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WATSON'S EDUCATIONAL SERIES.

PRONOUNCING

FRENCH READER:

A SERIES OF

PROGRESSIVE LESSONS IN FRENCH READING

AND PRONUNCIATION;

WITH

A COMPLETE PRONOUNCING VOCABULARY,

ADAPTED FOR

SCHOOLS AND PRIVATE INSTRUCTION,

BY C. A. F. BA Y VEL.

GLASGOW:

PUBLISHED BY GEORGE WATSON,

58 INGRAM STREET.

1858.

303.c.15.

AN

BIBLIC

ELEMENTS OF FRENCH GRAMMAR

OF THE ARTICLE. There is but one article in French ; le for the masculine singular, la for the feminine singular, and les for the plural of both.

THE ARTICLE IN ITS DIFFERENT FORMS.
Singular. M. F. M. or F. Plural. M. or. F.
Le, la, 1', the.

Les, the.
Du, de la, de l', of the.

Des, of the.
Au, à la, à l', to the.

Aux, to the. The English indefinite article—a, or an-is expressed by the numeral adjective un, masculineúne, feminine: un homme, a man; une femme, a woman.

PERSONAL PRONOUNS.

1st PERSON MASCULINE AND FEMININE. Sing. Nom. Je, moi, I. Plur. Nom. Nous, we. Dat. Me, moi, to me.

Dat. Nous, to us.
Acc. Me, moi, me.

Acc. Nous, us. 2D PERSON MASCULINE AND FEMININE. Sing. Nom. Tu, toi, thou. Plur. Nom. Vous, you.

Dat. Te, toi, to thee. Dat. Vous, to you.
Acc. Te, toi, thee.

Acc.

Vous, you.
3D PERSON MASCULINE.
Sing. Nom. Il, lui, he, it.

Plur. Nom. Ils, eux, they.
Dat. Lui, to him, to it. Dat. Leur, to them.
Acc. Le, lui, him, it. Acc. Les, eux, them.

3D PERSON FEMININE.
Sing. Nom. Elle, she, it. Plur. Nom. Elles, they.

Dat. Lui, to her, to it. Dat. Leur, to them.
Acc. La, elle, her, it. Acc. Les, elles, them.

Soi, oneself, (no nominative).
Sing. Dat. Se, to himself, to itself. Plur. Dat. Se, to themselves.

Acc. Se, soi, himself, herself, itself. Acc. Se, themselves.

Mes, my.

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS.
Siny. M. F.

Plur M. or F.
Mon, ma, my.
Ton, ta, thy.

Tes, thy.
Son, sa, his, hers, its. Ses, his, hers, its.
Notre, notre, our.

Nos, our.
Votre, votre, your.

Vos, your.
Leur, leur, their.

Leurs, theirs.
POSSESSIVE RELATIVE PRONOUNS.
Sing. M.
F.
Plur. M.

F.
Le mien, la mienne, mine. Les miens, les miennes, mine.
Le tien, la tienne, thine. Les tiens, les tiennes, thine.
Le sien, la sienne, his, hers, its Les siens, les siennes, his, hers, its
Le nôtre, la nôtre, ours. Les nôtres, les nôtres, ours.
Le vôtre, la vôtre, yours.

Les vôtres, les vôtres, yours. Le leur, la leur, theirs. Les leurs, les leurs, theirs.

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. Sing. M.

F.

Plur. M. or F.
Ce, this; cet, cette, that. Ces, these, those.

Ceci, this. Cela, that.
DEMONSTRATIVE RELATIVE PRONOUNS.
Sing. M.

F.

Plur. M. F.
Celui, celle,

Ceux, celles.
He or that, she or that. They or those.
Celui-ci, celle-ci, Ceux-ci, celles-ci,
This, or the latter.

Those, or the latter.
Celui-là, celle-là, Ceux-là, celles-là,
That, or the former. Those, or the former.

RELATIVE PRONOUNS.

Singular and Plural, Masculine and Feminine. Nom. Qui, who, which. Acc. Que, whom, which ; qui, whom.

Dont, whose, of whom, of which, relates both to persons and things of either gender or number, and must be preferred to de qui, whose, of whom. F.

Plur. M. F. Lequel, laquelle, who, which. Lesquels, lesquelles, who, which.

Sing. M.

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS.
Singular and Plural, Masculine and Feminine.

Nom, and Acc. Qui? who ? whom?
Sing. Nom. Quoi ? what? Acc. Que? quoi ? what.
Nom. and Acc, Quel, quelle. Quels, quelles, what? which ?

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.

VARIABLE. Quelqu'un, sing., somebody, some one, any one. Quelques uns, plur., some, a few. Chacun, each, (joined to its noun by de). Pas un, not one. Aucun, nobody, none, (no plural). Un tel, such a one. Nul, none, not one. Certain, certain. Quelque, whatever, (always joined to a noun, and governs the L'un l'autre, one another.

[subjunctive. L'un et l'autre, both. L'un ou l'autre, either. Ni l'un ni l'autre, neither. Quelque, whoever, (governs the subjunctive).

INVARIABLE. On, people, they, we, one. Autrui, others, other people. Quiconque, whoever, he who. Personne, nobody. Quelconque, any whatever. Quoique, whatever. Chaque, each, every.

Quoi que ce soit, whatever. Plusieurs, several, many. Qui que ce soit, whoever.

OF VERBS.

IR, to have.
Inf. Pres.

Part. Pres. Part. Past.
Avoir, to have. Ayant, having.

Eu, had.
INDICATIVE Moon.
PRESENT TENSE.

IMPERFECT.
J'ai, I have.

J'avais, I had.
Tu as, thou hast.

Tu avais.
Il a, he has.

Il avait.
Nous avons, we have.

Nous avions.
Vous avez, you have.

Vous aviez,
Ils ont, they have.

Ils avaient.

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