperament. The only remedy in Thus may this lamentable adjunct to our conthis case seevis to be separation-taking a separate dition in this fallen state be overruled for good in and independent field of action ; and, in that field, the end. It may eventuate as antipathies have seeking that honour and respect and influence sometimes done in the case of individuals who which are the natural result and reward of an have risen to deserved eminence. The antipathy unblemished and virtuous career of conduct. The felt at home for an individual has often been the respect and the honour which attend on virtuous very occasion which has conducted that individual conduct seem to be the only antidote to this kind to future respectability and credit and eminence. of antipathy. For a feeling of involuntary respect Finding a repugnance which was unconquerable for the character is perfectly consistent with per- felt towards him at home (for alas! antipathies are sonal repugnance. The individual with whom often worst in families), he has formed the resoyou dislike all personal intercourse may yet con- lution to quit the shelter to which his heart too strain your respect by his conduct and character. tenacioasly clung. Finding an aversion to him You may dislike the individual personally, while there, which he vainly endeavoured to subdue, you cannot help admiring the virtue which nothing and which all concession, all attempts at conciliacan corrupt, the honesty which nothing can tempt, tion, all virtuous conduct, only made worse, he the truth and firmness of principle which nothing has chosen for himself a separate and independent can sbake. While you would despise and scorn the field of action. He has struck out a new path for individual who would strive hy mean and un- himself; and, having done so, one of the strongest worthy condescensions and compliances to over- motives and inducements thenceforward to a vircome your repugnance, you involuntarily respect tuous course of conduct in that path, one of the that individual if you perceive in him that true greatest incentives to steadiness, virtue, integrity, independence of spirit wbich makes him choose a honest, honourable exertion, bas been the conseparate path for himself, and seeks honour and sciousness of that very repugnance, that antipathy, influence in that path by every noble, virtuous, of which he is the object, and which he feels cal and self-denying effort. The rule holds equally never be overcome or diminished except by its in regard to men collectively as individually. yielding to another feeling-that of the respect The repugnance against a community, that is only and admiration which are occasioned, or, rather, increased and exasperated by want of honourable constrained, by an honourable, virtuous, and exemindependence on their part, by servility or un- plary course of conduct. worthy concessions, is converted into a feeling of respect, where a people independently, honourably, firmly, unitedly, husbanding their own resources, standing by one another, rely upon RELIGIOUS WRITERS OF SPAIN. their own strength, and, above all, assiduously

By Miss M. A. STODART. cultivate those virtues which draw down, in an especial manner, the blessing of him wbó is the

No. I. “King of nations." The only thing that can overcome that secret scorn, which is the fruit of antipathy, is the honour and respect which he who is the Fount of all honour puts upon those The little attention that has been paid to the that “ bonour him." Antipathy is, in this case, Spanish language and literature in England is a converted into respect.

singular fact, and one that is almost inexplicable

. In this manner may these very antipathies, It is true that the merchant seeks to acquire the which are the bane of this wretched world, be language for the purposes of commerce ; and the overruled, in the providence of the Almighty, for traveller, in these days of locomotion, endeavours eventual good. They may become the strongest to learn enough of the phrases of every-day life, incentives to independent, honourable, virtuous in order to find his way through the country withexertion. They may conduce to a noble rivalry out inconvenience ; but in both cases the language in all that is virtuous, excellent, and “ of good is superficially and partially studied, and the litereport.” Where two cannot, owing to their antipa- rature is not thought of. Yet the language itself

, thies, pursue the same course amicably and happily as one of the most beautiful and sonorous of living together, their repugnance may lead to each taking tongues, might well lay claim to better treatment

. a different path, and striving to outdo the other in And, when we add to its intrinsic merits the inall that is just, honourable, and virtuous. They terest of the strong oriental colouring which permay lead to separate and independent action and vades it, and which renders it, in point of fact

, thinking. They may lead to a concentration of the connecting link between the dialects of Europe the powers and energies of each. They may urge and those of the east, we have said enough to on each, in their own path, in pursuit of the right recommend its real and accurate study to the " mark and high prize,” which is the approbation philologist and the man of letters. of him that is higher and greater than man, Tien, as regards the literature, there are mines They may lead to a just scorn of those arts and of wealth among the mental treasures of Spain

, practices which are the blot upon, and the ruin which are as yet almost unexplored, and which of, any people, and kindle a noble ambition for would well repay the labour of working. The honourable, virtuous, independent thought and names of Cervantes, of Lope de Vega, and of


Calderon, are of European celebrity; and yet, Fray Diego de Yepes, her biographer, Diego de except the names of all, and the unequailed Estella, Pedro Malon de Cháide, and others. romance of the first, few among even the educated One of the chief writers in Spain, whether in part of the British public will be found to know prose or poetry, is Fray Luis de Leon. Among more. This is not the place to descant on the the most remarkable of his prose writings are wonderful invention, the matchless fertility, the La perfecta Casada” (“The excellent Wite"), a graceful and flowing versification of Lope de Vega, treatise on the last chapter of Proverbs ; and a wor on the magnificent language, the high-toned work on the names of Christ. It is a proof of eeling, and the glowing conceptions of Calderon the total neglect of Castilian literature, of which de la Barca. Neither is there time to refer to the I have already complained, that, when this pallad literature of Spain, unrivalled in Europe country was deluged a few years ago by works on for rapidity and energy of description, pointed the duties of women, there was not, as far the expression, variety of form, and curious informa- writer's knowledge goes, one single allusion to the tion with respect to life and manners ; though one erudite and elegant treatise of Fray Luis de Leon. who has loved to listen to the magic barp may be This great man is distinguished as a poet as well pardoned for a passing allusion to a rich source of as a theologian ; indeed, he ranks as one of the poetic inspiration.

chief lyric poets of his own country; and he may, A theme more suited to the pages of the Church in that department of poetical art, bear a comof England Magazine are the works of the reli- parison with those of any other nation. As a gious writers of Spain, her divines and theolo- sacred poet, he stands pre-eminent in Spain, and zians. The character of the people is deeply very high among the sacred poets of Europe. His devotional and reverential; and this is so far im- exquisite ode on the Ascension, one of the most pressed upon the medium for expressing their beautiful sacred lyrics ever penned by an unthoughts, as to have induced, as is well known, inspired writer, was composed in the dungeons of an imperial linguist to select Spanish as the idiom the inquisition at Valladolid, where he spent five best suited for holding communion with the Deity. years under the charge of having translated the It is impossible for the Christian of purer faith Book of Psalms in to Castilian. and more enlightened views to think of Spain It has been thought that striking extracts from without sorrow and sadness of spirit. Many a some of the more distinguished Spanish ccclenoble heart in that land beat high with aspirations siastics would, probably, not be unacceptable to after Christian truth, and was crushed under the the English reader. I will commence with iron hand of the Inquisition. The blood-red Fray Diego de Estella, partly from the intrinsic banner of the Son of God streamed beyond the value of his writings, and partly from the conPyrenees; but many a gallant soldier of the cross sideration that from his work on the Vanity of folded it to his bosom, and fell in the struggle. the World whole chapters may be placed before We must not and cannot think that God left him- the protestant reader without meeting with any self without witnesses; or that, though the response passage requiring modification or curtailment. was hushed and oft inaudible, there was no re-echo to the gospel truths as proclaimed silently in the lives and deaths of suffering saints. « The blood of the martyrs is the seed of the church ;” and it

weekly Almanac. will not be till that time when the earth shall disclose her blood, and no more cover her slain," "Every tree which briogeth not forth good fruit is bewn that mankind will know how rich and glorious down, and cast into the fire.”—Luke iï. 9. were the fruits of the public auto de fé, and of the O Lord, forasmuch as without thee we are not more private suffering in the dungeons of the in- able to please thee, mercifully grant that thy Holy quisition.

“Con el rey y la inquisicion, ichiton! ichiton !" Spirit may in all things direct and rale our hearts ; (" Towards the king and the inquisition, hush: through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. hush !" that is, be silent and respectful) is one of those countless Spanish proverbs in which the 17. Nineteenth Sun. aft, { Dan. iii.

Trinity wisdom of many has been concentrated by the wit

Job i. of one ; and the saying, in this case, affectingly 18. Monday (St. Luke) { Eccles, li.

Luke iv.

Gal. iv. proyes how the very springs of thought and lan

19, Tuesday

Wisd. xii. guage have been checked and arrested.

Luke v. The religious writers of Spain are, as was to be 20. Wednesday

Wisd. xii. Wisd. xiv. expected, chiefly ecclesiastics, and their views are

Wisd. xvi. necessarily obscured by the dark clouds which, in 21. Thursday


Ephes. i. he Romish church, surround Christian truth. But

Wisd. xvii. Wisd. xviii. che Spirit of God is mighty; and often we may

22. Friday

Luke viji. Ephes. . see rays of divine truth shining brightly even amid 23. Saturday

Ecclus. i. surrounding darkness. It is needful to take the

Luke ix. Ephes. iii. precious" out of the vile;" but I shall be able “Oye stiff-necked and impenitent, consider to prove, I hope, that there is what is “pre- seriously whether it be not high time for you to cious” to be selected.

look out for a way of deliverance and escape, that It is probable that even the names of the dis- you may save yourselves from this evil world, and inguished divines of Spain are unknown to many Ay from the wrath to come. The Judge stands at English readers. I may mention Fray Luis de the door. Before he deal with you as a Judge, he Leon, Luis de Granada, San Juan de la Cruz knocks with a tender of mercy. Who knows but the contemporary and coadjutor of Santa Teresa), that this may be the last time of his dealing thus



{ Luke iii.

Gal. iii.

Wisd. xi,

Gal. v.

Luke vi.
Wisd. xv.

Gal. vi.

r Wisd. xix.


its joys.

with you? Be you old or young, you have but continually called to endure in fighting the your season, but your day; it may, perhaps be battles of the faith--of the shame, persecution, nig with you, when it is day with the rest of and hardship, which he knew were to have the world; your sun may go down at noon; and

no intermission while life lasted; for to bim God may swear that you shall not enter into his

“the Holy Ghost witnessed in every city, rest. If you are then resolved to continue in your present condition, I have no more to say to saying that bonds and afflictions awaited you. I am free from your blood, in that I have him” (Acts xx. 23). We think again of declared unto you the counsel of God in this that crown of righteousness, to which the eye thing; and so I must leave you to a naked trial of faith looked forward—of that exceeding between God and your own soul at the last day and eternal weight of glory, of which death Poor creatures, I even tremble to think how he

was to give him the possession ; and we can will tear you in pieces, when there shall be none to deliver. Methinks I see your poor, destitute, hardly wonder that, dark a3 were the clouds forlorn souls, forsaken of lusts

, sins, world, friends, which hung over his earthly path, bright as angels, men, trembling before the throne of God, were the beams of heavenly glory which full of horror and fearful espectations of the dread reached him from the eternity beyond, he ful sentence. O that I could mourn over you should have longed to escape from the whilst you are joined to all the living, whilst gloom, disquietude, and misery of the there is yet hope! O that in this your day you | present, to the light and peace and blessedknew the things of your peace” (Owen).

“O Lord ! to depart from thee for ever; to ness of the future. But, when, on the other lose the sight and fruition of thy pleased counte-hand, we reflect with what fondness the son! nance; to be hurled down among devils and naturally clings to life, how revolting death is fiends to a lake of fire and brimstone; to be in itself to flesh and blood, we are not suralways burning, yet never consumed; ever dying, prised at the doubts to which the apostle has yet never dissolved; always ground upon by the given utterance, or to find him hesitating be worm of conscience, yet never devoured ; always iween life with its sorrows, and death with gnashing the teeth, weeping, howling, vexed, without any glimpse of hope, or one drop of comfort; what heart can think of these things without Ah, my brethren, it was not in this way breaking to pieces” (Cradock) !

that the apostle thought and reasoned. H. S. Doubtless, indeed, the knowledge of that re

ward wbich was reserved for him on high animated his hopes and stimulated his zeal.

We have his own testimony as to the reality “ TO LIVE IS CHRIST":

of his longing anticipations of the heavenly Sermon,

bliss; “having a desire to depart, and to be

with Christ, which is far better." But it BY THE REY. J. J. CORT, R.A.,

was not simply because death in itself is të volting, and life attractive, that he was wil

, Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge.

ling to continue still in his earthly tabernacle. Phil. i. 21,

No; his views were more disinterested, and " To live is Christ."

expansive, and spiritual. For the benefit of

his beloved Philippian brethren, he could The state of the apostle's mind, at the time forego his own gratification : "To abide in when he wrote this epistle, was one of un- the Hesh,” he says, “ is more needful for you: certainty, and doubtfulness, and hesitation. and, having this confidence, I know that I

he writes, “in a strait betwixt shall abide and continue with you all, for two." And the two things between which your furtherance and joy of faith; that he was at a loss to choose, with respect to your rejoicing may be more abundant in which he knew not where to give the pre- Jesus Christ for me, by my coming to you ference, were none other than life and death. again.” And, above all, the grand reason With regard these, he declares in the verse why life appeared desirable is contained in following the text, “What I shall choose I the statement of our text, which refers us to wot not.

his connexion with his adorable Redeemer. Does it excite our wonder, beloved bre- Towards that Redeemer he felt a love far thren, that such a man as the apostle should stronger and more influential than the have been thus unable to decide between ob- dearest earthly friends could command: be jects so utterly diverse and opposite? Per knew him as "all and in all.” And, if to depart haps not. And yet it may be that the was “to be with Christ," and thus death reason is, that we are unable to enter into his seemed lovely, life too was not without its feelings, and to view these two particulars power of attraction ; for “to live was Christ.” under the same aspect. We think of the These few expressive words now demand trials and the sufferings which the apostle was our attentive consideration. We do not in.

" I am,


[ocr errors]


[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

deed regard them as similar in meaning to accordance with the requirements of the those passages of scripture, in which Christ is sovereign Creator. And though, as the sad declared to be the Life of his people, the Au- effects of the fall, disorder and corruption thor and the Sustainer of the divine principle have entered the soul, and the affections in their souls. If you look at the latter clause have been drawn away from their proper obof the verse, you will find that the words ject, and the life is now devoted to the ser(to die" stand in opposition to the expression vice of other lords and masters, yet this to live" in the text; and, as the death there melancholy change in us has not robbed spoken of, a death which is gain, can only Deity of any one of his natural prerogatives, efer to bodily death, the life here men- or divested him of any portion of his high ioned is clearly not spiritual, but natural or supremacy. Still, as the creatures of his orporeal. And thus when the apostle hands, are we bound by a solemn obligation iffirms, “To me to live is Christ," the to render to him the heart and the life. neaning seems to be, that Christ was the Nay, not merely as our Maker, but likewise nd and object of his earthly being, that to as our Preserver, has he an absolute and Christ his life was devoted, for Chrisi be imperative claim upon our devotedness. ived. Without confining ourselves, how. For it is he alone who holdeth our souls ver, to the individual experience of the in life: in bim we live, move, and have postle, or to that of believers generally, our being every breath

being :

draw is which it exemplifies, we shall take occasion from bim ; every pulse that beats within our rom our text to speak on two points-man's frame is due to the continued working of obligation, and the Christian's practice. It his power. And to whom then can man's s to Christ that the life of man is due: it is life be owing, but to him who gave and who o Christ that the life of the true believer is sustains it? If I cannot conceive a single siven.

thought, or move a single step, but in absoI. Man's obligation then, an obligation lute dependence upon my God; if every vhich rests upon the head of every indic power of my body, and every faculty of my idual of our species, is, “to live to Christ.” soul, be not only bestowed, but preserved and

The chief end of man, as you are aware, is maintained by him continually, surely both he glory of the eternal God: “of him, and body and soul are his, and it is with strictest hrough him, and to him are all things." justice that he demands their entire and unFor the manifestation of this glory, it is that reserved surrender. Aye, and the countless creation has been called into existence, and mercies too, with which a bounteous Provihat all the intelligent inhabitants of the wide dence has strewed our path, serve to augment universe, from “ the principalities and powers still further the weight of that obligation 11 heavenly places' down to the creature which presses upon us at all times. And, nan, have received their being and powers. since according to the repeated declarations And accordingly, of the second Person of the of holy scripture, of which the passage ver blessed Trinity, the eternal Son, it is already quoted from the epistle to the Colosvritten, “By him were all things created, sians is an instance, Christ himself, as one in hat are in heaven, and that are in earth, power and essence with the Father, is the visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, Creator of the universe; since life with all its or dominions, or principalities, or powers: sources of enjoyment is his gift, to him ll things were created by him and for him” therefore, in this capacity, the obedience of Col. i. 16). And there was a time when the every creature is owing : our lives themselves laims of God, as the Creator, were acknow are his property; and in the case of every edged and felt in this as in other provinces one who fulfils the purposes of his Maker, and f his dominion, when man dwelt beneath answers aright the end of his being, “to live" be smile of his Maker, and yielded to him must be “Christ." he chief homage of his heart. No sounds But the claims of Christ upon our dehen, but those of happiness and joy, were votedness are, if possible, stronger still. You echoed from this earth; and, as Adam must bear in mind the position in which, by valked abroad amid the beauties and de- nature, man stands with respect to God. He ights of his appointed dwelling-place, he is the subject of a fearful curse, and the fit vas ever conscious of the immediate pre- object of Almighty vengeance. His life is cnce of Jehovah: every movement of his forfeited to divine justice ; for the unerring ew-born faculties, every thought and feel- sentence pronounced upon the sinner is sufng which found admission within his breast, ficient of itself to sweep bim at once from the as consecrated to his God. This was a land of the living, and to consign him to the fe which, though exhibited on earth, was region of perdition and woe. The righteous ndeed heavenly and divine, a life in strict determination of Jehovah is, “ The soul that

« PrécédentContinuer »