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future retribution, the demerit of sinful children; also treading unwittingly on an men, the need of a Saviour, and the suita- ant, eating beef, or allowing hungry bleness of the gospel to our state and ghosts to starve ;-convictions of conwants, are the main topics.
science for such like offences sometimes Defective and erroneous Notions of Moral seize them, but these, instead of further
Obligation entertained by the Chinese at ing, only hinder their sincere humiliation Batavia.
for sin, and heartfelt repentance on ac
count of it. The chief difficulty with the Chinese seems to be, to make them at all sensible
Their Modes of purifying Conscience, and of their guilt and danger, principally be- Ideas of future Punishment. cause sin, in their estimation, is a very different thing from what it is in ours; the Again, when convinced in the slightest word sin, in their language, being synony. degree of sin, they have so many methods nious with crime, and those things only of pacifying their consciences, and putting being accounted sinful which are cogniza- far off the evil day, that it does not follow ble and punishable by human laws;- that concern should be manifested for their thus murder, arson, theft, and adultery, eternal safety. Those who do believe in are considered sins; but lying, deceit, for- a hell think that only the worst of criminication, gaming, drunkenness, pride, nals and vilest of mankind will be consignanger, lust, and covetousness, together ed to that awful place, the punishment of with all bad passions of the human heart, which they are still far from considering which do not proceed to any glaring act eternal. But the greater part of them do injurious to our fellow-creatures, are none not believe in a hell, because they do not of them considered in the light of sins. see il; and though they are in the constant Whatever Chinese moralists and philoso- habit of sacrificing to the dead, providing phers may assert and teach, Chinese men for hungry ghosts, and conveying money, and women in common life do not regard food, and apparel, through the smoke for these things as criminal, do not strive the use of their deceased relatives in against them, nor feel any misgivings on Hades, yet they have not the slightest account of their prevalence in their hearts' apprehension of being themselves conand lives. I have heard them openly and signed to that dismal place, and make no unblushingly plead for the policy and even attempts to escape from it. They believe, necessity of deceit in business, without indeed, that they may be punished by which, they pretend, that they could not coming out into the world again in anolive; fornication I never heard condemn- ther and a worse shape than that which ed as unlawful, so long as both parties they now inhabit—that they may even be were willing to live in that state, and beggars, slaves, dogs, horses, or the meanno connubial engagement was infringed est reptiles, yet, as consciousness will then thereby; gaming is the more strongly cease, and, whatever they were or may be, pleaded for on account of its being licensed no recollection of the same does or will by law; and drunkenness, with its cognate accompany them, they are, therefore, the vice, opium-smoking, can be looked upon less concerned about their fate in this reas no offence, in their estimation, so long spect, and the apprehension of it has no as the intoxicating drug or liquor is pur- salutary effect on their conduct and lives. chased with their own money. Indeed, The retribution which the Chinese most no evil disposition, which can be concealed dread, is the reprisal that may be made on from human observation, is considered by their posterity in the present life : they are them as criminal; and, in their reasonings sometimes greatly alarmed lest, in conseamong themselves, their , blinded con- quence of their fraud and oppression, their sciences fail not to excuse without accus- children and grandchildren should suffer, ing them for their transgressions. The and the widow's mite and orphan's portion, law of God has been frequently laid before which have been by them kept back by them, in all its strictness and impartiality fraud, shonld be wrung out of the purses -but it is not so easy for a Chinese to ap- of their posterity after their decease. Such prehend the ground of its authority, or to a motive as this, however, is too weak to receive it as a divine communication on bring them to entertain any serious alarm; the mere words of a stranger; particularly and, without being aware of their danger, when, instead of recommending itself to we can hardly expect them to be earnest their judgments, all the precepts of the in fleeing from the wrath to come. Thus first table, and not a few of the second, we never hear any bewailing their lost conwhen explained in their utmost latitude, dition—their whole concern is, What shall run directly contrary to their preconceived we eat? &c., and none saith, Where is notions of religion and morality. The God, my Maker?-or what shall I do to be only faults which they ever tax themselves saved? No opportunity has been omitted with, are, in reality, no faults; such as of making known the Saviour, -of reprethe quitting their native country while senting his sharp sufferings, bitter death, their parents are alive, dying without amazing love, and unlimited power to save; posterity or laying up for their wives and but, though these things be insisted on over and over again, these people seem to tablet, which stood on the altar-piece, have no heart to them.
leaving his valuable clothes and merchan
dise a prey to the flames. He was thus Their Indifference to the Offers of the Gos
reduced to beggary, and was obliged afterpel.-Instance of their Superstition.
wards to take
refuge in a wretched hovel, All the day long have we stretched forth exhausted with disease and hunger, still our hands to a disobedient and gainsaying clinging to his parental tablet, which he people-ob, that the Lord would appear in had saved at so much peril and at so great the thunder, in the whirlwind, or rather a cost. This tablet is nothing more than in the still small voice, speaking to the the name of a parent, with the date of his hearts of this people, and melting them birth and death, engraved on a piece of into obedience by the all-constraining in wood, which they look upon as a kind of fluence of a Saviour's love. The follow- representative of the deceased, offer to it ing instance of attachment to idolatry may the daily meed of incense, and rely on the serve to show the blindness and ignorance same for health and prosperity. The Caof these people: a man's house, in a neigh- tholics, in China, on the accession of a bouring village, being on fire, and there convert, insist on the destruction of this being just time to save a few of his most tablet, as a proof of an entire rejection of valuable commodities, he rushed in and their former faith. rescued—not his goods—but his parental
View of Publick Affairs.
EUROPE. The latest European dates are from Britain (London and Liverpool) of the 23d and 24th of October, and from France two or three days less recent. We have hitherto been of opinion, that a general war in Europe was not likely to grow out of the collisions between Holland and Belgium, or those between the conflicting parties in Portugal. The last accounts, however, appear more warlike than any we have before seen of late. Indeed, the captain of a vessel arrived at Charleston, S.C., direct from Amsterdam, reports that hostilities had actually commenced between Holland and Belgium. But as he left Amsterdam on the 20th, and we have Liverpool papers to the 24th of October, which say nothing of actual war, we may believe it had not then commenced. All accounts however agree, that every thing short of war begun, had taken place.
BRITAIN.—The British Parliament has been in recess since August last; and the only important article of news from Britain, which we have seen during the last month, relates to the fitting out of a powerful fleet, of about twenty vessels of war, some of them of the largest size, for blockading the Scheld; with a view to coerce the Dutch to agree to the award of the five great powers in relation to the controversy which has so long existed between Belgium and Holland. The British fleet is collected at Spithead, where it is expected that it will be joined by a French fleet, destined to co-operate in the contemplated blockade. We think there are strong indications that the present ministry are losing their popularity in Britain.
FRANCE.-By a royal ordinance the French Chambers have been convoked for the 19th of Nov, ult. A new ministry has been formed, at the head of which is Marshal Soult. He is decided in favour of coercing Holland to accept the proposed arrangements in regard to Belgium; and it is said has declared that if the Dutch resist, he will lay the keys of the citadel of Antwerp on the table of the Chamber of Deputies on the day of their meeting. “Let not him that putteth on the harness, boast himself as he that putteth it off.” The new French ministry, it appears, are decidedly opposed to what is called the liberal party, and disposed to sustain the measures and the throne of Louis Philip, at every risk. In the expected operations against Holland, Britain and France act in concert. French troops, however, had not entered Belgium at the date of the last accounts; although every preparation had been made for the purpose.
SPAIN.—There have been great overturnings lately in Spain. The king has been apparently at the point of death, and indeed there was a short period, it would seem, when he was supposed to be actually dead. It turned out, however, to be only a state of suspended animation, and he has since been recovering his health. But during his illness his ministers availed themselves of his delirium, or unconsciousness, to obtain his signature to a repeal of the decree he had previously published, abrogating the Salique law in Spain, and appointing his daughter as the heiress apparent to his crownthe queen to be regent during the daughter's minority—The object of the ministry was
to make the king's brother Carlos his successor, who is understood to be a greater bigot and tyrant than Ferdinand himself. On the king's recovery, and having understood from his queen and other attached friends, what had been done and plotted during his illness and mental imbecility and aberration, he not only dismissed the whole of his existing ministry, but directed Señor Colomarde, wbo had been at the head of it, to be imprisoned in the citadel of Pamplona, and the Duke d'Alcudia, who had been another principal in the plot against him, to be confined in the castle of St. Sebastian de Cadiz. Nor is this all-Martinez de San Martin, who was political chief of Madrid in the time of the Constitution, has been appointed Sup ntendent General of the Police of the kingdom. A decree of a general and unlimited amnesty for political offences has also been published-excepting only fifteen persons, whose names we have not seen mentioned. The Spanish forces have likewise been ordered to withdraw from the frontiers of Portugal, and an explicit declaration has been issued of the purpose of Spain to observe a strict neutrality in regard to the war between Don Pedro and Don Miguel for the crown of that kingdom. In a word, the changes ihat have taken place amount almost to a revolution in favour of the Constitutionalists. It would seem that Ferdinand has discovered that the Popish apostolicals, as they have been called, wilt be content with nothing short of making the reigning monarch entirely subservient to their views; and believing that they would find in his brother Carlos a more pliant tool than they could make of him, or of his queen and daughter, they have nefariously endeavoured to keep the succession from the latter, and give it to the former. What will ensue, time will disclose. The Spaniards in general are such willing and devoted slaves of the Papal superstition, that they do not seem prepared for any thing like real freedom.
PORTUGAL.-The forces of Don Miguel have made a series of attacks on the lines of Don Pedro, in the neighbourhood and suburbs of Oporto, and in all have been repelled with great loss. It appears, however, that the invaders fought bravely, and in some instances desperately: But it is stated that they have experienced such repeated defeats, that the soldiers refuse to march to any new assault. The British troops in Oporto, especially the officers, have suffered severely in defending the lines. But the most important advantage gained on the side of Don Pedro has been at sea. The fleet of Don Miguel, after having suffered much in previous conflicts with that under the command of the British Admiral Sartorius, took refuge in the Spanish port of Vigo, about eighty miles to the north of Oporto. Thither Sartorius followed, and blockaded the port and the fleet. It is rumoured that in an attempt to escape, the whole fleet of Miguel has been captured by Sartorius; and the rumour, although not entirely authenticated, is attended by circumstances of probability. Should it prove true, it would seem that the cause of Miguel must be nearly desperate; especially as Spain will probably show him no favour in future; and without a naval force, his whole seaboard may be blockaded by his rival's fleet.
NAPLES.--With the authorities of this country ours has been negotiating for a considerable time past, to obtain indemnity for the spoliations committed on our commerce, in the days of Murat and Buonaparte. Our claims, after being long resisted, have recently, and rather unexpectedly, been allowed; at least to the amount of 2,150,000 dollars. It appears that it was nothing but the fear of our navy, and the decisive movements of our envoy, Mr. Nelson, that eventually had an effect on the Neapolitan court, in obtaining our demand. An uncommonly terrific tornado desolated a district of this kingdom, on the 10th of Sept. ult. It was confined in breadth to about 300 paces, and in length to 15 or 16 miles. But in its course every vegetable production was destroyed, some houses were overturned, and 35 individuals were killed, and 63 severely wounded.
GREECE.--The allied Courts of France, England and Russia, have united in a Manifesto, signed by their representatives severally, and addressed to the Greeks, announcing the appointment for them of a sovereign, in the person of Otho, prince of Bavaria. The father of Otho has also addressed a letter to the Greek Senate, commending his son to their kind reception, and willing acknowledgment,
as their rightful king-He has also appointed a regency for the assistance of the young prince during his minority. How all this will tally with Grecian feelings and views remains to be
An extension of territorial limits and pecuniary aid is promised; and the allied powers seem determined to render this arrangement final and permanent. We wish it may prove propitious to this long agitated and deeply afflicted people.
HOLLAND AND BELGìum.- The Session of the States General of Holland was opened at the Hague on the 10th of October by the king in person, and with a speech of great pith and decision. He represents the country as in a highly prosperous and united state, and on terms of peace and amity with all foreign powers. With Belgium however, he is decisively opposed to any compromise, on the terms proposed by the London conference of the great powers. He declares his determination to resist to the last
extremity all attempts to enforce the specified terms. In addition to this, all accounts agree that the Dutch are unanimous in their approbation of the stand taken by their king, and resolved to contend to the last, both by sea and land, against the award made - partially and unjustly they think-in favour of Belgium. In the mean time, the king of Belgium is disciplining his troops and looking for the arrival of his French allies, to commence the enforcement of the award made by the London conference. Hence the prospect of war, of which we have already made mention. It is stated that the king of Prussia has consented to the blockade of the Scheldt by the combined fleet of Britain and France; but has declared that he will resist the entrance into Belgium of any land force from France. We suppose the king of Holland relies on this Prussian succour, in case of emergency; and he has heretofore proved himself more than a match for the Belgians, when unaided by French troops. It will be happy if a general war in Europe is not the result of this wretched squabble between Belgium and Holland.
TURKEY.—It appears that the success of Ibrahim Pacha against the Turkish Sultan's Asiatick army, has been so complete, and his approach toward Constantinople so rapid, while at the same time the Sultan's feet has been vanquished by that of Mahemet Ali, that the overthrow of the power and dynasty of the present Ottoman Grand Senior, is seriously dreaded. We have seen an article intimating that the Sultan Mahmoud would abandon his throne, and withdraw to some neutral state. This, however, we regard only as conjecture; but it is certain that the Pacha of Egypt has proved more than a match for his nominal master, both by sea and land; and that there is no apparent hindrance to the Egyptian Pacha sending his army to any part of the Turkish empire, that best pleases him. It is stated that the ravages of the Cholera have suc. ceeded to those of the plague at Constantinople.
ASIA. The town of Bushire, in Persia, is stated to have lost two-thirds of its population by the plague, in May last. All government was at a stand. The British resident, and his family, had removed to the island of Congo, in March; and a guard of some force, which had been left at the residency, had perished to a man.
AFRICA. The wonderful success of the present Pacha of Egypt appears to be owing to his own sagacity and energy, in introducing into his army and navy the European tacticks, and into his dominions, as extensively as possible, the European arts and sciences. For a number of years past he has been sending many of the most promising young men in his dominions to France and Britain, for their education, and patronizing eminent men from those countries whom he has invited to Egypt. The Turkish Sultan, probably, has been induced by this example to begin the same process; but his rebellious Pacha has been beforehand with him, and is reaping the fruits of his earlier wisdom and activity.
AMERICA The controversy of the republic of Buenos Ayres with the United States, relative to an occurrence at the Falkland islands, heretofore announced, has proceeded to such a length as to cause our Charge d'Affairs, Mr. Baylies, to leave that republick and return home. Whether our government will approve his proceedings or not remains to be seen. It would seem that in Mexico the government is on the point of undergoing another change, at least in its chief. Santa Anna has laid the city of Mexico under siege; and although at the last accounts he had retired a little, with a view to meet the adverse forces of his rival, Bustamente, yet every appearance was in favour of his ultimate triumph.
UNITED STATES.–Agreeably to adjournment, our Congress convened on the first Monday of the present month. The message of the President at the opening, and his proclamation since, relative to the nullifying proceedings of South Carolina, are state papers which exhibit talent of a high order, and they recognise that dependance of our nation on the good providence of God which ought ever to characterize such publications. Whatever differences there may be among our citizens—and wide differences there certainly are-in regard to some of the communications and recommendations of the President, we think that every real friend of his country must be sensible that the present is a time to allay and not to foment discord; to unite heart and hand for the preservation of our national union and character; and for every Christian, in almost every prayer that he offers, to implore the interposition of Almighty God in behalf of our beloved land,to implore Him to turn us as a people from our sins, and to turn his displeasure from us. We wish our government would call the whole nation to humiliation, fasting and prayer